Matching Items (21)

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Toxic Oligomeric Alpha-Synuclein Variants Present in Human Parkinson’s Disease Brains Are Differentially Generated in Mammalian Cell Models

Description

Misfolding and aggregation of α-synuclein into toxic soluble oligomeric α-synuclein aggregates has been strongly correlated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here, we show that two different morphologically distinct

Misfolding and aggregation of α-synuclein into toxic soluble oligomeric α-synuclein aggregates has been strongly correlated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here, we show that two different morphologically distinct oligomeric α-synuclein aggregates are present in human post-mortem PD brain tissue and are responsible for the bulk of α-synuclein induced toxicity in brain homogenates from PD samples. Two antibody fragments that selectively bind the different oligomeric α-synuclein variants block this α-synuclein induced toxicity and are useful tools to probe how various cell models replicate the α-synuclein aggregation pattern of human PD brain. Using these reagents, we show that mammalian cell type strongly influences α-synuclein aggregation, where neuronal cells best replicate the PD brain α-synuclein aggregation profile. Overexpression of α-synuclein in the different cell lines increased protein aggregation but did not alter the morphology of the oligomeric aggregates generated. Differentiation of the neuronal cells into a cholinergic-like or dopaminergic-like phenotype increased the levels of oligomeric α-synuclein where the aggregates were localized in cell neurites and cell bodies.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-07-22

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α-synuclein conformational antibodies fused to penetratin are effective in models of Lewy body disease

Description

Objective
Progressive accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) has been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy body (DLB). The mechanisms through which α-syn leads to neurodegeneration are not completely

Objective
Progressive accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) has been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy body (DLB). The mechanisms through which α-syn leads to neurodegeneration are not completely clear; however, the formation of various oligomeric species have been proposed to play a role. Antibody therapy has shown effectiveness at reducing α-syn accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS); however, most of these studies have been conducted utilizing antibodies that recognize both monomeric and higher molecular weight α-syn. In this context, the main objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of immunotherapy with single-chain antibodies (scFVs) against specific conformational forms of α-syn fused to a novel brain penetrating sequence.
Method
We screened various scFVs against α-syn expressed from lentiviral vectors by intracerebral injections in an α-syn tg model. The most effective scFVs were fused to the cell-penetrating peptide penetratin to enhance transport across the blood–brain barrier, and lentiviral vectors were constructed and tested for efficacy following systemic delivery intraperitoneal into α-syn tg mice.
Result
Two scFVs (D5 and 10H) selectively targeted different α-syn oligomers and reduced the accumulation of α-syn and ameliorated functional deficits when delivered late in disease development; however, only one of the antibodies (D5) was also effective when delivered early in disease development. These scFVs were also utilized in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay to monitor the effects of immunotherapy on α-syn oligomers in brain and plasma.
Interpretation
The design and targeting of antibodies for specific species of α-syn oligomers is crucial for therapeutic immunotherapy and might be of relevance for the treatment of Lewy body disease.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-06-16

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Characterization of Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins for Neurodegenerative Disease Diagnostics

Description

The following paper discusses the potential for Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPin) use as a diagnostic tool for neurodegenerative diseases in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The

The following paper discusses the potential for Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPin) use as a diagnostic tool for neurodegenerative diseases in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The two structures investigated for AD and PD were ADC7 and PDC1. Plasmid transformation was performed in order to grow the DARPin in E. coli for simple expression. Following growth and purification the proteins were validated using SDS-PAGE, Western Blot, BCA and indirect sandwich ELISA using transgenic mouse brain tissue. Targeted functionality of the DARPin structure was utilized during characterization methods to ensure the efficacy of the protein as a diagnostic for the respective disease targets. Both the ADC7 and PDC1 demonstrated improved binding with transgenic mice compared to wild type with a maximum 1.8 and 1.7 relative ratio, respectively. Additionally, both of the proteins demonstrated exclusive binding to their disease target and did not provide false positive results.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Optimizing Dialysis Conditions for A4 Stability

Description

The research objective is to maintain the A4 nanobody stability during dialysis. Various dialysis buffers were tested and compared, including PBS with varying amounts of the detergent, Tween: low, high,

The research objective is to maintain the A4 nanobody stability during dialysis. Various dialysis buffers were tested and compared, including PBS with varying amounts of the detergent, Tween: low, high, none. Furthermore, PBS, Tris, and HEPES, were tested and compared. PBS without Tween was the worst for preserving A4 stability. PBS was determined to be a better dialysis buffer than Tris or HEPES. To find the optimum buffer, other buffers will be tested and compared with PBS; methods such as gravity filtration and lyophilization will be considered as alternatives to dialysis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Optimization of the Production of Functional Antibodies to Discover Diagnostics and Therapeutics for Alzheimer's Disease

