Matching Items (8)

Imaging Local Drug Delivery

Description

Imaging analysis of local drug delivery is important because in both studies involving chemotherapy targeted toward glioblastoma and antimicrobial addressing infection, the drug concentration and distribution are unknown. There are

Imaging analysis of local drug delivery is important because in both studies involving chemotherapy targeted toward glioblastoma and antimicrobial addressing infection, the drug concentration and distribution are unknown. There are a variety of studies focused on the local delivery of drug to a targeted location, but we are presenting a way of quantifying the concentration of the drug and the distribution of the drug during a period of time. This study aims to do that by utilizing Materialise Mimics to analyze the MRI images of local drug delivery in glioblastoma in canines and antimicrobial gel in rabbit femurs. The focus of the technique is to register the anatomy in T1-weighted spin echo images to the drug delivery in T2 flow attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images in order to see where the drug went and did not go relative to the anatomical part. Both studies focus on addressing effective volumes of drug to a designated anatomical area, in which the delivery can be difficult as it involves bypassing the blood brain barrier in the first study and achieving effective volumes while preventing toxicity to the kidneys in the second study. The goal of this project lies in determining the drug volumes and location for the specified duration and anatomical part.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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The Effect of Nanoparticle Diameter on TAT-mediated Delivery to the CNS In Vivo

Description

Neurological disorders are difficult to treat with current drug delivery methods due to their inefficiency and the lack of knowledge of the mechanisms behind drug delivery across the blood brain

Neurological disorders are difficult to treat with current drug delivery methods due to their inefficiency and the lack of knowledge of the mechanisms behind drug delivery across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Nanoparticles (NPs) are a promising drug delivery method due to their biocompatibility and ability to be modified by cell penetrating peptides, such as transactivating transciptor (TAT) peptide, which has been shown to increase efficiency of delivery. There are multiple proposed mechanisms of TAT-mediated delivery that also have size restrictions on the molecules that can undergo each BBB crossing mechanism. The effect of nanoparticle size on TAT-mediated delivery in vivo is an important aspect to research in order to better understand the delivery mechanisms and to create more efficient NPs. NPs called FluoSpheres are used because they come in defined diameters unlike polymeric NPs that have a broad distribution of diameters. Both modified and unmodified 100nm and 200nm NPs were able to bypass the BBB and were seen in the brain, spinal cord, liver, and spleen using confocal microscopy and a biodistribution study. Statistically significant differences in delivery rate of the different sized NPs or between TAT-modified and unmodified NPs were not found. Therefore in future work a larger range of diameter size will be evaluated. Also the unmodified NPs will be conjugated with scrambled peptide to ensure that both unmodified and TAT-modified NPs are prepared in identical fashion to better understand the role of size on TAT targeting. Although all the NPs were able to bypass the BBB, future work will hopefully provide a better representation of how NP size effects the rate of TAT-mediated delivery to the CNS.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Direct nose-to-brain delivery of targeted polymeric nanoparticles

Description

There is growing interest in intranasal delivery of therapeutics because of direct nose-to-brain pathways which are able to bypass biological barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB), that have historically

There is growing interest in intranasal delivery of therapeutics because of direct nose-to-brain pathways which are able to bypass biological barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB), that have historically limited our ability to effectively deliver drugs to the central nervous system (CNS). Since these pathways were first discovered, there has been significant preclinical success in delivering a wide range of therapeutics to the CNS with additional growing efforts to further improve delivery through nanoparticle drug delivery systems. Here we sought to improve intranasal delivery of DiR, a lipophilic small molecule cyanine dye, to the CNS by surface modifying a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle with a short peptide derived from the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG). The specific aims of this thesis were to evaluate administration route-dependent delivery of RVG nanoparticles to the CNS, and to identify anatomical transport pathways by which nanoparticles facilitate transport of small lipophilic molecules. Route-dependent delivery kinetics and distribution were studied by administering DiR loaded nanoparticles to healthy Balb/C mice. Specific tissues were homogenized and the fluorescent intensity of DiR was measured and compared to control tissue spiked with known amounts of dye. While bioavailability of DiR after intranasal administration was near 0% with minimal exposure to peripheral organs, quick and efficient delivery to the CNS was still observed. CNS delivery after intranasal administration was rapid with peak concentrations at 30 minutes post-administration followed by broad clearance by 2 hours. Regional differences of delivery of DiR to the CNS demonstrated engagement of direct nose-to-brain transport pathways with high delivery being observed to the olfactory bulb, brain stem, and trigeminal nerve. RVG modification however presented only modest targeting benefits. In conclusion, the biodistribution of DiR after intranasal administration of DiR loaded nanoparticles showed high potential for the direct nose-to-brain delivery while limiting peripheral exposure of lipophilic small molecule drugs.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Pharmacologic Modulation of the Blood-Brain Barrier

