Matching Items (2)

129328-Thumbnail Image.png

Within and cross-corpus speech emotion recognition using latent topic model-based features

Description

Owing to the suprasegmental behavior of emotional speech, turn-level features have demonstrated a better success than frame-level features for recognition-related tasks. Conventionally, such features are obtained via a brute-force collection

Owing to the suprasegmental behavior of emotional speech, turn-level features have demonstrated a better success than frame-level features for recognition-related tasks. Conventionally, such features are obtained via a brute-force collection of statistics over frames, thereby losing important local information in the process which affects the performance. To overcome these limitations, a novel feature extraction approach using latent topic models (LTMs) is presented in this study. Speech is assumed to comprise of a mixture of emotion-specific topics, where the latter capture emotionally salient information from the co-occurrences of frame-level acoustic features and yield better descriptors. Specifically, a supervised replicated softmax model (sRSM), based on restricted Boltzmann machines and distributed representations, is proposed to learn naturally discriminative topics. The proposed features are evaluated for the recognition of categorical or continuous emotional attributes via within and cross-corpus experiments conducted over acted and spontaneous expressions. In a within-corpus scenario, sRSM outperforms competing LTMs, while obtaining a significant improvement of 16.75% over popular statistics-based turn-level features for valence-based classification, which is considered to be a difficult task using only speech. Further analyses with respect to the turn duration show that the improvement is even more significant, 35%, on longer turns (>6 s), which is highly desirable for current turn-based practices. In a cross-corpus scenario, two novel adaptation-based approaches, instance selection, and weight regularization are proposed to reduce the inherent bias due to varying annotation procedures and cultural perceptions across databases. Experimental results indicate a natural, yet less severe, deterioration in performance - only 2.6% and 2.7%, thereby highlighting the generalization ability of the proposed features.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-01-25

153488-Thumbnail Image.png

Context recognition methods using audio signals for human-machine interaction

Description

Audio signals, such as speech and ambient sounds convey rich information pertaining to a user’s activity, mood or intent. Enabling machines to understand this contextual information is necessary to bridge

Audio signals, such as speech and ambient sounds convey rich information pertaining to a user’s activity, mood or intent. Enabling machines to understand this contextual information is necessary to bridge the gap in human-machine interaction. This is challenging due to its subjective nature, hence, requiring sophisticated techniques. This dissertation presents a set of computational methods, that generalize well across different conditions, for speech-based applications involving emotion recognition and keyword detection, and ambient sounds-based applications such as lifelogging.

The expression and perception of emotions varies across speakers and cultures, thus, determining features and classification methods that generalize well to different conditions is strongly desired. A latent topic models-based method is proposed to learn supra-segmental features from low-level acoustic descriptors. The derived features outperform state-of-the-art approaches over multiple databases. Cross-corpus studies are conducted to determine the ability of these features to generalize well across different databases. The proposed method is also applied to derive features from facial expressions; a multi-modal fusion overcomes the deficiencies of a speech only approach and further improves the recognition performance.

Besides affecting the acoustic properties of speech, emotions have a strong influence over speech articulation kinematics. A learning approach, which constrains a classifier trained over acoustic descriptors, to also model articulatory data is proposed here. This method requires articulatory information only during the training stage, thus overcoming the challenges inherent to large-scale data collection, while simultaneously exploiting the correlations between articulation kinematics and acoustic descriptors to improve the accuracy of emotion recognition systems.

Identifying context from ambient sounds in a lifelogging scenario requires feature extraction, segmentation and annotation techniques capable of efficiently handling long duration audio recordings; a complete framework for such applications is presented. The performance is evaluated on real world data and accompanied by a prototypical Android-based user interface.

The proposed methods are also assessed in terms of computation and implementation complexity. Software and field programmable gate array based implementations are considered for emotion recognition, while virtual platforms are used to model the complexities of lifelogging. The derived metrics are used to determine the feasibility of these methods for applications requiring real-time capabilities and low power consumption.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015