Matching Items (35)

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Carrier Density Modulation in a Germanium Heterostructure by Ferroelectric Switching

Description

The development of non-volatile logic through direct coupling of spontaneous ferroelectric polarization with semiconductor charge carriers is nontrivial, with many issues, including epitaxial ferroelectric growth, demonstration of ferroelectric switching and measurable semiconductor modulation. Here we report a true ferroelectric field

The development of non-volatile logic through direct coupling of spontaneous ferroelectric polarization with semiconductor charge carriers is nontrivial, with many issues, including epitaxial ferroelectric growth, demonstration of ferroelectric switching and measurable semiconductor modulation. Here we report a true ferroelectric field effect—carrier density modulation in an underlying Ge(001) substrate by switching of the ferroelectric polarization in epitaxial c-axis-oriented BaTiO3 grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Using the density functional theory, we demonstrate that switching of BaTiO3 polarization results in a large electric potential change in Ge. Aberration-corrected electron microscopy confirms BaTiO3 tetragonality and the absence of any low-permittivity interlayer at the interface with Ge. The non-volatile, switchable nature of the single-domain out-of-plane ferroelectric polarization of BaTiO3 is confirmed using piezoelectric force microscopy. The effect of the polarization switching on the conductivity of the underlying Ge is measured using microwave impedance microscopy, clearly demonstrating a ferroelectric field effect.

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2015-01-01

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Quasi-Two-Dimensional Electron Gas at the Epitaxial Alumina/SrTiO3 Interface: Control of Oxygen Vacancies

Description

In this paper, we report on the highly conductive layer formed at the crystalline γ-alumina/SrTiO3 interface, which is attributed to oxygen vacancies. We describe the structure of thin γ-alumina layers deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on SrTiO3 (001) at growth

In this paper, we report on the highly conductive layer formed at the crystalline γ-alumina/SrTiO3 interface, which is attributed to oxygen vacancies. We describe the structure of thin γ-alumina layers deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on SrTiO3 (001) at growth temperatures in the range of 400–800 °C, as determined by reflection-high-energy electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and high-resolution electron microscopy. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of the oxygen-deficient layer. Electrical characterization indicates sheet carrier densities of ∼1013 cm−2 at room temperature for the sample deposited at 700 °C, with a maximum electron Hall mobility of 3100 cm2V-1s-1 at 3.2 K and room temperature mobility of 22 cm2V-1s-1. Annealing in oxygen is found to reduce the carrier density and turn a conductive sample into an insulator.

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Date Created
2015-03-07

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Ge1-ySny (y=0.01-0.10) Alloys on Ge-Buffered Si: Synthesis, Microstructure, and Optical Properties

Description

Novel hydride chemistries are employed to deposit light-emitting Ge1-y Snyalloys with y ≤ 0.1 by Ultra-High Vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition (UHV-CVD) on Ge-buffered Si wafers. The properties of the resultant materials are systematically compared with similar alloys grown directly on Si wafers.

Novel hydride chemistries are employed to deposit light-emitting Ge1-y Snyalloys with y ≤ 0.1 by Ultra-High Vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition (UHV-CVD) on Ge-buffered Si wafers. The properties of the resultant materials are systematically compared with similar alloys grown directly on Si wafers. The fundamental difference between the two systems is a fivefold (and higher) decrease in lattice mismatch between film and virtual substrate, allowing direct integration of bulk-like crystals with planar surfaces and relatively low dislocation densities. For y ≤ 0.06, the CVD precursors used were digermane Ge2H6 and deuterated stannane SnD4. For y ≥ 0.06, the Ge precursor was changed to trigermane Ge3H8, whose higher reactivity enabled the fabrication of supersaturated samples with the target film parameters. In all cases, the Ge wafers were produced using tetragermane Ge4H10 as the Ge source. The photoluminescence intensity from Ge1-y Sny /Ge films is expected to increase relative to Ge1-y Sny /Si due to the less defected interface with the virtual substrate. However, while Ge1-y Sny /Si films are largely relaxed, a significant amount of compressive strain may be present in the Ge1-y Sny /Ge case. This compressive strain can reduce the emission intensity by increasing the separation between the direct and indirect edges. In this context, it is shown here that the proposed CVD approach to Ge1-y Sny /Ge makes it possible to approach film thicknesses of about 1  μm, for which the strain is mostly relaxed and the photoluminescence intensity increases by one order of magnitude relative to Ge1-y Sny /Si films. The observed strain relaxation is shown to be consistent with predictions from strain-relaxation models first developed for the Si1-x Gex /Si system. The defect structure and atomic distributions in the films are studied in detail using advanced electron-microscopy techniques, including aberration corrected STEM imaging and EELS mapping of the average diamond–cubic lattice.

