Matching Items (8)

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Video Traffic Characteristics of Modern Encoding Standards: H.264/AVC with SVC and MVC Extensions and H.265/HEVC

Description

Video encoding for multimedia services over communication networks has significantly advanced in recent years with the development of the highly efficient and flexible H.264/AVC video coding standard and its SVC

Video encoding for multimedia services over communication networks has significantly advanced in recent years with the development of the highly efficient and flexible H.264/AVC video coding standard and its SVC extension. The emerging H.265/HEVC video coding standard as well as 3D video coding further advance video coding for multimedia communications. This paper first gives an overview of these new video coding standards and then examines their implications for multimedia communications by studying the traffic characteristics of long videos encoded with the new coding standards. We review video coding advances from MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 Part 2 to H.264/AVC and its SVC and MVC extensions as well as H.265/HEVC. For single-layer (nonscalable) video, we compare H.265/HEVC and H.264/AVC in terms of video traffic and statistical multiplexing characteristics. Our study is the first to examine the H.265/HEVC traffic variability for long videos. We also illustrate the video traffic characteristics and statistical multiplexing of scalable video encoded with the SVC extension of H.264/AVC as well as 3D video encoded with the MVC extension of H.264/AVC.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-02-20

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Traffic characterization and modeling of H.264 scalable & multi view encoded video

Description

Present day Internet Protocol (IP) based video transport and dissemination systems are heterogeneous in that they differ in network bandwidth, display resolutions and processing capabilities. One important objective in such

Present day Internet Protocol (IP) based video transport and dissemination systems are heterogeneous in that they differ in network bandwidth, display resolutions and processing capabilities. One important objective in such an environment is the flexible adaptation of once-encoded content and to achieve this, one popular method is the scalable video coding (SVC) technique. The SVC extension of the H.264/AVC standard has higher compression efficiency when compared to the previous scalable video standards. The network transport of 3D video, which is obtained by superimposing two views of a video scene, poses significant challenges due to the increased video data compared to conventional single-view video. Addressing these challenges requires a thorough understanding of the traffic and multiplexing characteristics of the different representation formats of 3D video. In this study, H.264 quality scalability and multiview representation formats are examined. As H.264/AVC, it's SVC and multiview extensions are expected to become widely adopted for the network transport of video, it is important to thoroughly study their network traffic characteristics, including the bit rate variability. Primarily the focus is on the SVC amendment of the H.264/AVC standard, with particular focus on Coarse-Grain Scalability (CGS) and Medium-Grain Scalability (MGS). In this study, we report on a large-scale study of the rate-distortion (RD) and rate variability-distortion (VD) characteristics of CGS and MGS. We also examine the RD and VD characteristics of three main multiview (3D) representation formats. Specifically, we compare multiview video (MV) representation and encoding, frame sequential (FS) representation, and side-by-side (SBS) representation; whereby conventional single-view encoding is employed for the FS and SBS representations. As a last step, we also examine Video traffic modeling which plays a major part in network traffic analysis. It is imperative to network design and simulation, providing Quality of Service (QoS) to network applications, besides providing insights into the coding process and structure of video sequences. We propose our models on top of the recent unified traffic model developed by Dai et al. [1], for modeling MPEG-4 and H.264 VBR video traffic. We exploit the hierarchical predication structure inherent in H.264 for intra-GoP (group of pictures) analysis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Flexi-WVSNP-DASH: a wireless video sensor network platform for the Internet of Things

Description

Video capture, storage, and distribution in wireless video sensor networks

(WVSNs) critically depends on the resources of the nodes forming the sensor

networks. In the era of big data, Internet

Video capture, storage, and distribution in wireless video sensor networks

(WVSNs) critically depends on the resources of the nodes forming the sensor

networks. In the era of big data, Internet of Things (IoT), and distributed

demand and solutions, there is a need for multi-dimensional data to be part of

the Sensor Network data that is easily accessible and consumable by humanity as

well as machinery. Images and video are expected to become as ubiquitous as is

the scalar data in traditional sensor networks. The inception of video-streaming

over the Internet, heralded a relentless research for effective ways of

distributing video in a scalable and cost effective way. There has been novel

implementation attempts across several network layers. Due to the inherent

complications of backward compatibility and need for standardization across

network layers, there has been a refocused attention to address most of the

video distribution over the application layer. As a result, a few video

streaming solutions over the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) have been

proposed. Most notable are Apple’s HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) and the Motion

