Matching Items (7)

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Direct gap Ge1-ySny alloys: Fabrication and design of mid-IR photodiodes

Description

Chemical vapor deposition methods were developed, using stoichiometric reactions of specialty Ge[subscript 3]H[subscript 8] and SnD[subscript 4] hydrides, to fabricate Ge[subscript 1-y]Sn[subscript y] photodiodes with very high Sn concentrations in

Chemical vapor deposition methods were developed, using stoichiometric reactions of specialty Ge[subscript 3]H[subscript 8] and SnD[subscript 4] hydrides, to fabricate Ge[subscript 1-y]Sn[subscript y] photodiodes with very high Sn concentrations in the 12%–16% range. A unique aspect of this approach is the compatible reactivity of the compounds at ultra-low temperatures, allowing efficient control and systematic tuning of the alloy composition beyond the direct gap threshold. This crucial property allows the formation of thick supersaturated layers with device-quality material properties. Diodes with composition up to 14% Sn were initially produced on Ge-buffered Si(100) featuring previously optimized n-Ge/i-Ge[subscript 1-y]Sn[subscript y]/p-Ge[subscript 1-z]Sn[subscript z] type structures with a single defected interface. The devices exhibited sizable electroluminescence and good rectifying behavior as evidenced by the low dark currents in the I-V measurements. The formation of working diodes with higher Sn content up to 16% Sn was implemented by using more advanced n-Ge[subscript 1-x]Sn[subscript x]/i-Ge[subscript 1-y]Sn[subscript y]/p-Ge[subscript 1-z]Sn[subscript z] architectures incorporating Ge[subscript 1-x]Sn[subscript x] intermediate layers (x ∼ 12% Sn) that served to mitigate the lattice mismatch with the Ge platform. This yielded fully coherent diode interfaces devoid of strain relaxation defects. The electrical measurements in this case revealed a sharp increase in reverse-bias dark currents by almost two orders of magnitude, in spite of the comparable crystallinity of the active layers. This observation is attributed to the enhancement of band-to-band tunneling when all the diode layers consist of direct gap materials and thus has implications for the design of light emitting diodes and lasers operating at desirable mid-IR wavelengths. Possible ways to engineer these diode characteristics and improve carrier confinement involve the incorporation of new barrier materials, in particular, ternary Ge[subscript 1-x-y]Si[subscript x]Sn[subscript y] alloys. The possibility of achieving type-I structures using binary and ternary alloy combinations is discussed in detail, taking into account the latest experimental and theoretical work on band offsets involving such materials.

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Date Created
  • 2016-07-13

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Electroluminescence from GeSn heterostructure pin diodes at the indirect to direct transition

Description

The emission properties of GeSn heterostructure pin diodes have been investigated. The devices contain thick (400–600 nm) Ge [subscript 1− y] Sn [subscript y] i-layers spanning a broad compositional range below

The emission properties of GeSn heterostructure pin diodes have been investigated. The devices contain thick (400–600 nm) Ge [subscript 1− y] Sn [subscript y] i-layers spanning a broad compositional range below and above the crossover Sn concentration y [subscript c] where the Ge [subscript 1− y] Sn [subscript y] alloy becomes a direct-gap material. These results are made possible by an optimized device architecture containing a single defected interface thereby mitigating the deleterious effects of mismatch-induced defects. The observed emission intensities as a function of composition show the contributions from two separate trends: an increase in direct gap emission as the Sn concentration is increased, as expected from the reduction and eventual reversal of the separation between the direct and indirect edges, and a parallel increase in non-radiative recombination when the mismatch strains between the structure components is partially relaxed by the generation of misfit dislocations. An estimation of recombination times based on the observed electroluminescence intensities is found to be strongly correlated with the reverse-bias dark current measured in the same devices.

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  • 2015-03-02

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Frustrated incomplete donor ionization in ultra-low resistivity germanium films

Description

The relationship between carrier concentration and donor atomic concentration has been determined in n-type Ge films doped with P. The samples were carefully engineered to minimize non-active dopant incorporation by