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Date Created
2014-10-07

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Above 400-K Robust Perpendicular Ferromagnetic Phase in a Topological Insulator

Description

The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) that emerges under broken time-reversal symmetry in topological insulators (TIs) exhibits many fascinating physical properties for potential applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics. However, in transition metal–doped TIs, the only experimentally demonstrated QAHE system to

The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) that emerges under broken time-reversal symmetry in topological insulators (TIs) exhibits many fascinating physical properties for potential applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics. However, in transition metal–doped TIs, the only experimentally demonstrated QAHE system to date, the QAHE is lost at practically relevant temperatures. This constraint is imposed by the relatively low Curie temperature (T[subscript c]) and inherent spin disorder associated with the random magnetic dopants. We demonstrate drastically enhanced T[subscript c] by exchange coupling TIs to Tm[subscript 3]Fe[subscript 5]O[subscript 12], a high-T[subscript c] magnetic insulator with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Signatures showing that the TI surface states acquire robust ferromagnetism are revealed by distinct squared anomalous Hall hysteresis loops at 400 K. Point-contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy confirms that the TI surface is spin-polarized. The greatly enhanced T[subscript c], absence of spin disorder, and perpendicular anisotropy are all essential to the occurrence of the QAHE at high temperatures.

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2017-06-23

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Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of High-Reflectivity and Broad-Bandwidth ZnTe/GaSb Distributed Bragg Reflectors

Description

This paper reports the molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of high-reflectivity and broad-bandwidth distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) made of ZnTe/GaSb quarter-wavelength (lambda/4) layers for optoelectronic applications in the midwave infrared spectral range (2-5 mu m). A series of ZnTe/GaSb

This paper reports the molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of high-reflectivity and broad-bandwidth distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) made of ZnTe/GaSb quarter-wavelength (lambda/4) layers for optoelectronic applications in the midwave infrared spectral range (2-5 mu m). A series of ZnTe/GaSb DBRs has been successfully grown on GaSb (001) substrates using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). During the MBE growth, a temperature ramp was applied to the initial growth of GaSb layers on ZnTe to protect the ZnTe underneath from damage due to thermal evaporation. Post-growth characterization using high-resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy reveals smooth surface morphology, low defect density, and coherent interfaces. Reflectance spectroscopy results show that a DBR sample of seven lambda/4 pairs has a peak reflectance as high as 99.0% centered at 2.56 mu m with a bandwidth of 517 nm.

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Date Created
2013-10-28

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Epitaxy of Polar Semiconductor Co3O4 (110): Growth, Structure, and Characterization

Description

The (110) plane of Co3O4 spinel exhibits significantly higher rates of carbon monoxide conversion due to the presence of active Co3+ species at the surface. However, experimental studies of Co3O4 (110) surfaces and interfaces have been limited by the difficulties

The (110) plane of Co3O4 spinel exhibits significantly higher rates of carbon monoxide conversion due to the presence of active Co3+ species at the surface. However, experimental studies of Co3O4 (110) surfaces and interfaces have been limited by the difficulties in growing high-quality films. We report thin (10–250 Å) Co3O4 films grown by molecular beam epitaxy in the polar (110) direction on MgAl2O4 substrates. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy measurements attest to the high quality of the as-grown films. Furthermore, we investigate the electronic structure of this material by core level and valence band x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and first-principles density functional theory calculations. Ellipsometry reveals a direct band gap of 0.75 eV and other interband transitions at higher energies. A valence band offset of 3.2 eV is measured for the Co3O4/MgAl2O4 heterostructure. Magnetic measurements show the signature of antiferromagnetic ordering at 49 K. FTIR ellipsometry finds three infrared-active phonons between 300 and 700 cm-1.

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Date Created
2014-06-28

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Interface electronic state characterization of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited dielectrics on GaN

Description

In this dissertation, the interface chemistry and electronic structure of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) dielectrics on GaN are investigated with x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). Three interrelated issues are discussed in this study: (1) PEALD dielectric

In this dissertation, the interface chemistry and electronic structure of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) dielectrics on GaN are investigated with x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). Three interrelated issues are discussed in this study: (1) PEALD dielectric growth process optimization, (2) interface electronic structure of comparative PEALD dielectrics on GaN, and (3) interface electronic structure of PEALD dielectrics on Ga- and N-face GaN. The first study involved an in-depth case study of PEALD Al2O3 growth using dimethylaluminum isopropoxide, with a special focus on oxygen plasma effects. Saturated and self-limiting growth of Al2O3 films were obtained with an enhanced growth rate within the PEALD temperature window (25-220 ºC). The properties of Al2O3 deposited at various temperatures were characterized to better understand the relation between the growth parameters and film properties. In the second study, the interface electronic structures of PEALD dielectrics on Ga-face GaN films were measured. Five promising dielectrics (Al2O3, HfO2, SiO2, La2O3, and ZnO) with a range of band gap energies were chosen. Prior to dielectric growth, a combined wet chemical and in-situ H2/N2 plasma clean process was employed to remove the carbon contamination and prepare the surface for dielectric deposition. The surface band bending and band offsets were measured by XPS and UPS for dielectrics on GaN. The trends of the experimental band offsets on GaN were related to the dielectric band gap energies. In addition, the experimental band offsets were near the calculated values based on the charge neutrality level model. The third study focused on the effect of the polarization bound charge of the Ga- and N-face GaN on interface electronic structures. A surface pretreatment process consisting of a NH4OH wet chemical and an in-situ NH3 plasma treatment was applied to remove carbon contamination, retain monolayer oxygen coverage, and potentially passivate N-vacancy related defects. The surface band bending and polarization charge compensation of Ga- and N-face GaN were investigated. The surface band bending and band offsets were determined for Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 on Ga- and N-face GaN. Different dielectric thicknesses and post deposition processing were investigated to understand process related defect formation and/or reduction.

