Matching Items (4)

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Parallel Workflow for High-Throughput (>1,000 Samples/Day) Quantitative Analysis of Human Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Using Mass Spectrometric Immunoassay

Description

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is an important biomarker for the management of growth hormone disorders. Recently there has been rising interest in deploying mass spectrometric (MS) methods of detection

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is an important biomarker for the management of growth hormone disorders. Recently there has been rising interest in deploying mass spectrometric (MS) methods of detection for measuring IGF1. However, widespread clinical adoption of any MS-based IGF1 assay will require increased throughput and speed to justify the costs of analyses, and robust industrial platforms that are reproducible across laboratories. Presented here is an MS-based quantitative IGF1 assay with performance rating of >1,000 samples/day, and a capability of quantifying IGF1 point mutations and posttranslational modifications. The throughput of the IGF1 mass spectrometric immunoassay (MSIA) benefited from a simplified sample preparation step, IGF1 immunocapture in a tip format, and high-throughput MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantification of the resulting assay were 1.5 μg/L and 5 μg/L, respectively, with intra- and inter-assay precision CVs of less than 10%, and good linearity and recovery characteristics. The IGF1 MSIA was benchmarked against commercially available IGF1 ELISA via Bland-Altman method comparison test, resulting in a slight positive bias of 16%. The IGF1 MSIA was employed in an optimized parallel workflow utilizing two pipetting robots and MALDI-TOF-MS instruments synced into one-hour phases of sample preparation, extraction and MSIA pipette tip elution, MS data collection, and data processing. Using this workflow, high-throughput IGF1 quantification of 1,054 human samples was achieved in approximately 9 hours. This rate of assaying is a significant improvement over existing MS-based IGF1 assays, and is on par with that of the enzyme-based immunoassays. Furthermore, a mutation was detected in ∼1% of the samples (SNP: rs17884626, creating an A→T substitution at position 67 of the IGF1), demonstrating the capability of IGF1 MSIA to detect point mutations and posttranslational modifications.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-03-24

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The Simian Barrier Dilemma: Improving Gene Vaccines for the Future

Description

Since its inception in the early 1990s, the concept of gene vaccines, particularly DNA vaccines, has enticed researchers across the board due to its simple design, flexible modification, and overall

Since its inception in the early 1990s, the concept of gene vaccines, particularly DNA vaccines, has enticed researchers across the board due to its simple design, flexible modification, and overall inexpensive cost of manufacturing. However, the past three decades have proven to be less fruitful than anticipated as scientists have yet to tackle the issue of inducing a strong enough response in humans and non-human primates to protect against foreign pathogens, an issue that has since been coined as the “simian barrier.” This appears to be a human/primate barrier as protective vaccines have been produced for other mammals. Despite millions of dollars in research along with some of the world’s brightest minds chipping in to resolve this, there has yet to be any truly viable solution to overcoming this barrier. With current research illustrating effective applications of RNA vaccines in humans, these studies may be uncovering the solution to the largely unsolved simian barrier dilemma. If vaccines using RNA, the transcribed version of DNA, are effective in humans, the problem may be inefficient transcription of the DNA. This may be attributable to a DNA promoter that has insufficient activity in primates. Additionally, with DNA vaccines being even cheaper and easier to manufacture than RNA vaccines, along with having no required cold chain for distribution, this concept remains more promising than RNA vaccines that are further along in clinical trials.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

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A General Method to Discover Epitopes from Sera

Description

Antigen-antibody complexes are central players in an effective immune response. However, finding those interactions relevant to a particular disease state can be arduous. Nonetheless many paths to discovery have been

Antigen-antibody complexes are central players in an effective immune response. However, finding those interactions relevant to a particular disease state can be arduous. Nonetheless many paths to discovery have been explored since deciphering these interactions can greatly facilitate the development of new diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. In silico B cell epitope mapping approaches have been widely pursued, though success has not been consistent. Antibody mixtures in immune sera have been used as handles for biologically relevant antigens, but these and other experimental approaches have proven resource intensive and time consuming. In addition, these methods are often tailored to individual diseases or a specific proteome, rather than providing a universal platform. Most of these methods are not able to identify the specific antibody’s epitopes from unknown antigens, such as un-annotated neo antigens in cancer. Alternatively, a peptide library comprised of sequences unrestricted by naturally-found protein space provides for a universal search for mimotopes of an antibody’s epitope. Here we present the utility of such a non-natural random sequence library of 10,000 peptides physically addressed on a microarray for mimotope discovery without sequence information of the specific antigen. The peptide arrays were probed with serum from an antigen-immunized rabbit, or alternatively probed with serum pre-absorbed with the same immunizing antigen. With this positive and negative screening scheme, we identified the library-peptides as the mimotopes of the antigen. The unique library peptides were successfully used to isolate antigen-specific antibodies from complete immune serum. Sequence analysis of these peptides revealed the epitopes in the immunized antigen. We present this method as an inexpensive, efficient method for identifying mimotopes of any antibody’s targets. These mimotopes should be useful in defining both components of the antigen-antibody complex.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-06-14

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Investigation of tumor frame shift antigens for prophylactic cancer vaccine, cancer detection and tumorigenicity

Description

Cancer is one of the most serious global diseases. We have focused on cancer immunoprevention. My thesis projects include developing a prophylactic primary and metastatic cancer vaccines, early cancer detection

Cancer is one of the most serious global diseases. We have focused on cancer immunoprevention. My thesis projects include developing a prophylactic primary and metastatic cancer vaccines, early cancer detection and investigation of genes involved in tumor development. These studies were focused on frame-shift (FS) antigens. The FS antigens are generated by genomic mutations or abnormal RNA processing, which cause a portion of a normal protein to be translated out of frame. The concept of the prophylactic cancer vaccine is to develop a general cancer vaccine that could prevent healthy people from developing different types of cancer. We have discovered a set of cancer specific FS antigens. One of the FS candidates, structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 1A (SMC1A) FS, could start to accumulate at early stages of tumor and be specifically exposed to the immune system by tumor cells. Prophylactic immunization with SMC1A-FS could significantly inhibit primary tumor development in different murine tumor models and also has the potential to inhibit tumor metastasis. The SMC1A-FS transcript was detected in the plasma of the 4T1/BALB/c mouse tumor model. The tumor size was correlated with the transcript ratio of the SMC1A-FS verses the WT in plasma, which could be measured by regular RT-PCR. This unique cancer biomarker has a practical potential for a large population cancer screen, as well as clinical tumor monitoring. With a set of mimotope peptides, antibodies against SMC1A-FS peptide were detected in different cancer patients, including breast cancer, pancreas cancer and lung cancer with a 53.8%, 56.5% and 12.5% positive rate respectively. This suggested that the FS antibody could be a biomarker for early cancer detection. The characterization of SMC1A suggested that: First, the deficiency of the SMC1A is common in different tumors and able to promote tumor initiation and development; second, the FS truncated protein may have nucleolus function in normal cells. Mis-control of this protein may promote tumor development. In summary, we developed a systematic general cancer prevention strategy through the variety immunological and molecular methods. The results gathered suggest the SMC1A-FS may be useful for the detection and prevention of cancer.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012