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Exploring genetic associations with ceRNA regulation in the human genome

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Competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) are RNA molecules that sequester shared microRNAs (miRNAs) thereby affecting the expression of other targets of the miRNAs. Whether genetic variants in ceRNA can affect its

Competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) are RNA molecules that sequester shared microRNAs (miRNAs) thereby affecting the expression of other targets of the miRNAs. Whether genetic variants in ceRNA can affect its biological function and disease development is still an open question. Here we identified a large number of genetic variants that are associated with ceRNA's function using Geuvaids RNA-seq data for 462 individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project. We call these loci competing endogenous RNA expression quantitative trait loci or ‘cerQTL’, and found that a large number of them were unexplored in conventional eQTL mapping. We identified many cerQTLs that have undergone recent positive selection in different human populations, and showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms in gene 3΄UTRs at the miRNA seed binding regions can simultaneously regulate gene expression changes in both cis and trans by the ceRNA mechanism. We also discovered that cerQTLs are significantly enriched in traits/diseases associated variants reported from genome-wide association studies in the miRNA binding sites, suggesting that disease susceptibilities could be attributed to ceRNA regulation. Further in vitro functional experiments demonstrated that a cerQTL rs11540855 can regulate ceRNA function. These results provide a comprehensive catalog of functional non-coding regulatory variants that may be responsible for ceRNA crosstalk at the post-transcriptional level.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05-02

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Activation of E-prostanoid 3 receptor in macrophages facilitates cardiac healing after myocardial infarction

Description

Two distinct monocyte (Mo)/macrophage (Mp) subsets (Ly6C[superscript low] and Ly6C[superscript high]) orchestrate cardiac recovery process following myocardial infarction (MI). Prostaglandin (PG) E[subscript 2] is involved in the Mo/Mp-mediated inflammatory response,

Two distinct monocyte (Mo)/macrophage (Mp) subsets (Ly6C[superscript low] and Ly6C[superscript high]) orchestrate cardiac recovery process following myocardial infarction (MI). Prostaglandin (PG) E[subscript 2] is involved in the Mo/Mp-mediated inflammatory response, however, the role of its receptors in Mos/Mps in cardiac healing remains to be determined. Here we show that pharmacological inhibition or gene ablation of the Ep3 receptor in mice suppresses accumulation of Ly6C[superscript low] Mos/Mps in infarcted hearts. Ep3 deletion in Mos/Mps markedly attenuates healing after MI by reducing neovascularization in peri-infarct zones. Ep3 deficiency diminishes CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) expression and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion in Mos/Mps by suppressing TGFβ1 signalling and subsequently inhibits Ly6C[superscript low] Mos/Mps migration and angiogenesis. Targeted overexpression of Ep3 receptors in Mos/Mps improves wound healing by enhancing angiogenesis. Thus, the PGE[subscript 2]/Ep3 axis promotes cardiac healing after MI by activating reparative Ly6C[superscript low] Mos/Mps, indicating that Ep3 receptor activation may be a promising therapeutic target for acute MI.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-03-03