Matching Items (5)

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SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL ANTI-TUMOR AGENTS UTILIZING AN EXTENDED VINYLOGOUS AMIDINE SYSTEM

Description

Continuing work has been done on a novel class of anti-cancer drugs employing a vinylogous extended amidine system functionalized into benzimidazole ring. Three new derivatives, utilizing a true sugar mimic

Continuing work has been done on a novel class of anti-cancer drugs employing a vinylogous extended amidine system functionalized into benzimidazole ring. Three new derivatives, utilizing a true sugar mimic at the N1-position, have been synthesized. Compounds 6-amino-1-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethyl-4-imino-2,5-dimethyl-1H-benzimidazole- 7-one (5), 6-amino-1-[2-(2-hydroxysulfonoethoxy)ethyl-4-imino-2,5-dimethyl-1H-benzimidazole-7-one (6), and 6-amino-1-[2-(2-hydroxysulfonoethoxy)ethyl-4-methylimino-2,5-dimethyl-1H-benzimidazole-7-one (7) have been synthesized utilizing similar protocols used in the synthesis of previously screened anti-tumor drugs produced by this laboratory. Compounds (5) and (6) have undergone screening similar to the National Cancer Institute’s (NCIs) Developmental Therapeutic Program (DTP), performed by Dr. Dan LaBarbera at the University of Boston. Both compounds show high cytotoxicity, with complete cell death at 5 µM and bioactive concentrations in the low nanomolar concentrations; more complete data is forthcoming. The proposed mechanism of action is through inhibition of p90RSK 1-2 which is responsible for the phosphorylation of Bcl-2 associated death promoter (BAD), a key metabolite in directing the onset of apoptosis. Future directions of next generation derivatives include modifying the 2-position of the benzimidazole ring into a halogenating or alkylating agent and possibly replacing the methanesulfonate with a phosphate group. This research is being published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Combretastatin A-2 synthetic modifications

Description

Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) represents one of the most promising antineoplastic and cancer vascular targeting stilbenes that have been isolated from the South African bush willow, Combretum Caffrum Kuntze. In

Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) represents one of the most promising antineoplastic and cancer vascular targeting stilbenes that have been isolated from the South African bush willow, Combretum Caffrum Kuntze. In order to further explore the bioactivity of this molecule, a diiodo derivative of CA-4, as well as its phosphate prodrug, was synthesized and analyzed for its biological activity; although only a scale up synthesis of this compound was performed herein for ongoing analysis. In general, no increased specificity was noted for the human cancer cell lines. Antiangiogenic properties were similar to the untreated control. The diiodocombstatin was active against M. luteus, and its phosphate prodrugs were very active against N. gonorrhoeae. Combretastain A-2 is another biologically active stilbene isolated from Combretum Caffrum Kuntze. In an attempt to increase biological activity of this molecule both mono-iodo and diiodo derivatives have been partially synthesized. The initial step involving the iodination of piperonal utilizes a novel, cost effective and mild reaction. The iodo stilbenes were obtained via a Wittig reaction using phosphonium salts 25 and 27 along with 2,3-Bis-[tert-butyldimethylsiloxy]-4-methoxy benzaldehyde 29. Deprotection of the subsequent z-stilbenes, non-isolated mono-iodo stilbene and the diiodo 30 produced two synthetic objective z-stilbenes 16 and 17. Synthesis as well as biological analysis is ongoing.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Quinones and analogues as cytoprotectants for cultured mammalian cells

Description

It has been well established that mitochondria play a critical role in the pathology of Friedreich's Ataxia. This disease is believed to be caused by a deficiency of frataxin, which

It has been well established that mitochondria play a critical role in the pathology of Friedreich's Ataxia. This disease is believed to be caused by a deficiency of frataxin, which research suggests is responsible for iron sulfur cluster assembly. This incomplete assembly of iron sulfur clusters is believed to be linked with dysfunctional complexes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, increased oxidative stress, and potential cell death. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease has enabled the development of various therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring mitochondrial respiration. This thesis contains an analysis of the biological activity of several classes of antioxidants against oxidative stress induced by diethyl maleate in Friedreich's Ataxia lymphocytes and CEM leukemia cells. Analogues of vitamin E α-tocopherol have been shown to protect cells under oxidative stress. However, these same analogues show various levels of inhibition towards the electron transport chain complex I. Bicyclic pyridinols containing a ten carbon substituent provided favorable cytoprotection. N-hydroxy-4-pyridone compounds were observed to provide little protection. Similarly, analogues of CoQ10 in the form of pyridinol and pyrimidinol compounds also preserved cell viability at low concentrations.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Synthesis and evaluation of a new class of cancer chemotherapeutics based on purine-like extended amidines

Description

A potential new class of cancer chemotherapeutic agents has been synthesized by varying the 2 position of a benzimidazole based extended amidine. Compounds 6-amino-2-chloromethyl-4-imino-1-(2-methansulfonoxyethyl)-5-methyl-1H-benzimidazole-7-one (1A) and 6-amino-2-hydroxypropyl-4-imino-1-(2-methansulfonoxyethyl)-5-methyl-1H-benzimidazole-7-one (1B) were assayed

A potential new class of cancer chemotherapeutic agents has been synthesized by varying the 2 position of a benzimidazole based extended amidine. Compounds 6-amino-2-chloromethyl-4-imino-1-(2-methansulfonoxyethyl)-5-methyl-1H-benzimidazole-7-one (1A) and 6-amino-2-hydroxypropyl-4-imino-1-(2-methansulfonoxyethyl)-5-methyl-1H-benzimidazole-7-one (1B) were assayed at the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Developmental Therapeutic Program (DTP) and found to be cytotoxic at sub-micromolar concentrations, and have shown between a 100 and a 1000-fold increase in specificity towards lung, colon, CNS, and melanoma cell lines. These ATP mimics have been found to correlate with sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1), a protein implicated in drug resistance and cell survival in various cancer cell lines. Using the DTP COMPARE algorithm, compounds 1A and 1B were shown to correlate to each other at 77%, but failed to correlate with other benzimidazole based extended amidines previously synthesized in this laboratory suggesting they operate through a different biological mechanism.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Progress towards the synthesis of polyalthenol

Description

Throughout time, compounds from natural sources have provided humans with medicines, and recently become the structural inspiration for semisynthetic drugs. One arena that has benefited greatly from the use of

Throughout time, compounds from natural sources have provided humans with medicines, and recently become the structural inspiration for semisynthetic drugs. One arena that has benefited greatly from the use of these natural products is the discovery of novel antibacterial agents. Methicillin-resistant Staphylcoccus aureus (MRSA) continues to plague the United States as well as throughout the world, at least in part because of increasing antibiotic resistance. Therefore, scientists continue to scour natural products as potential leads, either directly or indirectly, for antibiotics to treat MRSA. The structure of the indole sesquiterpene, polyalthenol, was discovered in 1976 and recent work shows a 4µg/mL minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against a variety of strains of MRSA. Given the unique framework of this natural product and its biological activity against MRSA, the total synthesis becomes the next logical step. Presently a racemic synthesis has successfully afforded an indole ketone with the correct relative stereochemistry of polyalthenol, however, the completion of the total synthesis of polyalthenol presents several challenges. Herein, the work towards the synthesis is described in addition to the proposed completion of the synthesis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012