Description

Alzheimer's disease (AD), which currently affects approximately 5.4 million Americans, is a type of dementia, which causes memory, cognitive, and behavioral problems. AD is among the top 10 leading causes

Alzheimer's disease (AD), which currently affects approximately 5.4 million Americans, is a type of dementia, which causes memory, cognitive, and behavioral problems. AD is among the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States, typically affecting people ages 65 and older. Beta-Amyloid (Aβ) is an Alzheimer's target protein, which starts as a single protein, but can misfold and bind to itself, forming larger chains and eventually fibrils and plaques of Aβ in the brain. Antibodies that bind to different regions and sizes of Aβ may prevent progression into a more toxic stage. The antibody worked with in this thesis, A4 scFv, binds to oligomeric Aβ. The objective of this antibody research is to optimize the production of functional antibodies, specifically A4, through modifications in the scFv growth process, in order to enhance the discovery of possible diagnostics and therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease. In order to produce functional A4 antibody, four complex sugars were tested in the E. Coli bacterial culture growth media that expresses the desired antibody. The sugars: sucrose, glucose, mannitol, and sorbitol were used in the growth process to improve the yield of functional antibody. Through the steps of growth, purification, and dialysis, the sugar sorbitol was found to provide the optimal results of ending functional antibody concentration. Once an ample amount of functional A4 scFv is produced, it can be used in assays as a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Detecting Oligomeric Forms of Alpha-Synuclein in Cell and Mouse Tissue

Description

Misfolding and aggregation of alpha-synuclein (a-syn) has been strongly correlated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Reagents such as single chain antibody fragments (scFv) that can interact with specific

Misfolding and aggregation of alpha-synuclein (a-syn) has been strongly correlated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Reagents such as single chain antibody fragments (scFv) that can interact with specific aggregate forms of a-syn can be very useful to study how different aggregate forms affect cells. Here we utilize two scFvs, D5 and 10H, that recognize two distinct oligomeric forms of a-syn to characterize the presence of different a-syn aggregates in animal models of PD.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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TDP-43 protein variants as biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Description

Background
TDP-43 aggregates accumulate in individuals affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other neurodegenerative diseases, representing potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Using an atomic force microscopy based biopanning protocol

Background
TDP-43 aggregates accumulate in individuals affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other neurodegenerative diseases, representing potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Using an atomic force microscopy based biopanning protocol developed in our lab, we previously isolated 23 TDP-43 reactive antibody fragments with preference for human ALS brain tissue relative to frontotemporal dementia, a related neurodegeneration, and healthy samples from phage-displayed single chain antibody fragment (scFv) libraries. Here we further characterize the binding specificity of these different scFvs and identify which ones have promise for detecting ALS biomarkers in human brain tissue and plasma samples.
Results
We developed a sensitive capture ELISA for detection of different disease related TDP-43 variants using the scFvs identified from the ALS biopanning. We show that a wide variety of disease selective TDP-43 variants are present in ALS as the scFvs show different reactivity profiles amongst the ALS cases. When assaying individual human brain tissue cases, three scFvs (ALS-TDP6, ALS-TDP10 and ALS-TDP14) reacted with all the ALS cases and 12 others reacted with the majority of the ALS cases, and none of the scFvs reacted with any control samples. When assaying individual human plasma samples, 9 different scFvs reacted with all the sporadic ALS samples and again none of them reacted with any control samples. These 9 different scFvs had different patterns of reactivity with plasma samples obtained from chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (c9orf72) cases indicating that these familial ALS genetic variants may display different TDP-43 pathology than sporadic ALS cases.
Conclusions
These results indicated that a range of disease specific TDP-43 variants are generated in ALS patients with different variants being generated in sporadic and familial cases. We show that a small panel of scFvs recognizing different TDP-43 variants can generate a neuropathological and plasma biomarker profile with potential to distinguish different TDP-43 pathologies.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-01-25

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Curcumin reduces α-synuclein induced cytotoxicity in Parkinson's disease cell model

Description

Background
Overexpression and abnormal accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein (αS) have been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies. αS can misfold and adopt a variety of morphologies but recent

