Matching Items (47)

128590-Thumbnail Image.png

Improved discriminability of spatiotemporal neural patterns in rat motor cortical areas as directional choice learning progresses

Description

Animals learn to choose a proper action among alternatives to improve their odds of success in food foraging and other activities critical for survival. Through trial-and-error, they learn correct associations

Animals learn to choose a proper action among alternatives to improve their odds of success in food foraging and other activities critical for survival. Through trial-and-error, they learn correct associations between their choices and external stimuli. While a neural network that underlies such learning process has been identified at a high level, it is still unclear how individual neurons and a neural ensemble adapt as learning progresses. In this study, we monitored the activity of single units in the rat medial and lateral agranular (AGm and AGl, respectively) areas as rats learned to make a left or right side lever press in response to a left or right side light cue. We noticed that rat movement parameters during the performance of the directional choice task quickly became stereotyped during the first 2–3 days or sessions. But learning the directional choice problem took weeks to occur. Accompanying rats' behavioral performance adaptation, we observed neural modulation by directional choice in recorded single units. Our analysis shows that ensemble mean firing rates in the cue-on period did not change significantly as learning progressed, and the ensemble mean rate difference between left and right side choices did not show a clear trend of change either. However, the spatiotemporal firing patterns of the neural ensemble exhibited improved discriminability between the two directional choices through learning. These results suggest a spatiotemporal neural coding scheme in a motor cortical neural ensemble that may be responsible for and contributing to learning the directional choice task.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-03-06

136775-Thumbnail Image.png

Analysis of Learning Retention throughout Aging

Description

In this paper, it is determined that learning retention decreases with age and there is a linear rate of decrease. In this study, four male Long-Evans Rats were used. The

In this paper, it is determined that learning retention decreases with age and there is a linear rate of decrease. In this study, four male Long-Evans Rats were used. The rats were each trained in 4 different tasks throughout their lifetime, using a food reward as motivation to work. Rats were said to have learned a task at the age when they received the highest accuracy during a task. A regression of learning retention was created for the set of studied rats: Learning Retention = 112.9 \u2014 0.085919 x (Age at End of Task), indicating that learning retention decreases at a linear rate, although rats have different rates of decrease of learning retention. The presence of behavioral training was determined not to have a positive impact on this rate. In behavioral studies, there were statistically significant differences between timid/outgoing and large ball ability between W12 and Z12. Rat W12 had overall better learning retention and also was more compliant, did not resist being picked up and traveled more frequently at high speeds (in the large ball) than Z12. Further potential studies include implanting an electrode into the frontal cortex in order to compare neuro feedback with learning retention, and using human subjects to find the rate of decrease in learning retention. The implication of this study, if also true for human subjects, is that older persons may need enhanced training or additional refresher training in order to retain information that is learned at a later age.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

137068-Thumbnail Image.png

Unveiling the Neural Network Mechanism through Spike Detection

Description

This study was designed to create a more user-friendly experience in utilizing the M-Sorter package for spike sorting and detection. This was achieved through the creation of a Graphical User

This study was designed to create a more user-friendly experience in utilizing the M-Sorter package for spike sorting and detection. This was achieved through the creation of a Graphical User Interface or GUI. The GUI was created for the spike detection portion of sorting. Through the creation of the M-Sorter detection GUI, now novice programmers can run the detector process. Additionally, the parameters are easily altered which will greatly decrease the time it takes to enter data and eliminate mistakes users may make in data entry.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

152492-Thumbnail Image.png

Molecular electronic transducer-based seismometer and accelerometer fabricated with micro-electro-mechanical systems techniques

Description

This thesis presents approaches to develop micro seismometers and accelerometers based on molecular electronic transducers (MET) technology using MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) techniques. MET is a technology applied in seismic instrumentation