Picture Experts Groups Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (MPEG-DASH). These

frameworks, do not address the typical and future WVSN use cases. A highly

flexible Wireless Video Sensor Network Platform and compatible DASH (WVSNP-DASH)

are introduced. The platform's goal is to usher video as a data element that

can be integrated into traditional and non-Internet networks. A low cost,

scalable node is built from the ground up to be fully compatible with the

Internet of Things Machine to Machine (M2M) concept, as well as the ability to

be easily re-targeted to new applications in a short time. Flexi-WVSNP design

includes a multi-radio node, a middle-ware for sensor operation and

communication, a cross platform client facing data retriever/player framework,

scalable security as well as a cohesive but decoupled hardware and software

design.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Design and performance analysis of fiber wireless networks

Description

A Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) network integrates a passive optical network (PON) with wireless mesh networks (WMNs) to provide high speed backhaul via the PON while offering the flexibility and mobility of

A Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) network integrates a passive optical network (PON) with wireless mesh networks (WMNs) to provide high speed backhaul via the PON while offering the flexibility and mobility of a WMN. Generally, increasing the size of a WMN leads to higher wireless interference and longer packet delays. The partitioning of a large WMN into several smaller WMN clusters, whereby each cluster is served by an Optical Network Unit (ONU) of the PON, is examined. Existing WMN throughput-delay analysis techniques considering the mean load of the nodes at a given hop distance from a gateway (ONU) are unsuitable for the heterogeneous nodal traffic loads arising from clustering. A simple analytical queuing model that considers the individual node loads to accurately characterize the throughput-delay performance of a clustered FiWi network is introduced. The accuracy of the model is verified through extensive simulations. It is found that with sufficient PON bandwidth, clustering substantially improves the FiWi network throughput-delay performance by employing the model to examine the impact of the number of clusters on the network throughput-delay performance. Different traffic models and network designs are also studied to improve the FiWi network performance.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Software Defined Applications in Cellular and Optical Networks

Description

Small wireless cells have the potential to overcome bottlenecks in wireless access through the sharing of spectrum resources. A novel access backhaul network architecture based on a Smart Gateway (Sm-GW)

Small wireless cells have the potential to overcome bottlenecks in wireless access through the sharing of spectrum resources. A novel access backhaul network architecture based on a Smart Gateway (Sm-GW) between the small cell base stations, e.g., LTE eNBs, and the conventional backhaul gateways, e.g., LTE Servicing/Packet Gateways (S/P-GWs) has been introduced to address the bottleneck. The Sm-GW flexibly schedules uplink transmissions for the eNBs. Based on software defined networking (SDN) a management mechanism that allows multiple operator to flexibly inter-operate via multiple Sm-GWs with a multitude of small cells has been proposed. This dissertation also comprehensively survey the studies that examine the SDN paradigm in optical networks. Along with the PHY functional split improvements, the performance of Distributed Converged Cable Access Platform (DCCAP) in the cable architectures especially for the Remote-PHY and Remote-MACPHY nodes has been evaluated. In the PHY functional split, in addition to the re-use of infrastructure with a common FFT module for multiple technologies, a novel cross functional split interaction to cache the repetitive QAM symbols across time at the remote node to reduce the transmission rate requirement of the fronthaul link has been proposed.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Efficient routing and resource sharing mechanisms for hybrid optical-wireless access networks

