Matching Items (3)

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Dyrk1 inhibition improves Alzheimer's disease-like pathology

Description

There is an urgent need for the development of new therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase-1A (Dyrk1a) is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the amyloid

There is an urgent need for the development of new therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase-1A (Dyrk1a) is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and tau and thus represents a link between two key proteins involved in AD pathogenesis. Furthermore, Dyrk1a is upregulated in postmortem human brains, and high levels of Dyrk1a are associated with mental retardation. Here, we sought to determine the effects of Dyrk1 inhibition on AD-like pathology developed by 3xTg-AD mice, a widely used animal model of AD. We dosed 10-month-old 3xTg-AD and nontransgenic (NonTg) mice with a Dyrk1 inhibitor (Dyrk1-inh) or vehicle for eight weeks. During the last three weeks of treatment, we tested the mice in a battery of behavioral tests. The brains were then analyzed for the pathological markers of AD. We found that chronic Dyrk1 inhibition reversed cognitive deficits in 3xTg-AD mice. These effects were associated with a reduction in amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau pathology. Mechanistically, Dyrk1 inhibition reduced APP and insoluble tau phosphorylation. The reduction in APP phosphorylation increased its turnover and decreased Aβ levels. These results suggest that targeting Dyrk1 could represent a new viable therapeutic approach for AD.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-06-19

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Identification of learning-induced changes in protein networks in the hippocampi of a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

Description

Memory loss is the most profound clinical manifestation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD); however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits are poorly understood. Identification of the molecular pathways involved in the

Memory loss is the most profound clinical manifestation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD); however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits are poorly understood. Identification of the molecular pathways involved in the onset of cognitive deficits may lead to the identification of key events in the pathogenesis of AD. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and proteomic methods, here we identified learning-induced changes in the hippocampal proteome of non-transgenic (NonTg) and 3 × Tg-AD mice, a widely used animal model of AD. We found that expression of 192 proteins was differentially regulated by learning in NonTg mice. Notably, of these 192 proteins, only 28 were also differentially regulated by learning in 3 × Tg-AD mice, whereas the levels of 164 proteins were uniquely changed in NonTg mice but not in 3 × Tg-AD mice. These data suggest that during learning, 3 × Tg-AD mice fail to differentially regulate 164 proteins. Gene ontology and protein interaction analyses indicated that these proteins were overrepresented in RNA processing, specifically RNA transport, splicing and mRNA translation initiation pathways. These findings suggest that mRNA-processing events that take place during learning and memory are significantly altered in 3 × Tg-AD mice.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-07-05

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Pim1 inhibition as a novel therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer’s disease

Description

Background
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. Clinically, AD is characterized by impairments of memory and cognitive functions. Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles are

Background
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. Clinically, AD is characterized by impairments of memory and cognitive functions. Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles are the prominent neuropathologies in patients with AD. Strong evidence indicates that an imbalance between production and degradation of key proteins contributes to the pathogenesis of AD. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a key role in maintaining protein homeostasis as it regulates both protein synthesis and degradation. A key regulator of mTOR activity is the proline-rich AKT substrate 40 kDa (PRAS40), which directly binds to mTOR and reduces its activity. Notably, AD patients have elevated levels of phosphorylated PRAS40, which correlate with Aβ and tau pathologies as well as cognitive deficits. Physiologically, PRAS40 phosphorylation is regulated by Pim1, a protein kinase of the protoconcogene family. Here, we tested the effects of a selective Pim1 inhibitor (Pim1i), on spatial reference and working memory and AD-like pathology in 3xTg-AD mice.
Results
We have identified a Pim1i that crosses the blood brain barrier and reduces PRAS40 phosphorylation. Pim1i-treated 3xTg-AD mice performed significantly better than their vehicle treated counterparts as well as non-transgenic mice. Additionally, 3xTg-AD Pim1i-treated mice showed a reduction in soluble and insoluble Aβ[subscript 40] and Aβ[subscript 42] levels, as well as a 45.2 % reduction in Aβ[subscript 42] plaques within the hippocampus. Furthermore, phosphorylated tau immunoreactivity was reduced in the hippocampus of Pim1i–treated 3xTg-AD mice by 38 %. Mechanistically, these changes were linked to a significant increase in proteasome activity.
Conclusion
These results suggest that reductions in phosphorylated PRAS40 levels via Pim1 inhibition reduce Aβ and Tau pathology and rescue cognitive deficits by increasing proteasome function. Given that Pim1 inhibitors are already being tested in ongoing human clinical trials for cancer, the results presented here may open a new venue of drug discovery for AD by developing more Pim1 inhibitors.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-07-02