This thesis presents approaches to develop micro seismometers and accelerometers based on molecular electronic transducers (MET) technology using MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) techniques. MET is a technology applied in seismic instrumentation that proves highly beneficial to planetary seismology. It consists of an electrochemical cell that senses the movement of liquid electrolyte between electrodes by converting it to the output current. MET seismometers have advantages of high sensitivity, low noise floor, small size, absence of fragile mechanical moving parts and independence on the direction of sensitivity axis. By using MEMS techniques, a micro MET seismometer is developed with inter-electrode spacing close to 1μm, which improves the sensitivity of fabricated device to above 3000 V/(m/s^2) under operating bias of 600 mV and input acceleration of 400 μG (G=9.81m/s^2) at 0.32 Hz. The lowered hydrodynamic resistance by increasing the number of channels improves the self-noise to -127 dB equivalent to 44 nG/√Hz at 1 Hz. An alternative approach to build the sensing element of MEMS MET seismometer using SOI process is also presented in this thesis. The significantly increased number of channels is expected to improve the noise performance. Inspired by the advantages of combining MET and MEMS technologies on the development of seismometer, a low frequency accelerometer utilizing MET technology with post-CMOS-compatible fabrication processes is developed. In the fabricated accelerometer, the complicated fabrication of mass-spring system in solid-state MEMS accelerometer is replaced with a much simpler post-CMOS-compatible process containing only deposition of a four-electrode MET structure on a planar substrate, and a liquid inertia mass of an electrolyte droplet encapsulated by oil film. The fabrication process does not involve focused ion beam milling which is used in the micro MET seismometer fabrication, thus the cost is lowered. Furthermore, the planar structure and the novel idea of using an oil film as the sealing diaphragm eliminate the complicated three-dimensional packaging of the seismometer. The fabricated device achieves 10.8 V/G sensitivity at 20 Hz with nearly flat response over the frequency range from 1 Hz to 50 Hz, and a low noise floor of 75 μG/√Hz at 20 Hz.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

152800-Thumbnail Image.png

Emerging neural coincidences in rats agranular medial and agranular lateral cortices during learning of a directional choice task

Description

To uncover the neural correlates to go-directed behavior, single unit action potentials are considered fundamental computing units and have been examined by different analytical methodologies under a broad set of

To uncover the neural correlates to go-directed behavior, single unit action potentials are considered fundamental computing units and have been examined by different analytical methodologies under a broad set of hypotheses. Using a behaving rat performing a directional choice learning task, we aim to study changes in rat's cortical neural patterns while he improved his task performance accuracy from chance to 80% or higher. Specifically, simultaneous multi-channel single unit neural recordings from the rat's agranular medial (AGm) and Agranular lateral (AGl) cortices were analyzed using joint peristimulus time histogram (JPSTHs), which effectively unveils firing coincidences in neural action potentials. My results based on data from six rats revealed that coincidences of pair-wise neural action potentials are higher when rats were performing the task than they were not at the learning stage, and this trend abated after the rats learned the task. Another finding is that the coincidences at the learning stage are stronger than that when the rats learned the task especially when they were performing the task. Therefore, this coincidence measure is the highest when the rats were performing the task at the learning stage. This may suggest that neural coincidences play a role in the coordination and communication among populations of neurons engaged in a purposeful act. Additionally, attention and working memory may have contributed to the modulation of neural coincidences during the designed task.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

152696-Thumbnail Image.png

Optimal input signal design for data-centric identification and control with applications to behavioral health and medicine

Description

Increasing interest in individualized treatment strategies for prevention and treatment of health disorders has created a new application domain for dynamic modeling and control. Standard population-level clinical trials, while useful,

Increasing interest in individualized treatment strategies for prevention and treatment of health disorders has created a new application domain for dynamic modeling and control. Standard population-level clinical trials, while useful, are not the most suitable vehicle for understanding the dynamics of dosage changes to patient response. A secondary analysis of intensive longitudinal data from a naltrexone intervention for fibromyalgia examined in this dissertation shows the promise of system identification and control. This includes datacentric identification methods such as Model-on-Demand, which are attractive techniques for estimating nonlinear dynamical systems from noisy data. These methods rely on generating a local function approximation using a database of regressors at the current operating point, with this process repeated at every new operating condition. This dissertation examines generating input signals for data-centric system identification by developing a novel framework of geometric distribution of regressors and time-indexed output points, in the finite dimensional space, to generate sufficient support for the estimator. The input signals are generated while imposing “patient-friendly” constraints on the design as a means to operationalize single-subject clinical trials. These optimization-based problem formulations are examined for linear time-invariant systems and block-structured Hammerstein systems, and the results are contrasted with alternative designs based on Weyl's criterion. Numerical solution to the resulting nonconvex optimization problems is proposed through semidefinite programming approaches for polynomial optimization and nonlinear programming methods. It is shown that useful bounds on the objective function can be calculated through relaxation procedures, and that the data-centric formulations are amenable to sparse polynomial optimization. In addition, input design formulations are formulated for achieving a desired output and specified input spectrum. Numerical examples illustrate the benefits of the input signal design formulations including an example of a hypothetical clinical trial using the drug gabapentin. In the final part of the dissertation, the mixed logical dynamical framework for hybrid model predictive control is extended to incorporate a switching time strategy, where decisions are made at some integer multiple of the sample time, and manipulation of only one input at a given sample time among multiple inputs. These are considerations important for clinical use of the algorithm.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

