The Effects of Antiseptic Mouthwash Use and Sodium Intake on Systemic Blood Pressure Regulation and Salivary Nitrate Levels: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial
Background. Despite extensive research in the literature aimed at understanding the role of hypertension as a major risk factor for numerous leading causes of death in the United
States, rates of this disease continue to rise. Recent findings suggest that antiseptic mouthwash use may increase blood pressure through elimination of oral bacteria that facilitate the enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway.
Objective. The purpose of this randomized, controlled, crossover trial was to examine the effects of antiseptic mouthwash use and sodium intake on blood pressure and salivary nitrate levels in prehypertensive adults.
Methods. Healthy adults (n=10; 47.3±12.5) with mildly elevated blood pressure (average baseline blood pressure of 114.9/75.2 mmHg) were recruited and were randomly assigned to a control condition, antiseptic mouthwash use, or antiseptic mouthwash use + consumption of three pickles per day (~6000 mg/day of sodium) for a total of 7 days. Given the crossover design of this study, participants adhered to a 1-week washout period between each condition and all participants received all three treatments. Findings were considered significant at a p-value of <0.05 and a repeated measures ANOVA test was used to compare change data of each condition.
Results. Changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were not statistically significant (p=0.469 and p=0.859, respectively). Changes in salivary nitrite levels were not statistically significant (p=0.493). Although there appeared to be fluctuations in sodium intake between interventions, differences in sodium intake were not statistically significant when pickles were not accounted for (p=0.057).
Conclusion. Antiseptic mouthwash use did not appear to induce significant changes in systolic or diastolic blood pressure in this population.