Matching Items (12)

136013-Thumbnail Image.png

An Integrated Framework for Patient Access Staffing Decision

Description

The challenge of healthcare delivery has attracted widespread attention since the report published by the World Health Organization in 2000, ranking the US 37th in overall health systems performance among

The challenge of healthcare delivery has attracted widespread attention since the report published by the World Health Organization in 2000, ranking the US 37th in overall health systems performance among 191 Member States. In addition, Davis et al. (2007) demonstrated that healthcare costs in the US were higher than all other countries, despite the fact that care was not the better than all other countries. The growing population in the US, combined with continued medical advances, has increased the demand for quality healthcare services. With this growth, however, comes the challenge of managing rising costs and maintaining efficient operations while satisfying patient's service level. Research has explored methods of improvement from system engineering, lean and process improvement, and mathematical programming of healthcare operations, to improve healthcare operations. In this project, we are interested in a patient access (patient registration) problem. The key research question is: what is an optimal decision in terms of patient admitting points considering both hospital cost and service level of patient access? To answer this question, we propose the use of the Queueing Theory to evaluate scenarios in a multi-objective decision setting implemented by Excel VBA (Visual Basic for Application). The first objective is to provide a "generic" Excel-based model with user-friendly interface such that users are able to visualize outcomes by changing chosen parameters and understand model sensitivities. The second objective is to evaluate the use Queueing in this patient access staffing decision. The data was provided by Healthcare Excellence Institute (HEI), a Phoenix-based consulting company which has experience in improving healthcare operation for more than 8 years. HEI has several hospital clients interested in determining the "optimal" number of admitting points which motivates us to develop this research project. Please note due to business confidentiality, the date used in this thesis has been modified.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012-05

135383-Thumbnail Image.png

The Business Venture Approach to Alleviating Poverty: What is the Bottom of the Pyramid Solution and Can It Work?

Description

Billions of people around the world deal with the struggles of poverty every day. Consequently, a number of others have committed themselves to help alleviate poverty. Many various methods are

Billions of people around the world deal with the struggles of poverty every day. Consequently, a number of others have committed themselves to help alleviate poverty. Many various methods are used, and a current consensus on the best method to alleviate poverty is lacking. Generally the methods used or researched exist somewhere on the spectrum between top-down and bottom-up approaches to fighting poverty. This paper analyzes a specific method proposed by C.K. Prahalad known as the Bottom of the Pyramid solution. The premise of the method is that large multinational corporations should utilize the large conglomerate of money that exists amongst poor people \u2014 created due to the sheer number of poor people \u2014 for business ventures. Concurrently, the poor people can benefit from the company's entrance. This method has received acclaim theoretically, but still needs empirical evidence to prove its practicality. This paper compares this approach with other approaches, considers international development data trends, and analyzes case studies of actual attempts that provide insight into the approach's potential for success. The market of poor people at the bottom of the pyramid is extremely segmented which makes it very difficult for large companies to financially prosper. It is even harder to establish mutual benefit between the large corporation and the poor. It has been found that although aspects of the bottom of the pyramid method hold merit, higher potential for alleviating poverty exists when small companies venture into this space rather than large multinational corporations. Small companies can conform to a single community and niche economy to prosper \u2014 a flexibility that large companies lack. Moving forward, analyzing the actual attempts provides the best and only empirical insights; hence, it will be important to consider more approaches into developing economies as they materialize.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

137647-Thumbnail Image.png

Early Career Performance Models: Regression-Based Forecasting Models for Predicting Future Major League Baseball Player Performance

Description

The widespread use of statistical analysis in sports-particularly Baseball- has made it increasingly necessary for small and mid-market teams to find ways to maintain their analytical advantages over large market

