Matching Items (8)

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Relationship between resting energy expenditure and sleep parameters on gestational weight gain and the mediation effect of macronutrient composition

Description

No studies have evaluated the impact of tracking resting energy expenditure (REE) and modifiable health behaviors on gestational weight gain (GWG). In this controlled trial, pregnant women aged >18 years

No studies have evaluated the impact of tracking resting energy expenditure (REE) and modifiable health behaviors on gestational weight gain (GWG). In this controlled trial, pregnant women aged >18 years (X=29.8±4.9 years) with a gestational age (GA) <17 weeks were randomized to Breezing™ (N=16) or control (N=12) for 13 weeks. The Breezing™ group used a real-time metabolism tracker to obtain REE. Anthropometrics, diet, and sleep data were collected every 2 weeks. Rate of GWG was calculated as weight gain divided by total duration. Early (GA weeks 14-21), late (GA weeks 21-28), and overall (GA week 14-28) changes in macronutrients, sleep, and GWG were calculated. Mediation models were constructed using SPSS PROCESS macro using a bootstrap estimation approach with 10,000 samples. The majority of women were non-Hispanic Caucasian (78.6%). A total of 35.7% (n=10), 35.7% (n=10), and 28.6% (n=8) were normal weight, overweight, and obese, respectively, with 83.3% (n=10) and 87.5% (n=14) of the Control and Breezing™ groups gaining above IOM GWG recommendations. At baseline, macronutrient consumption did not differ. Overall (Breezing™ vs. Control; M diff=-349.08±150.77, 95% CI: -660.26 to -37.90, p=0.029) and late (M diff=-379.90±143.89, 95% CI:-676.87 to -82.93, p=0.014) changes in energy consumption significantly differed between the groups. Overall (M diff=-22.45±11.03, 95% CI: -45.20 to 0.31, p=0.053), late (M diff=-23.16±11.23, 95% CI: -46.33 to 0.01, p=0.05), and early (M diff=20.3±10.19, 95% CI: -0.74 to 41.34, p=0.058) changes in protein differed by group. Nocturnal total sleep time differed by study group (Breezing vs. Control; M diff=-32.75, 95% CI: -68.34 to 2.84, p=0.069). There was a 11.5% increase in total REE throughout the study. Early changes in REE (72±211 kcals) were relatively small while late changes (128±294 kcals) nearly doubled. Interestingly, early changes in REE demonstrated a moderate, positive correlation with rates of GWG later in pregnancy (r=0.528, p=0.052), suggesting that REE assessment early in pregnancy may help predict changes in GWG. Changes in macronutrients did not mediate the relationship between the intervention and GWG, nor did sleep mediate relationships between dietary intake and GWG. Future research evaluating REE and dietary composition throughout pregnancy may provide insight for appropriate GWG recommendations.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Assessing cardiovascular disease risk factors among overweight and obese Mexican-American adults

Description

Mexican Americans have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). The association of hyperglycemia with traditional CVD risk factors in this population has been established,