Description

The integration of passive optical networks (PONs) and wireless mesh networks (WMNs) into Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) networks has recently emerged as a promising strategy for

providing flexible network services at relative high

The integration of passive optical networks (PONs) and wireless mesh networks (WMNs) into Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) networks has recently emerged as a promising strategy for

providing flexible network services at relative high transmission rates. This work investigates the effectiveness of localized routing that prioritizes transmissions over the local gateway to the optical network and avoids wireless packet transmissions in radio zones that do not contain the packet source or destination. Existing routing schemes for FiWi networks consider mainly hop-count and delay metrics over a flat WMN node topology and do not specifically prioritize the local network structure. The combination of clustered and localized routing (CluLoR) performs better in terms of throughput-delay compared to routing schemes that are based on minimum hop-count which do not consider traffic localization. Subsequently, this work also investigates the packet delays when relatively low-rate traffic that has traversed a wireless network is mixed with conventional high-rate PON-only traffic. A range of different FiWi network architectures with different dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) mechanisms is considered. The grouping of the optical network units (ONUs) in the double-phase polling (DPP) DBA mechanism in long-range (order of 100~Km) FiWi networks is closely examined, and a novel grouping by cycle length (GCL) strategy that achieves favorable packet delay performance is introduced. At the end, this work proposes a novel backhaul network architecture based on a Smart Gateway (Sm-GW) between the small cell base stations (e.g., LTE eNBs) and the conventional backhaul gateways, e.g., LTE Servicing/Packet Gateway (S/P-GW). The Sm-GW accommodates flexible number of small cells while reducing the infrastructure requirements at the S-GW of LTE backhaul. In contrast to existing methods, the proposed Sm-GW incorporates the scheduling mechanisms to achieve the network fairness while sharing the resources among all the connected small cells base stations.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Vector sensors and user based link layer QoS for 5G wireless communication applications

Description

The commercial semiconductor industry is gearing up for 5G communications in the 28GHz and higher band. In order to maintain the same relative receiver sensitivity, a larger number of

The commercial semiconductor industry is gearing up for 5G communications in the 28GHz and higher band. In order to maintain the same relative receiver sensitivity, a larger number of antenna elements are required; the larger number of antenna elements is, in turn, driving semiconductor development. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new method of dividing wireless communication protocols (such as the 802.11a/b/g
and cellular UMTS MAC protocols) across multiple unreliable communication links using a new link layer communication model in concert with a smart antenna aperture design referred to as Vector Antenna. A vector antenna is a ‘smart’ antenna system and as any smart antenna aperture, the design inherently requires unique microwave component performance as well as Digital Signal Processing (DSP) capabilities. This performance and these capabilities are further enhanced with a patented wireless protocol stack capability.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Performance of single layer H.264 SVC video over error prone networks

Description

With tremendous increase in the popularity of networked multimedia applications, video data is expected to account for a large portion of the traffic on the Internet and more importantly next-generation

With tremendous increase in the popularity of networked multimedia applications, video data is expected to account for a large portion of the traffic on the Internet and more importantly next-generation wireless systems. To be able to satisfy a broad range of customers requirements, two major problems need to be solved. The first problem is the need for a scalable representation of the input video. The recently developed scalable extension of the state-of-the art H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video coding standard, also known as H.264/SVC (Scalable Video Coding) provides a solution to this problem. The second problem is that wireless transmission medium typically introduce errors in the bit stream due to noise, congestion and fading on the channel. Protection against these channel impairments can be realized by the use of forward error correcting (FEC) codes. In this research study, the performance of scalable video coding in the presence of bit errors is studied. The encoded video is channel coded using Reed Solomon codes to provide acceptable performance in the presence of channel impairments. In the scalable bit stream, some parts of the bit stream are more important than other parts. Parity bytes are assigned to the video packets based on their importance in unequal error protection scheme. In equal error protection scheme, parity bytes are assigned based on the length of the message. A quantitative comparison of the two schemes, along with the case where no channel coding is employed is performed. H.264 SVC single layer video streams for long video sequences of different genres is considered in this study which serves as a means of effective video characterization. JSVM reference software, in its current version, does not support decoding of erroneous bit streams. A framework to obtain H.264 SVC compatible bit stream is modeled in this study. It is concluded that assigning of parity bytes based on the distribution of data for different types of frames provides optimum performance. Application of error protection to the bit stream enhances the quality of the decoded video with minimal overhead added to the bit stream.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011