The widespread use of statistical analysis in sports-particularly Baseball- has made it increasingly necessary for small and mid-market teams to find ways to maintain their analytical advantages over large market clubs. In baseball, an opportunity for exists for teams with limited financial resources to sign players under team control to long-term contracts before other teams can bid for their services in free agency. If small and mid-market clubs can successfully identify talented players early, clubs can save money, achieve cost certainty and remain competitive for longer periods of time. These deals are also advantageous to players since they receive job security and greater financial dividends earlier in their career. The objective of this paper is to develop a regression-based predictive model that teams can use to forecast the performance of young baseball players with limited Major League experience. There were several tasks conducted to achieve this goal: (1) Data was obtained from Major League Baseball and Lahman's Baseball Database and sorted using Excel macros for easier analysis. (2) Players were separated into three positional groups depending on similar fielding requirements and offensive profiles: Group I was comprised of first and third basemen, Group II contains second basemen, shortstops, and center fielders and Group III contains left and right fielders. (3) Based on the context of baseball and the nature of offensive performance metrics, only players who achieve greater than 200 plate appearances within the first two years of their major league debut are included in this analysis. (4) The statistical software package JMP was used to create regression models of each group and analyze the residuals for any irregularities or normality violations. Once the models were developed, slight adjustments were made to improve the accuracy of the forecasts and identify opportunities for future work. It was discovered that Group I and Group III were the easiest player groupings to forecast while Group II required several attempts to improve the model.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

137790-Thumbnail Image.png

Intercultural Negotiation and Risk Mitigation

Description

In an increasingly global economy, companies face challenges with implementing successful business and marketing strategies in cultures different from their own. This paper calls upon previous research to compile a

In an increasingly global economy, companies face challenges with implementing successful business and marketing strategies in cultures different from their own. This paper calls upon previous research to compile a per-country outline of general behaviors and expectations when doing business overseas. Using categorical definitions from Hofstede's 1984 study and those found in the Handbook of Global and Multicultural Negotiation, a table has been prepared to group similar countries based on their cultural biases.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

137487-Thumbnail Image.png

Intervention Strategies for the DoD Acquisition Process Using Simulation

Description

The current Enterprise Requirements and Acquisition Model (ERAM), a discrete event simulation of the major tasks and decisions within the DoD acquisition system, identifies several what-if intervention strategies to improve

The current Enterprise Requirements and Acquisition Model (ERAM), a discrete event simulation of the major tasks and decisions within the DoD acquisition system, identifies several what-if intervention strategies to improve program completion time. However, processes that contribute to the program acquisition completion time were not explicitly identified in the simulation study. This research seeks to determine the acquisition processes that contribute significantly to total simulated program time in the acquisition system for all programs reaching Milestone C. Specifically, this research examines the effect of increased scope management, technology maturity, and decreased variation and mean process times in post-Design Readiness Review contractor activities by performing additional simulation analyses. Potential policies are formulated from the results to further improve program acquisition completion time.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

152768-Thumbnail Image.png

Surgical instrument reprocessing in a hospital setting analyzed with statistical process control and data mining techniques

Description

In a healthcare setting, the Sterile Processing Department (SPD) provides ancillary services to the Operating Room (OR), Emergency Room, Labor & Delivery, and off-site clinics. SPD's function is to reprocess

In a healthcare setting, the Sterile Processing Department (SPD) provides ancillary services to the Operating Room (OR), Emergency Room, Labor & Delivery, and off-site clinics. SPD's function is to reprocess reusable surgical instruments and return them to their home departments. The management of surgical instruments and medical devices can impact patient safety and hospital revenue. Any time instrumentation or devices are not available or are not fit for use, patient safety and revenue can be negatively impacted. One step of the instrument reprocessing cycle is sterilization. Steam sterilization is the sterilization method used for the majority of surgical instruments and is preferred to immediate use steam sterilization (IUSS) because terminally sterilized items can be stored until needed. IUSS Items must be used promptly and cannot be stored for later use. IUSS is intended for emergency situations and not as regular course of action. Unfortunately, IUSS is used to compensate for inadequate inventory levels, scheduling conflicts, and miscommunications. If IUSS is viewed as an adverse event, then monitoring IUSS incidences can help healthcare organizations meet patient safety goals and financial goals along with aiding in process improvement efforts. This work recommends statistical process control methods to IUSS incidents and illustrates the use of control charts for IUSS occurrences through a case study and analysis of the control charts for data from a health care provider. Furthermore, this work considers the application of data mining methods to IUSS occurrences and presents a representative example of data mining to the IUSS occurrences. This extends the application of statistical process control and data mining in healthcare applications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

153346-Thumbnail Image.png

Algorithm and model development for innovative high power AC transmission

Description

This thesis presents research on innovative AC transmission design concepts and focused mathematics for electric power transmission design. The focus relates to compact designs, high temperature low sag conductors, and

This thesis presents research on innovative AC transmission design concepts and focused mathematics for electric power transmission design. The focus relates to compact designs, high temperature low sag conductors, and high phase order design. The motivation of the research is to increase transmission capacity with limited right of way.