The relationship between carrier concentration and donor atomic concentration has been determined in n-type Ge films doped with P. The samples were carefully engineered to minimize non-active dopant incorporation by using specially designed P(SiH[subscript 3])[subscript 3] and P(GeH[subscript 3])[subscript 3] hydride precursors. The in situ nature of the doping and the growth at low temperatures, facilitated by the Ge [subscript 3]H[subscript 8] and Ge [subscript 4]H[subscript 10] Ge sources, promote the creation of ultra-low resistivity films with flat doping profiles that help reduce the errors in the concentration measurements. The results show that Ge deviates strongly from the incomplete ionization expected when the donor atomic concentration exceeds N[subscript d]  = 10[superscript 17] cm[superscript −3], at which the energy separation between the donor and Fermi levels ceases to be much larger than the thermal energy. Instead, essentially full ionization is seen even at the highest doping levels beyond the solubility limit of P in Ge. The results can be explained using a model developed for silicon by Altermatt and coworkers, provided the relevant model parameter is properly scaled. The findings confirm that donor solubility and/or defect formation, not incomplete ionization, are the major factors limiting the achievement of very high carrier concentrations in n-type Ge. The commercially viable chemistry approach applied here enables fabrication of supersaturated and fully ionized prototypes with potential for broad applications in group-IV semiconductor technologies.

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  • 2014-12-08

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Ge1-ySny (y=0.01-0.10) alloys on Ge-buffered Si: Synthesis, microstructure, and optical properties

Description

Novel hydride chemistries are employed to deposit light-emitting Ge [subscript 1- y] Sn [subscript y] alloys with y ≤ 0.1 by Ultra-High Vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition (UHV-CVD) on Ge-buffered Si wafers. The

Novel hydride chemistries are employed to deposit light-emitting Ge [subscript 1- y] Sn [subscript y] alloys with y ≤ 0.1 by Ultra-High Vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition (UHV-CVD) on Ge-buffered Si wafers. The properties of the resultant materials are systematically compared with similar alloys grown directly on Si wafers. The fundamental difference between the two systems is a fivefold (and higher) decrease in lattice mismatch between film and virtual substrate, allowing direct integration of bulk-like crystals with planar surfaces and relatively low dislocation densities. For y ≤ 0.06, the CVD precursors used were digermane Ge [subscript 2]H[subscript 6] and deuterated stannane SnD[subscript 4]. For y ≥ 0.06, the Ge precursor was changed to trigermane Ge [subscript 3]H[subscript 8], whose higher reactivity enabled the fabrication of supersaturated samples with the target film parameters. In all cases, the Ge wafers were produced using tetragermane Ge [subscript 4]H[subscript 10] as the Ge source. The photoluminescence intensity from Ge [subscript 1− y] Sn [subscript y] /Ge films is expected to increase relative to Ge [subscript 1− y] Sn [subscript y] /Si due to the less defected interface with the virtual substrate. However, while Ge [subscript 1− y] Sn [subscript y] /Si films are largely relaxed, a significant amount of compressive strain may be present in the Ge [subscript 1− y] Sn [subscript y] /Ge case. This compressive strain can reduce the emission intensity by increasing the separation between the direct and indirect edges. In this context, it is shown here that the proposed CVD approach to Ge [subscript 1− y] Sn [subscript y] /Ge makes it possible to approach film thicknesses of about 1  μm, for which the strain is mostly relaxed and the photoluminescence intensity increases by one order of magnitude relative to Ge [subscript 1− y] Sn [subscript y] /Si films. The observed strain relaxation is shown to be consistent with predictions from strain-relaxation models first developed for the Si[subscript 1− x] Ge [subscript x] /Si system. The defect structure and atomic distributions in the films are studied in detail using advanced electron-microscopy techniques, including aberration corrected STEM imaging and EELS mapping of the average diamond–cubic lattice.

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  • 2014-10-07

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Compositional dependence of the bowing parameter for the direct and indirect band gaps in Ge1-ySny alloys

Description

Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used to determine the direct gap E [subscript 0] of Ge [subscript 1− y] Sn [subscript y] alloys over a broad compositional range from pure Ge

Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used to determine the direct gap E [subscript 0] of Ge [subscript 1− y] Sn [subscript y] alloys over a broad compositional range from pure Ge to Sn concentrations exceeding 10%. A fit of the compositional dependence of E [subscript 0] using a standard quadratic expression is not fully satisfactory, revealing that the bowing parameter (quadratic coefficient) b [subscript 0] is compositionally dependent. Excellent agreement with the data is obtained with b [subscript 0](y) = (2.66 ± 0.09) eV − (5.4 ± 1.1)y eV. A theoretical model of the bowing is presented, which explains the strong compositional dependence of the bowing parameter and suggest a similar behavior for the indirect gap. Combining the model predictions with experimental data for samples with y ≤ 0.06, it is proposed that the bowing parameter for the indirect gap is b [subscript ind](y) = (1.11 ± 0.07) eV − (0.78 ± 0.05)y eV. The compositional dependence of the bowing parameters shifts the crossover concentration from indirect to direct gap behavior to y[subscript c]  = 0.087, significantly higher than the value predicted earlier based on strictly quadratic fits.