Description

One of the most prominent biological challenges for the field of drug delivery is the blood-brain barrier. This physiological system blocks the entry of or actively removes almost all small

One of the most prominent biological challenges for the field of drug delivery is the blood-brain barrier. This physiological system blocks the entry of or actively removes almost all small molecules into the central nervous system (CNS), including many drugs that could be used to treat diseases in the CNS. Previous studies have shown that activation of the adenosine receptor signaling pathway through the use of agonists has been demonstrated to increase BBB permeability. For example, regadenoson is an adenosine A2A receptor agonist that has been shown to disrupt the BBB and allow for increased drug uptake in the CNS. The goal of this study was to verify this property of regadenoson. We hypothesized that co-administration of regadenoson with a non-brain penetrant macromolecule would facilitate its entry into the central nervous system. To test this hypothesis, healthy mice were administered regadenoson or saline concomitantly with a fluorescent dextran solution. The brain tissue was either homogenized to measure quantity of fluorescent molecule, or cryosectioned for imaging with confocal fluorescence microscopy. These experiments did not identify any significant difference in the amount of fluorescence detected in the brain after regadenoson treatment. These results contradict those of previous studies and highlight potential differences in injection methodology, time windows, and properties of brain impermeant molecules.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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An Evaluation of the Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine Device and its Impact on Cognitive Function in a Rat Model

Description

The aim of this study was to determine whether IUD administration, with and without the presence of Levo, and with and without the presence of the ovaries, impacts cognition in

The aim of this study was to determine whether IUD administration, with and without the presence of Levo, and with and without the presence of the ovaries, impacts cognition in a rat model. Rats received either Sham or Ovariectomy (Ovx) surgery (removal of the ovaries), plus either no IUD, a Blank IUD (without Levo), or a Levo-releasing IUD (Levo IUD), enabling us to evaluate the effects of Ovx and the effects of IUD administration on cognition. Two weeks after surgery, all treatment groups were tested on the water radial arm maze, Morris water maze, and visible platform task to evaluate cognition. At sacrifice, upon investigation of the uteri, it was determined that some of the IUDs were no longer present in animals from these groups: Sham\u2014Blank IUD, Ovx\u2014Blank IUD, and Sham\u2014Levo IUD. Results from the remaining three groups showed that compared to Sham animals with no IUDs, Ovx animals with no IUDs had marginally impaired working memory performance, and that Ovx animals with Levo IUDs as compared to Ovx animals with no IUDs had marginally enhanced memory performance, not specific to a particular memory type. Results also showed that Ovx animals with Levo IUDs had qualitatively more cells in their vaginal smears and increased uterine horn weight compared to Ovx animals with no IUDs, suggesting local stimulation of the Levo IUDs to the uterine horns. Overall, these results provide alternative evidence to the hypothesis that the Levo IUD administers Levo in solely a localized manner, and suggests that the possibility for the Levo IUD to affect reproductive cyclicity in ovary-intact animals is not rejected. The potential for the Levo IUD to exert effects on cognition suggests that either the hormone does in fact systemically circulate, or that the Levo IUD administration affects cognition by altering an as yet undetermined hormonal or other feedback between the uterus and the brain.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Evaluation of a Novel HDACi-Loaded Nanoparticle Therapy for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability, with approximately 1.7 million incidents reported annually. Following a TBI, patients are likely to sustain sensorimotor and cognitive impairments and

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability, with approximately 1.7 million incidents reported annually. Following a TBI, patients are likely to sustain sensorimotor and cognitive impairments and are at an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases later in life. Despite this, robust therapies that treat TBI neuropathology are not available in the clinic. One emerging therapeutic approach is to target epigenetic mediators that modulate a variety of molecular regulatory events acutely following injury. Specifically, previous studies demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) administration following TBI reduced inflammation, enhanced functional outcomes, and was neuroprotective. Here, we evaluated a novel quisinostat-loaded PLA-PEG nanoparticle (QNP) therapy in treating TBI as modeled by a controlled cortical impact. We evaluated initial pharmacodynamics within the injured cortex via histone acetylation levels following QNP treatment. We observed that QNP administration acutely following injury increased histone acetylation specifically within the injury penumbra, as detected by Western blot analysis. Given this effect, we evaluated QNP therapeutic efficacy. We observed that QNP treatment dampened motor deficits as measured by increased rotarod latency to fall relative to blank nanoparticle- and saline-treated controls. Additionally, open field results show that QNP treatment altered locomotion following injury. These results suggest that HDACi therapies are a beneficial therapeutic strategy following neural injury and demonstrate the utility for nanoparticle formulations as a mode for HDACi delivery following TBI.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Novel protein delivery platforms to modulate SDF-1a/CXCR4 signaling in the adult cortex