Mexican Americans have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). The association of hyperglycemia with traditional CVD risk factors in this population has been established, but there is limited data regarding other non-traditional CVD risk factors. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate CVD risk among Mexican Americans by measuring concentrations of lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and cholesterol in low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions. Eighty overweight/obese Mexican-American adults participating in the Maricopa Insulin Resistance Initiative were randomly selected from each of the following four groups (n = 20 per group): nomolipidemic
ormoglycemic controls (NC), dyslipidemic
ormoglycemic (DN), dyslipidemic/prediabetic (DPD) and dyslipidemic/diabetic (DD). Total cholesterol (TC) was 30% higher among DD than in NC participants (p<0.0001). The DPD group had 27% and 12% higher LDL-C concentrations than the NC and DN groups, respectively. Similarly, LDL-C was 29% and 13% higher in DD than in NC and DN participants (p=0.013). An increasing trend was observed in %10-year CVD risk with increasing degree of hyperglycemia (p<0.0001). The NC group had less cholesterol in sdLDL particles than dyslipidemic groups, regardless of glycemic status (p<0.0001). When hyperglycemia was part of the phenotype (DPD and DD), there was a greater proportion of total and HDL-C in sHDL particles in dyslipidemic individuals than in NC (p=0.023; p<0.0001; respectively). Percent 10-year CVD risk was positively correlated with triglyceride (TG) (r=0.384, p<0.0001), TC (r=0.340, p<0.05), cholesterol in sdLDL(r=0.247; p<0.05), and TC to HDL-C ratio (r=0.404, p<0.0001), and negatively correlated with HDL-C in intermediate and large HDL(r=-0.38, p=0.001; r=0.34, p=0.002, respectively). The TC/HDL-C was positively correlated with cholesterol in sdLDL particles (r=0.698, p<0.0001) and HDL-C in sHDL particles (r=0.602, p<0.0001), and negatively correlated with cholesterol in small (r=-0.35, p=0.002), intermediate (r=-0.91, p<0.0001) and large (r=-0.84, p<0.0001) HDL particles, and HDL-C in the large HDL particles (r=-0.562, p<0.0001). No significant association was found between %10-year CVD risk and hsCRP. Collectively, these results corroborate that dyslipidemic Mexican-American adults have higher CVD risk than normolipidemic individuals. Hyperglycemia may further affect CVD risk by modulating cholesterol in LDL and HDL subfractions.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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An Examination of Socioecological Factors that Influence Preschool-aged Children's Cardiovascular Fitness and Gross Locomotor Skills within their Developmental Pathway

Description

Through three investigations, this dissertation examined properties of the family and early care and education center (ECEC) environments related to preschool-aged children’s cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and gross locomotor skills (GLS).

Through three investigations, this dissertation examined properties of the family and early care and education center (ECEC) environments related to preschool-aged children’s cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and gross locomotor skills (GLS). Investigation one used a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize the effectiveness of school-based interventions at improving CVF, in preschool-aged children. For investigations two and three product- and process-based measures of GLS were collected from children in ECECs (n=16), using the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER; n=144) and the CHAMPS motor skill protocol (CMSP; n=91), respectively. Investigation two and three examined family factors and ECEC factors for associations with measures of GLS, respectively.

Investigation one revealed a moderate-to-large effect size for school-based interventions (n=10) increasing CVF (g=0.75; 95%CI [0.40-1.11]). Multi-level interventions (g=.79 [0.34-1.25]) were more effective than interventions focused on the individual (g=0.67 [0.12-1.22]). In investigations two and three children (78.3% Hispanic; mean ± SD age 53.2±4.5 months) completed a mean ± SD 3.7±2.3 PACER laps and 19.0±5.5 CSMP criteria. Individual and family factors associated with PACER laps included child sex (B=-0.96, p=0.03) and age (B=0.17, p<0.01), parents’ promotion of inactivity (B=0.66, p=0.08) and screen time (B=0.65, p=0.05), and parents’ concern for child’s safety during physical activity (B=-0.36, p=0.09). Child age (B=0.47, p<0.01) and parent employment (B=2.29, p=0.07) were associated with CMSP criteria. At the ECEC level, policy environment quality (B=-0.17; p=0.01) was significantly associated with number of PACER laps completed. Outdoor play environment quality (B=0.18; p=0.03), outdoor play equipment total (B=0.32; p<0.01) and screen time environment quality (B=0.60; p=0.02) were significantly associated with CMSP criteria. Researchers, ECEC teachers and policy makers should promote positive environmental changes to preschool-aged children’s family and ECEC environments, as these environments have the potential to improve CVF and GLS more than programs focused on the child alone.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Novel biomarkers and genetic variants for type 2 diabetes in Latinos

Description

The shape of glucose response and one hour (1-hr) glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) are emerging biomarkers for type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was

The shape of glucose response and one hour (1-hr) glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) are emerging biomarkers for type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to investigate the utility of these novel biomakers to differentiate type 2 diabetes risk in Latino youth, and (2) to examine the genetic determinants in a Latino population.