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Date Created
2014

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Synthesis and stability of ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane for carbon dioxide separation

Description

Of the potential technologies for pre-combustion capture, membranes offer the advantages of being temperature resistant, able to handle large flow rates, and having a relatively small footprint. A significant amount of research has centered on the use of polymeric and

Of the potential technologies for pre-combustion capture, membranes offer the advantages of being temperature resistant, able to handle large flow rates, and having a relatively small footprint. A significant amount of research has centered on the use of polymeric and microporous inorganic membranes to separate CO2. These membranes, however, have limitations at high temperature resulting in poor permeation performance. To address these limitations, the use of a dense dual-phase membrane has been studied. These membranes are composed of conductive solid and conductive liquid phases that have the ability to selectively permeate CO2 by forming carbonate ions that diffuse through the membrane at high temperature. The driving force for transport through the membrane is a CO2 partial pressure gradient. The membrane provides a theoretically infinite selectivity. To address stability of the ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane for CO2 capture at high temperature, the ceramic phase of the membrane was studied and replaced with materials previously shown to be stable in harsh conditions. The permeation properties and stability of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (LSCF)-carbonate, La0.85Ce0.1Ga0.3Fe0.65Al0.05O3-δ (LCGFA)-carbonate, and Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 (SDC)-carbonate membranes were examined under a wide range of experimental conditions at high temperature. LSCF-carbonate membranes were shown to be unstable without the presence of O2 due to reaction of CO2 with the ceramic phase. In the presence of O2, however, the membranes showed stable permeation behavior for more than one month at 900oC. LCGFA-carbonate membranes showed great chemical and permeation stability in the presence of various conditions including exposure to CH4 and H2, however, the permeation performance was quite low when compared to membranes in the literature. Finally, SDC-carbonate membranes showed great chemical and permeation stability both in a CO2:N2 environment for more than two weeks at 900oC as well as more than one month of exposure to simulated syngas conditions at 700oC. Ceramic phase chemical stability increased in the order of LSCF < LCGFA < SDC while permeation performance increased in the order of LCGFA < LSCF < SDC.

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Date Created
2013

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Epitaxial Zintl Aluminide SrAl4 Grown on a LaAlO3 Substrate

Description

Zintl phases are a class of intermetallic materials that have simultaneously ionic and covalent bonding resulting from charge transfer between two different atomic species. We present a combined first principles and experimental study of Zintl-phase SrAl4, which is grown in

Zintl phases are a class of intermetallic materials that have simultaneously ionic and covalent bonding resulting from charge transfer between two different atomic species. We present a combined first principles and experimental study of Zintl-phase SrAl4, which is grown in thin film form on the perovskite oxide LaAlO3 using molecular beam epitaxy. The structural properties are investigated using reflection-high-energy electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and cross-section transmission electron microscopy, which reveal relaxed epitaxial island growth. Photoelectron spectroscopy measurements verify the Zintl-Klemm nature of the bonding in the material and are utilized to determine the band offset and the work function of SrAl4, while transport measurements confirm its metallic behavior. The experimentally observed properties are confirmed using density functional calculations.

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Date Created
2013-07

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Magnetic Domain Structure in Nanocrystalline Ni-Zn-Co Spinel Ferrite Thin Films Using Off-Axis Electron Holography

Description

We report a study of the magnetic domain structure of nanocrystalline thin films of nickel-zinc ferrite. The ferrite films were synthesized using aqueous spin-spray coating at low temperature (∼90 °C) and showed high complex permeability in the GHz range. Electron microscopy

We report a study of the magnetic domain structure of nanocrystalline thin films of nickel-zinc ferrite. The ferrite films were synthesized using aqueous spin-spray coating at low temperature (∼90 °C) and showed high complex permeability in the GHz range. Electron microscopy and microanalysis revealed that the films consisted of columnar grains with uniform chemical composition. Off-axis electron holography combined with magnetic force microscopy indicated a multi-grain domain structure with in-plane magnetization. The correlation between the magnetic domain morphology and crystal structure is briefly discussed.

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Date Created
2014-08-28