Description

Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and its key receptor, CXCR4 are ubiquitously expressed in systems across the body (e.g. liver, skin, lung, etc.). This signaling axis regulates a myriad of physiological

Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and its key receptor, CXCR4 are ubiquitously expressed in systems across the body (e.g. liver, skin, lung, etc.). This signaling axis regulates a myriad of physiological processes that range from maintaining of organ homeostasis in adults to, chemotaxis of stem/progenitor and immune cell types after injury. Given its potential role as a therapeutic target for diverse applications, surprisingly little is known about how SDF-1α mediated signaling propagates through native tissues. This limitation ultimately constrains rational design of interventional biomaterials that aim to target the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling axis. One application of particular interest is traumatic brain injury (TBI) for which, there are currently no means of targeting the underlying biochemical pathology to improve prognosis.

Growing evidence suggests a relationship between SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling and endogenous neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSC)-mediated regeneration after neural injury. Long-term modulation of the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling axis is thus hypothesized as a possible avenue for harnessing and amplifying endogenous regenerative mechanisms after TBI. In order to understand how the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling can be modulated in vivo, we first developed and characterized a sustained protein delivery platform in vitro. We were the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that protein release profiles from poly(D,L,-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) particles can be tuned independent of particle fabrication parameters via centrifugal fractioning. This process of physically separating the particles altered the average diameter of a particle population, which is in turn was correlated to critical release characteristics. Secondly, we demonstrated sustained release of SDF-1α from PLGA/fibrin composites (particles embedded in fibrin) with tunable burst release as a function of fibrin concentration. Finally, we contrasted the spatiotemporal localization of endogenous SDF-1α and CXCR4 expression in response to either bolus or sustained release of exogenous SDF-1α. Sustained release of exogenous SDF-1α induced spatially diffuse endogenous SDF-1/CXCR4 expression relative to bolus SDF-1 administration; however, the observed effects were transient in both cases, persisting only to a maximum of 3 days post injection. These studies will inform future systematic evaluations of strategies that exploit SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling for diverse applications.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Optimizing the Delivery of 17β-estradiol: Maximizing Beneficial Cognitive Effects While Minimizing Undesired Peripheral Stimulation in a Rat Model of Surgical Menopause

Description

Estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) is approved for treatment of symptoms associated with menopause by the Food and Drug Administration. A common estrogen used in HT is 17β-estradiol (E2). Rodent models

Estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) is approved for treatment of symptoms associated with menopause by the Food and Drug Administration. A common estrogen used in HT is 17β-estradiol (E2). Rodent models of menopause, and some clinical work as well, suggest a cognitively-beneficial role of E2. However, as of the 2017 statement released by the North American Menopause Society, HT is not currently advised for use as cognitive therapy in healthy, menopausal women, given that the data so far from existing clinical studies are not yet definitive. Indeed, the delivery of E2 treatment can be optimized to yield more consistent results on cognitive function, particularly considering that exogenously administered E2 gets rapidly metabolized and cleared from the body. Further, E2-containing HT must include a progestogen if prescribed to women with a uterus to oppose its undesired uterine stimulating effects, such as increased endometrial hyperplasia and cancer risks. Studies have shown that the addition of a progestogen to E2 treatment can attenuate the effects of E2 on cognition and brain variables associated with cognitive function. Thus, a brain-specific delivery platform of E2 treatment that would minimize the hormone’s effects in the periphery while maintaining the beneficial cognitive effects is desirable. To achieve this goal, my dissertation work bridged two distinct scientific fields – behavioral neuroendocrinology and polymeric drug delivery – with the overarching aim of targeting the delivery of E2 to the brain to achieve maximal cognitively-beneficial effects with minimal undesired uterine stimulation. This aim was addressed via three distinct delivery strategies: 1) combining E2 with a cognitively-beneficial progestogen, 2) encapsulating E2 in polymeric nanoparticles, and 3) solubilizing E2 using cyclodextrins for intranasal administration. Findings revealed that although all E2-containing treatments increased uterine horn weights, a marker of uterine stimulation, in middle-aged ovariectomized rats, some E2 treatment formulations yielded memory improvements, others were neutral in their effects on memory, and some impaired memory. Together, data from this dissertation set the stage for targeted E2 delivery research to optimize the cognitive therapeutic effects of E2 in the context of menopause while minimizing peripheral burden, leading to translationally relevant clinical implications for women’s health.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018