Data from the ASU Arizona Insulin Registry (AIR) registry and the USC Study of Latino Adolescents at Risk for diabetes project were used to test the cross-sectional and prospective utility of novel biomarkers to identify youth at risk for type 2 diabetes. Pediatric and adult data from the ASU AIR registry were assessed to examine the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with type 2 diabetes risk. Three KCNQ1 SNPs (rs151290; rs2237892; rs2237895) were examined as novel genetic variants for type 2 diabetes in Latinos.

Latino youth with a biphasic response in the AIR registry exhibited significantly better β-cell function (P < 0.05) compared to youth with a monophasic response. Additionally, Latino youth with a 1-hr glucose ≥155 mg/dL exhibited a significantly greater decline in β-cell function over 8 years compared with the <155 mg/dL group (β=-327.8±126.2, P = 0.01). Moreover, a 1-hr glucose ≥155 mg/dL was associated with a 2.5 times greater risk for developing prediabetes over time (P = 0.0001). 1-hr glucose was the most powerful predictor of prediabetes (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.73) when compared to the traditional biomarkers including HbA1c (0.58), fasting (0.67), and 2-hr glucose (0.64). Two KCNQ1 SNPs (rs151290 and rs2237892) exhibited significant associations with type 2 diabetes risk factors. For the novel glycemic markers, 15 SNPs were associated with the glucose response curve, while 18 SNPs were associated with 1-hr glucose.

These data suggest that glucose response curve and 1-hr glucose during an OGTT independently differentiate type 2 diabetes risk among Latino youth. Furthermore, it was successful to replicate the association of type 2 diabetes risk with 2 KCNQ1 SNPs in a Latino population. Data suggest that novel glycemic biomarkers are influenced by genetic background in this high-risk population.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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The effect of high-intensity interval exercise on postprandial endothelial function in youth

Description

In adults, consuming a high-fat meal can induce endothelial dysfunction while exercise may mitigate postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Whether exercise is protective against postprandial endothelial dysfunction in obese youth is unknown.

In adults, consuming a high-fat meal can induce endothelial dysfunction while exercise may mitigate postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Whether exercise is protective against postprandial endothelial dysfunction in obese youth is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) performed the evening prior to a high-fat meal protects against postprandial endothelial dysfunction in obese adolescent males. Fourteen obese adolescent males (BMI%tile=98.5±0.6; 14.3±1.0yrs) completed the study. After initial screening, participants arrived, fasted at 9:00 in the morning where brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured using duplex ultrasound after 20min of supine rest (7.0±3.0%) and completed a maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer (VO2peak=2.6±0.5 L/min). Participants were randomized and completed 2 conditions: a morning high-fat meal challenge with evening prior HIIE (EX+M) or a morning high-fat meal challenge without prior exercise (MO). The EX+M condition included a single HIIE session on a cycle ergometer (8 X 2min at ≥90%HRmax, with 2min active recovery between bouts, 42min total) which was performed at 17:00 the evening prior to the meal challenge. In both conditions, a mixed-meal was tailored to participants body weight consisting of 0.7g of fat/kg of body weight consumed (889±95kcal; 65% Fat, 30% CHO). FMD was measured at fasting (>10hrs) and subsequently measured at 2hr and 4hr after high-fat meal consumption. Exercise did not improve fasting FMD (7.5±3.0 vs. 7.4±2.8%, P=0.927; EX+M and MO, respectively). Despite consuming a high-fat meal, FMD was not reduced at 2hr (8.4±3.4 vs. 7.6±3.9%; EX+M and MO, respectively) or 4hr (8.8±3.9 vs. 8.6±4.0%; EX+M and MO, respectively) in either condition and no differences were observed between condition (p(condition*time)=0.928). These observations remained after adjusting for baseline artery diameter and shear rate. We observed that HIIE, the evening prior, had no effect on fasting or postprandial endothelial function when compared with a meal only condition. Future research should examine whether exercise training may be able to improve postprandial endothelial function rather than a single acute bout in obese youth.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Effect of a lifestyle and Type 2 diabetes-prevention intervention on biomarkers of oxidative stress in obese prediabetic Latino youth