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Date Created
  • 2014-10-06

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Compositional dependence of the direct and indirect band gaps in Ge1-ySny alloys from room temperature photoluminescence: implications for the indirect to direct gap crossover in intrinsic and n-type materials

Description

The compositional dependence of the lowest direct and indirect band gaps in Ge[subscript 1−y]Sn[subscript y] alloys has been determined from room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. This technique is particularly attractive for a

The compositional dependence of the lowest direct and indirect band gaps in Ge[subscript 1−y]Sn[subscript y] alloys has been determined from room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. This technique is particularly attractive for a comparison of the two transitions because distinct features in the spectra can be associated with the direct and indirect gaps. However, detailed modeling of these room temperature spectra is required to extract the band gap values with the high accuracy required to determine the Sn concentration y[subscript c] at which the alloy becomes a direct gap semiconductor. For the direct gap, this is accomplished using a microscopic model that allows the determination of direct gap energies with meV accuracy. For the indirect gap, it is shown that current theoretical models are inadequate to describe the emission properties of systems with close indirect and direct transitions. Accordingly, an ad hoc procedure is used to extract the indirect gap energies from the data. For y < 0.1 the resulting direct gap compositional dependence is given by ΔE[subscript 0] = −(3.57 ± 0.06)y (in eV). For the indirect gap, the corresponding expression is ΔE[subscript ind] = −(1.64 ± 0.10)y (in eV). If a quadratic function of composition is used to express the two transition energies over the entire compositional range 0 ≤ y ≤ 1, the quadratic (bowing) coefficients are found to be b[subscript 0] = 2.46 ± 0.06 eV (for E0) and b[subscript ind] = 1.03 ± 0.11 eV (for E[subscript ind]). These results imply a crossover concentration y[subscript c] = $0.073 [+0.007 over -0.006], much lower than early theoretical predictions based on the virtual crystal approximation, but in better agreement with predictions based on large atomic supercells.

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Date Created
  • 2014-11-01

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Chemical vapor deposition of metastable germanium based semiconductors for optoelectronic applications

Description

Optoelectronic and microelectronic applications of germanium-based materials have received considerable research interest in recent years. A novel method for Ge on Si heteroepitaxy required for such applications was developed via

Optoelectronic and microelectronic applications of germanium-based materials have received considerable research interest in recent years. A novel method for Ge on Si heteroepitaxy required for such applications was developed via molecular epitaxy of Ge5H12. Next, As(GeH3)3, As(SiH3)3, SbD3, S(GeH3)2 and S(SiH3)2 molecular sources were utilized in degenerate n-type doping of Ge. The epitaxial Ge films produced in this work incorporate donor atoms at concentrations above the thermodynamic equilibrium limits. The donors are nearly fully activated, and led to films with lowest resistivity values thus far reported.

Band engineering of Ge was achieved by alloying with Sn. Epitaxy of the alloy layers was conducted on virtual Ge substrates, and made use of the germanium hydrides Ge2H6 and Ge3H8, and the Sn source SnD4. These films exhibit stronger emission than equivalent material deposited directly on Si, and the contributions from the direct and indirect edges can be separated. The indirect-direct crossover composition for Ge1-ySny alloys was determined by photoluminescence (PL). By n-type doping of the Ge1-ySny alloys via P(GeH3)3, P(SiH3)3 and As(SiH3)3, it was possible to enhance photoexcited emission by more than an order-of-magnitude.

The above techniques for deposition of direct gap Ge1-ySny alloys and doping of Ge were combined with p-type doping methods for Ge1-ySny using B2H6 to fabricate pin heterostructure diodes with active layer compositions up to y=0.137. These represent the first direct gap light emitting diodes made from group IV materials. The effect of the single defected n-i¬ interface in a n-Ge/i-Ge1-ySny/p-Ge1-zSnz architecture on electroluminescence (EL) was studied. This led to lattice engineering of the n-type contact layer to produce diodes of n-Ge1-xSnx/i-Ge1-ySny/p-Ge1-zSnz architecture which are devoid of interface defects and therefore exhibit more efficient EL than the previous design. Finally, n-Ge1-ySny/p-Ge1-zSnz pn junction devices were synthesized with varying composition and doping parameters to investigate the effect of these properties on EL.

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Date Created
  • 2016