Background
Overexpression and abnormal accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein (αS) have been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies. αS can misfold and adopt a variety of morphologies but recent studies implicate oligomeric forms as the most cytotoxic species. Both genetic mutations and chronic exposure to neurotoxins increase αS aggregation and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in PD cell models.
Results
Here we show that curcumin can alleviate αS-induced toxicity, reduce ROS levels and protect cells against apoptosis. We also show that both intracellular overexpression of αS and extracellular addition of oligomeric αS increase ROS which induces apoptosis, suggesting that aggregated αS may induce similar toxic effects whether it is generated intra- or extracellulary.
Conclusions
Since curcumin is a natural food pigment that can cross the blood brain barrier and has widespread medicinal uses, it has potential therapeutic value for treating PD and other neurodegenerative disorders.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010-04-30

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Human α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor as a Novel Target of Oligomeric α-Synuclein

Description

Cigarette smoking is associated with a decreased incidence of Parkinson disease (PD) through unknown mechanisms. Interestingly, a decrease in the numbers of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2-nAChRs) in PD patients

Cigarette smoking is associated with a decreased incidence of Parkinson disease (PD) through unknown mechanisms. Interestingly, a decrease in the numbers of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2-nAChRs) in PD patients suggests an α4β2-nAChR-mediated cholinergic deficit in PD. Although oligomeric forms of α-synuclein have been recognized to be toxic and involved in the pathogenesis of PD, their direct effects on nAChR-mediated cholinergic signaling remains undefined. Here, we report for the first time that oligomeric α-synuclein selectively inhibits human α4β2-nAChR-mediated currents in a dose-dependent, non-competitive and use-independent manner. We show that pre-loading cells with guanyl-5′-yl thiophosphate fails to prevent this inhibition, suggesting that the α-synuclein-induced inhibition of α4β2-nAChR function is not mediated by nAChR internalization. By using a pharmacological approach and cultures expressing transfected human nAChRs, we have shown a clear effect of oligomeric α-synuclein on α4β2-nAChRs, but not on α4β4- or α7-nAChRs, suggesting nAChR subunit selectivity of oligomeric α-synuclein-induced inhibition. In addition, by combining the size exclusion chromatography and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses, we find that only large (>4 nm) oligomeric α-synuclein aggregates (but not monomeric, small oligomeric or fibrillar α-synuclein aggregates) exhibit the inhibitory effect on human α4β2-nAChRs. Collectively, we have provided direct evidence that α4β2-nAChR is a sensitive target to mediate oligomeric α-synuclein-induced modulation of cholinergic signaling, and our data imply that therapeutic strategies targeted toward α4β2-nAChRs may have potential for developing new treatments for PD.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-02-10

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Engineering the endothelial microenvironment

Description

Changes to the microenvironment of the endothelium can produce significant changes in the response of endothelial cells to stimuli. Human Aortic Endothelial Cells (HAECs) are tested in vitro for their

Changes to the microenvironment of the endothelium can produce significant changes in the response of endothelial cells to stimuli. Human Aortic Endothelial Cells (HAECs) are tested in vitro for their fluid shear stress response when their substrates, and the solute concentrations of the fluids to which they are exposed, are modulated, and for their nitric oxide expression when they are exposed to hyperglycemic conditions. ImageJ is used to quantify either the degree of cellular alignment and elongation with the direction of flow, or the relative NO expression using the fluorochrome DAF-2. First, the results of Brower, et.al. are replicated: HAECs under normal glucose (4mM) conditions align and elongate with flow (p<<0.05), while high glucose (30.5mM) conditions negate this effect (p<<0.05) and is likely the result of Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs). Then, in this study it is found that substitution of fibronectin for gelatin substrates does not impair flow (p<<0.05), indicating that fibronectin likely does not participate in the initiation of vascular lesions. High palmitic acid also does not prevent HAEC shear response (p<<0.05), which is consistent with Brower's predictions that AGEs are responsible for impaired elongation and alignment. NO production is significantly increased (p<<0.025) in HAECs cultured 24 hours under high glucose (30.5mM) conditions compared with normal glucose (4mM) conditions, indicating the presence of inducible nitric oxide as part of an inflammatory response. Aminoguanidine (5mM) added to high glucose concentrations reduces, but does not eliminate NO production (p<<0.05), likely due to insufficient concentration. Modulation of the endothelial microenvironment leads to pronounced changes in HAEC behavior with regards to NO production under hyperglycemic conditions. Diabetic model rat aortas are explanted and imaged for the purpose of detecting aortic endothelial cell alignment and elongation; improvements in this method are discussed. A microvessel chamber used with explanted human tissue is re-fit to reduce required volumes of solutions and allow more effective experimentation.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013