Description

Background. Effects of lifestyle interventions on early biomarkers of oxidative stress and CVD risk in youth with prediabetes are unknown. Objective. To evaluate the effects of a lifestyle intervention to

Background. Effects of lifestyle interventions on early biomarkers of oxidative stress and CVD risk in youth with prediabetes are unknown. Objective. To evaluate the effects of a lifestyle intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes among obese prediabetic Latino adolescents on oxidized lipoproteins. Design: In a quasi-experimental design, 35 adolescents (51.4% male, age 15.5(1.0) y, body mass index (BMI) percentile 98.5(1.2), and glucose 2 hours after an oral glucose tolerance test-OGTT 141.2(12.2) mg/dL) participated in a 12-week intervention that included weekly exercise (three 60 min-sessions) and nutrition education (one 60 min-session). Outcomes measured at baseline and post-intervention were: fasting oxidized LDL and oxidized HDL (oxLDL and oxHDL) as oxidative stress variables; dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetable (F&V) and fitness (VO2max) as behavioral variables; weight, BMI, body fat, and waist circumference as anthropometric variables; fasting glucose and insulin, 2hour glucose and insulin after an OGTT, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipid panel (triglycerides, total cholesterol, VLDL-c, LDL-c, HDL-c, and Non-HDL) as cardiometabolic variables. Results. Comparing baseline to post-intervention, significant decreases in oxLDL concentration were shown (51.0(14.0) and 48.7(12.8) U/L, p=0.022); however, the intervention did not decrease oxHDL (395.2(94.6) and 416.1(98.4) ng/mL, p=0.944). F&V dietary intake (116.4(97.0) and 165.8(91.0) g/d, p=0.025) and VO2max (29.7(5.0) and 31.6(4.7) ml*kg-1*min-1, p<0.001) significantly increased. Within-subjects correlations between changes in F&V intake and oxidized lipoproteins, adjusted for VO2max changes, were non-significant (R=-0.15, p=0.52 for oxLDL; R=0.22, p=0.25 for oxHDL). Anthropometric variables were significantly reduced (weight -1.3% p=0.042; BMI -2.2% and BMI percentile -0.4%, p=0.001; body fat -6.6% and waist circumference -1.8%, p=0.025). Cardiometabolic variables significantly improved, including reductions in glucose 2hour (-19.3% p<0.001), fasting insulin (-12.9% p=0.008), insulin 2hour (-53.5% p<0.001), and HOMA-IR (-12.5% p=0.015), with 23 participants (66%) that reverted toward a normal glucose tolerance status. Most lipid panel significantly changed (triglycerides -10.2% p=0.032; total cholesterol -5.4% p=0.002; VLDL-c -10.4% p=0.029; HDL-c -3.2% p=0.022; and Non-HDL -5.5% p=0.0007). Conclusion. The intervention resulted in differential effects on oxidized lipoproteins and significant improvements in behavioral, anthropometric and cardiometabolic variables, reducing the high metabolic risk of obese prediabetic kids.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Effects of postmeal walking on postprandial glucose control and oxidative stress

Description

Background: Postprandial hyperglycemia can increase levels of oxidative stress and is an independent risk factor for complications associated with type 2 diabetes.

Purpose: To evaluate the acute effects of a 15-min

Background: Postprandial hyperglycemia can increase levels of oxidative stress and is an independent risk factor for complications associated with type 2 diabetes.

Purpose: To evaluate the acute effects of a 15-min postmeal walk on glucose control and markers of oxidative stress following a high-carbohydrate meal.

Methods: Ten obese subjects (55.0 ± 10.0 yrs) with impaired fasting glucose (107.1 ± 9.0 mg/dL) participated in this repeated measures trial. Subjects arrived at the laboratory following an overnight fast and underwent one of three conditions: 1) Test meal with no walking or fiber (CON), 2) Test meal with 10g fiber and no walking (FIB), 3) Test meal with no fiber followed by a 15-min treadmill walk at preferred walking speed (WALK). Blood samples were taken over four hours and assayed for glucose, insulin, thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), catalase, uric acid, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare mean differences for all outcome variables.