152656-Thumbnail Image.png

Perturbing neural feedback loops to understand the relationships of their parts

Description

The basal ganglia are four sub-cortical nuclei associated with motor control and reward learning. They are part of numerous larger mostly segregated loops where the basal ganglia receive inputs from

The basal ganglia are four sub-cortical nuclei associated with motor control and reward learning. They are part of numerous larger mostly segregated loops where the basal ganglia receive inputs from specific regions of cortex. Converging on these inputs are dopaminergic neurons that alter their firing based on received and/or predicted rewarding outcomes of a behavior. The basal ganglia's output feeds through the thalamus back to the areas of the cortex where the loop originated. Understanding the dynamic interactions between the various parts of these loops is critical to understanding the basal ganglia's role in motor control and reward based learning. This work developed several experimental techniques that can be applied to further study basal ganglia function. The first technique used micro-volume injections of low concentration muscimol to decrease the firing rates of recorded neurons in a limited area of cortex in rats. Afterwards, an artificial cerebrospinal fluid flush was injected to rapidly eliminate the muscimol's effects. This technique was able to contain the effects of muscimol to approximately a 1 mm radius volume and limited the duration of the drug effect to less than one hour. This technique could be used to temporarily perturb a small portion of the loops involving the basal ganglia and then observe how these effects propagate in other connected regions. The second part applied self-organizing maps (SOM) to find temporal patterns in neural firing rate that are independent of behavior. The distribution of detected patterns frequency on these maps can then be used to determine if changes in neural activity are occurring over time. The final technique focused on the role of the basal ganglia in reward learning. A new conditioning technique was created to increase the occurrence of selected patterns of neural activity without utilizing any external reward or behavior. A pattern of neural activity in the cortex of rats was selected using an SOM. The pattern was then reinforced by being paired with electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle triggering dopamine release in the basal ganglia. Ultimately, this technique proved unsuccessful possibly due to poor selection of the patterns being reinforced.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

158010-Thumbnail Image.png

Data-Efficient Reinforcement Learning Control of Robotic Lower-Limb Prosthesis With Human in the Loop

Description

Robotic lower limb prostheses provide new opportunities to help transfemoral amputees regain mobility. However, their application is impeded by that the impedance control parameters need to be tuned and optimized

Robotic lower limb prostheses provide new opportunities to help transfemoral amputees regain mobility. However, their application is impeded by that the impedance control parameters need to be tuned and optimized manually by prosthetists for each individual user in different task environments. Reinforcement learning (RL) is capable of automatically learning from interacting with the environment. It becomes a natural candidate to replace human prosthetists to customize the control parameters. However, neither traditional RL approaches nor the popular deep RL approaches are readily suitable for learning with limited number of samples and samples with large variations. This dissertation aims to explore new RL based adaptive solutions that are data-efficient for controlling robotic prostheses.

This dissertation begins by proposing a new flexible policy iteration (FPI) framework. To improve sample efficiency, FPI can utilize either on-policy or off-policy learning strategy, can learn from either online or offline data, and can even adopt exiting knowledge of an external critic. Approximate convergence to Bellman optimal solutions are guaranteed under mild conditions. Simulation studies validated that FPI was data efficient compared to several established RL methods. Furthermore, a simplified version of FPI was implemented to learn from offline data, and then the learned policy was successfully tested for tuning the control parameters online on a human subject.