Regarding compact phase spacing, insight into the possibility of increasing the security rating of transmission lines is the primary focus through increased mutual coupling and decreased positive sequence reactance. Compact design can reduce the required corridor width to as little as 31% of traditional designs, especially with the use of inter-phase spacers. Typically transmission lines are built with conservative clearances, with difficulty obtaining right of way, more compact phase spacing may be needed. With design consideration significant compaction can produce an increase by 5-25% in the transmission line security (steady state stability) rating. In addition, other advantages and disadvantages of compact phase design are analyzed. Also, the next two topics: high temperature low sag conductors and high phase order designs include the use of compact designs.

High temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors are used to increase the thermal capacity of a transmission line up to two times the capacity compared to traditional conductors. HTLS conductors can operate continuously at 150-210oC and in emergency at 180-250oC (depending on the HTLS conductor). ACSR conductors operate continuously at 50-110oC and in emergency conditions at 110-150oC depending on the utility, line, and location. HTLS conductors have decreased sag characteristics of up to 33% compared to traditional ACSR conductors at 100oC and up to 22% at 180oC. In addition to what HTLS has to offer in terms of the thermal rating improvement, the possibility of using HTLS conductors to indirectly reduce tower height and compact the phases to increase the security limit is investigated. In addition, utilizing HTLS conductors to increase span length and decrease the number of transmission towers is investigated. The phase compaction or increased span length is accomplished by utilization of the improved physical sag characteristics of HTLS conductors.

High phase order (HPO) focuses on the ability to increase the power capacity for a given right of way. For example, a six phase line would have a thermal rating of approximately 173%, a security rating of approximately 289%, and the SIL would be approximately 300% of a double circuit three phase line with equal right of way and equal voltage line to line. In addition, this research focuses on algorithm and model development of HPO systems. A study of the impedance of HPO lines is presented. The line impedance matrices for some high phase order configurations are circulant Toeplitz matrices. Properties of circulant matrices are developed for the generalized sequence impedances of HPO lines. A method to calculate the sequence impedances utilizing unique distance parameter algorithms is presented. A novel method to design the sequence impedances to specifications is presented. Utilizing impedance matrices in circulant form, a generalized form of the sequence components transformation matrix is presented. A generalized voltage unbalance factor in discussed for HPO transmission lines. Algorithms to calculate the number of fault types and number of significant fault types for an n-phase system are presented. A discussion is presented on transposition of HPO transmission lines and a generalized fault analysis of a high phase order circuit is presented along with an HPO analysis program.

The work presented has the objective of increasing the use of rights of way for bulk power transmission through the use of innovative transmission technologies. The purpose of this dissertation is to lay down some of the building blocks and to help make the three technologies discussed practical applications in the future.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

150981-Thumbnail Image.png

Harm during hospitalizations for heart failure: adverse events as a reliability measure of hospital policies and procedures

Description

For more than twenty years, clinical researchers have been publishing data regarding incidence and risk of adverse events (AEs) incurred during hospitalizations. Hospitals have standard operating policies and procedures (SOPP)

For more than twenty years, clinical researchers have been publishing data regarding incidence and risk of adverse events (AEs) incurred during hospitalizations. Hospitals have standard operating policies and procedures (SOPP) to protect patients from AE. The AE specifics (rates, SOPP failures, timing and risk factors) during heart failure (HF) hospitalizations are unknown. There were 1,722 patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of HF from an academic hospital between January 2005 and December 2007. Three hundred eighty-one patients experienced 566 AEs, classified into four categories: medication (43.9%), infection (18.9%), patient care (26.3%), or procedural (10.9%). Three distinct analyses were performed: 1) patient's perspective of SOPP reliability including cumulative distribution and hazard functions of time to AEs; 2) Cox proportional hazards model to determine independent patient-specific risk factors for AEs; and 3) hospital administration's perspective of SOPP reliability through three years of the study including cumulative distribution and hazard functions of time between AEs and moving range statistical process control (SPC) charts for days between failures of each type. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to consider reliability of SOPP from both the patient's and hospital administration's perspective. AE rates in hospitalized patients are similar to other recently published reports and did not improve during the study period. Operations research methodologies will be necessary to improve reliability of care delivered to hospitalized patients.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