Results: The 2hr and 4hr incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for glucose was lower in both FIB (2hr: -93.59 mmol∙120 min∙L-1, p = 0.006; 4hr: -92.59 mmol∙240 min∙L-1; p = 0.041) and WALK (2hr: -77.21 mmol∙120 min∙L-1, p = 0.002; 4hr: -102.94 mmol∙240 min∙L-1; p = 0.005) conditions respectively, compared with CON. There were no differences in 2hr or 4hr iAUC for glucose between FIB and WALK (2hr: p = 0.493; 4hr: p = 0.783). The 2hr iAUC for insulin was significantly lower in both FIB (-37.15 μU ∙h/mL; p = 0.021) and WALK (-66.35 μU ∙h/mL; p < 0.001) conditions, compared with CON, and was significantly lower in the WALK (-29.2 μU ∙h/mL; p = 0.049) condition, compared with FIB. The 4hr iAUC for insulin in the WALK condition was significantly lower than both CON (-104.51 μU ∙h/mL; p = 0.001) and FIB (-77.12 μU ∙h/mL; p = 0.006) conditions. Markers of oxidative stress were not significantly different between conditions.

Conclusion: A moderate 15-minute postmeal walk is an effective strategy to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia. However, it is unclear if this attenuation could lead to improvements in postprandial oxidative stress.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Non-biological factors contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in Mexican-Americans living in metropolitan Phoenix

Description

Among the general US population, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of mortality for Mexican-Americans. CVD is less prevalent among Mexican-Americans than non-Hispanic Whites or African Americans. However,

Among the general US population, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of mortality for Mexican-Americans. CVD is less prevalent among Mexican-Americans than non-Hispanic Whites or African Americans. However, there is limited research regarding the factors associated with increased CVD risk among Mexican-Americans. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the effects of non-biological factors (income, education, employment, acculturation) and diet on CVD risk factors in 75 Mexican-American adults (26 males, 49 females; age=37.6±9.3 y, BMI=28.9±5.3 kg/m2, systolic BP=117±11 mmHg, diastolic BP=73±9 mmHg, LDL cholesterol=114±32 mg/dL, HDL cholesterol=44±11 mg/dL, triglycerides=115±61 mg/dL, serum glucose=92±7 mg/dL). Aside from collecting anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and measuring fasting blood lipids, glucose, and insulin, information about participants' socioeconomic status, income, employment, education, and acculturation were gathered using a survey. Diet data was collected using the Southwestern Food Frequency Questionnaire. Weight, BMI, and waist circumference were significantly greater for those with a monthly income of <$3000 than for those earning >$3000 (81±15 kg vs. 71±15 kg; 29.8±4.6 kg/m2 vs. 26.5±5.1 kg/m2; 98±12 cm vs. 89±14 cm; respectively) and with an education level of high school graduate or less than for those with some college (84±16 kg vs. 72±14 kg; 30.6±4.2 kg/m2 vs. 26.9±4.9 kg/m2; 100±11 cm vs. 91±13 cm; respectively). HDL-C was higher for those with a monthly income of >$3000 than those earning <$3000 (49±12 mg/dL vs. 41±10 mg/dL), those with some college education than those with high school or less (47±10 mg/dL vs. 37±9 mg/dL), and for those employed than those not employed (46±10 mg/dL vs. 40±12 mg/dL). There was no association between acculturation and CVD risk factors. Percent of energy consumed from fat was greater and percent of energy from carbohydrates was lower in those earning <$3000 monthly than those earning >$3000 (32±5% vs. 29±3%; 52±8% vs. 56±4%; respectively). Greater acculturation to the Anglo culture was negatively correlated with body fat percentage (r=-0.238, p=0.043) and serum glucose (r=-0.265, p=0.024). Overall, these results suggest that factors related to sociocultural and socioeconomic status may affect cardiometabolic disease risk in Mexican-Americans living in the Phoenix metropolitan area.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011