Next, the dissertation discusses RL control with information transfer (RL-IT), or knowledge-guided RL (KG-RL), which is motivated to benefit from transferring knowledge acquired from one subject to another. To explore its feasibility, knowledge was extracted from data measurements of able-bodied (AB) subjects, and transferred to guide Q-learning control for an amputee in OpenSim simulations. This result again demonstrated that data and time efficiency were improved using previous knowledge.

While the present study is new and promising, there are still many open questions to be addressed in future research. To account for human adaption, the learning control objective function may be designed to incorporate human-prosthesis performance feedback such as symmetry, user comfort level and satisfaction, and user energy consumption. To make the RL based control parameter tuning practical in real life, it should be further developed and tested in different use environments, such as from level ground walking to stair ascending or descending, and from walking to running.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

151242-Thumbnail Image.png

Probabilistic power flow studies to examine the influence of photovoltaic generation on transmission system reliability

Description

Photovoltaic (PV) power generation has the potential to cause a significant impact on power system reliability since its total installed capacity is projected to increase at a significant rate. PV

Photovoltaic (PV) power generation has the potential to cause a significant impact on power system reliability since its total installed capacity is projected to increase at a significant rate. PV generation can be described as an intermittent and variable resource because its production is influenced by ever-changing environmental conditions. The study in this dissertation focuses on the influence of PV generation on trans-mission system reliability. This is a concern because PV generation output is integrated into present power systems at various voltage levels and may significantly affect the power flow patterns. This dissertation applies a probabilistic power flow (PPF) algorithm to evaluate the influence of PV generation uncertainty on transmission system perfor-mance. A cumulant-based PPF algorithm suitable for large systems is used. Correlation among adjacent PV resources is considered. Three types of approximation expansions based on cumulants namely Gram-Charlier expansion, Edgeworth expansion and Cor-nish-Fisher expansion are compared, and their properties, advantages and deficiencies are discussed. Additionally, a novel probabilistic model of PV generation is developed to obtain the probability density function (PDF) of the PV generation production based on environmental conditions. Besides, this dissertation proposes a novel PPF algorithm considering the conven-tional generation dispatching operation to balance PV generation uncertainties. It is pru-dent to include generation dispatch in the PPF algorithm since the dispatching strategy compensates for PV generation injections and influences the uncertainty results. Fur-thermore, this dissertation also proposes a probabilistic optimal power dispatching strat-egy which considers uncertainty problems in the economic dispatch and optimizes the expected value of the total cost with the overload probability as a constraint. The proposed PPF algorithm with the three expansions is compared with Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) with results for a 2497-bus representation of the Arizona area of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system. The PDFs of the bus voltages, line flows and slack bus production are computed, and are used to identify the confidence interval, the over limit probability and the expected over limit time of the ob-jective variables. The proposed algorithm is of significant relevance to the operating and planning studies of the transmission systems with PV generation installed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

149371-Thumbnail Image.png

Multimodal movement sensing using motion capture and inertial sensors for mixed-reality rehabilitation

Description

This thesis presents a multi-modal motion tracking system for stroke patient rehabilitation. This system deploys two sensor modules: marker-based motion capture system and inertial measurement unit (IMU). The integrated system

This thesis presents a multi-modal motion tracking system for stroke patient rehabilitation. This system deploys two sensor modules: marker-based motion capture system and inertial measurement unit (IMU). The integrated system provides real-time measurement of the right arm and trunk movement, even in the presence of marker occlusion. The information from the two sensors is fused through quaternion-based recursive filters to promise robust detection of torso compensation (undesired body motion). Since this algorithm allows flexible sensor configurations, it presents a framework for fusing the IMU data and vision data that can adapt to various sensor selection scenarios. The proposed system consequently has the potential to improve both the robustness and flexibility of the sensing process. Through comparison between the complementary filter, the extended Kalman filter (EKF), the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and the particle filter (PF), the experimental part evaluated the performance of the quaternion-based complementary filter for 10 sensor combination scenarios. Experimental results demonstrate the favorable performance of the proposed system in case of occlusion. Such investigation also provides valuable information for filtering algorithm and strategy selection in specific sensor applications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010