151203-Thumbnail Image.png

The development of a validated clinically meaningful endpoint for the evaluation of tear film stability as a measure of ocular surface protection for use in the diagnosis and evaluation of dry eye disease

Description

This dissertation presents methods for the evaluation of ocular surface protection during natural blink function. The evaluation of ocular surface protection is especially important in the diagnosis of dry eye

This dissertation presents methods for the evaluation of ocular surface protection during natural blink function. The evaluation of ocular surface protection is especially important in the diagnosis of dry eye and the evaluation of dry eye severity in clinical trials. Dry eye is a highly prevalent disease affecting vast numbers (between 11% and 22%) of an aging population. There is only one approved therapy with limited efficacy, which results in a huge unmet need. The reason so few drugs have reached approval is a lack of a recognized therapeutic pathway with reproducible endpoints. While the interplay between blink function and ocular surface protection has long been recognized, all currently used evaluation techniques have addressed blink function in isolation from tear film stability, the gold standard of which is Tear Film Break-Up Time (TFBUT). In the first part of this research a manual technique of calculating ocular surface protection during natural blink function through the use of video analysis is developed and evaluated for it's ability to differentiate between dry eye and normal subjects, the results are compared with that of TFBUT. In the second part of this research the technique is improved in precision and automated through the use of video analysis algorithms. This software, called the OPI 2.0 System, is evaluated for accuracy and precision, and comparisons are made between the OPI 2.0 System and other currently recognized dry eye diagnostic techniques (e.g. TFBUT). In the third part of this research the OPI 2.0 System is deployed for use in the evaluation of subjects before, immediately after and 30 minutes after exposure to a controlled adverse environment (CAE), once again the results are compared and contrasted against commonly used dry eye endpoints. The results demonstrate that the evaluation of ocular surface protection using the OPI 2.0 System offers superior accuracy to the current standard, TFBUT.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

151008-Thumbnail Image.png

Adaptive operation decisions for a system of smart buildings

Description

Buildings (approximately half commercial and half residential) consume over 70% of the electricity among all the consumption units in the United States. Buildings are also responsible for approximately 40% of

Buildings (approximately half commercial and half residential) consume over 70% of the electricity among all the consumption units in the United States. Buildings are also responsible for approximately 40% of CO2 emissions, which is more than any other industry sectors. As a result, the initiative smart building which aims to not only manage electrical consumption in an efficient way but also reduce the damaging effect of greenhouse gases on the environment has been launched. Another important technology being promoted by government agencies is the smart grid which manages energy usage across a wide range of buildings in an effort to reduce cost and increase reliability and transparency. As a great amount of efforts have been devoted to these two initiatives by either exploring the smart grid designs or developing technologies for smart buildings, the research studying how the smart buildings and smart grid coordinate thus more efficiently use the energy is currently lacking. In this dissertation, a "system-of-system" approach is employed to develop an integrated building model which consists a number of buildings (building cluster) interacting with smart grid. The buildings can function as both energy consumption unit as well as energy generation/storage unit. Memetic Algorithm (MA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based decision framework are developed for building operation decisions. In addition, Particle Filter (PF) is explored as a mean for fusing online sensor and meter data so adaptive decision could be made in responding to dynamic environment. The dissertation is divided into three inter-connected research components. First, an integrated building energy model including building consumption, storage, generation sub-systems for the building cluster is developed. Then a bi-level Memetic Algorithm (MA) based decentralized decision framework is developed to identify the Pareto optimal operation strategies for the building cluster. The Pareto solutions not only enable multiple dimensional tradeoff analysis, but also provide valuable insight for determining pricing mechanisms and power grid capacity. Secondly, a multi-objective PSO based decision framework is developed to reduce the computational effort of the MA based decision framework without scarifying accuracy. With the improved performance, the decision time scale could be refined to make it capable for hourly operation decisions. Finally, by integrating the multi-objective PSO based decision framework with PF, an adaptive framework is developed for adaptive operation decisions for smart building cluster. The adaptive framework not only enables me to develop a high fidelity decision model but also enables the building cluster to respond to the dynamics and uncertainties inherent in the system.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012