Matching Items (12)

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Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and its Application on Behavior Modification in Adolescents with High Functioning Autism

Description

Asperger's syndrome is a high-functioning subset of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Diagnosed patients often lack refined social skills but possess a normal level of cognitive skills without delay in language

Asperger's syndrome is a high-functioning subset of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Diagnosed patients often lack refined social skills but possess a normal level of cognitive skills without delay in language development. These deficient social skills can impact the ability to find and maintain a job, which can be burdensome for all individuals involved in the patient's life. Although the causes of this condition are largely unknown, a wide variety of social and cognitive therapies have been used to reduce symptom severity, one of which is Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). Mindfulness is the act of being aware on purpose to whatever is being experienced in the present moment with non-judgment and receptivity. MBSR has been used to bring greater awareness to sensations, thoughts and emotions with the result being reduced reactivity and increased purposeful responsiveness. It is therefore the aim of this study to address the use of an 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in adolescents with clinical Asperger's Syndrome to reduce reactive tendencies. This study will utilize a randomized control group of waitlisted participants given MBSR informational material and a practicing MBSR group. Post-MBSR Parent Global Impressions-III (PGI-III) and Social Responsiveness Scale scores are hypothesized to be improved in MBSR group and unaffected in the control for behavioral markers with no change in core autistic symptoms. Daily average cortisol response is also expected to decrease in the experimental group with unaffected levels in the control.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Bariatric Surgery: The Good, Bad, & Questionable

Description

Obesity has developed into a worldwide health problem that is associated with many risks. The elements causing obesity are complex and numerous including behavioral, psychological, and physiological. Traditional methods of

Obesity has developed into a worldwide health problem that is associated with many risks. The elements causing obesity are complex and numerous including behavioral, psychological, and physiological. Traditional methods of weight loss have demonstrated short-lived positive health benefits and minimal long-term weight loss, which has led to the prevalence of bariatric surgery as an answer to long-term weight loss for Class III obesity. Gastric bypass surgery has become especially popular for its numerous benefits including successful weight loss, improvements in obesity-related diseases, and increased lifespan. Bariatric surgery is still not a perfect solution. Negative effects after surgery range from surgical complications and vitamin deficiencies to altered hormonal levels and metabolic rates. Many questions regarding bariatric surgery still remain including the impact of adolescent bariatric surgery, long-term bone effects, and long-term psychosocial and lifestyle components of bariatric patients. Understanding the good, the bad, and several of the remaining questions regarding bariatric surgery, will help health professionals be more appreciative of the complexity of treating their obese patients.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Association between mindful eating and weight cycling in middle age women

Description

Introduction: Weight cycling is defined as happening when an individual intentionally loses weight and then subsequently regaining the weight over time. Weight cycling has been associated with a number

Introduction: Weight cycling is defined as happening when an individual intentionally loses weight and then subsequently regaining the weight over time. Weight cycling has been associated with a number of adverse health consequences and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The large majority of behaviorally based weight loss interventions typically result in full weight regain often with additional weight gained over time with each repeated bout of weight cycling. Mindful eating, which is defined as a non-judgmental awareness of meal related factors, has been found to influence negative behaviors related to weight cycling. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between mindful eating and weight cycling in middle aged women.

Methods: This study used an observational design to explore the relationships and characterize responses to the Mindfulness Eating Questionnaire (MEQ) in 75 overweight women (BMI > 25) who self-reported a history of weight cycling using a weight cycling index (WCI). The participants were divided into three groups: non-cyclers (NC) less than three cycles of 10 lbs; moderate cyclers (MC) at least three weight cycles of 10lbs; and severe cyclers (SC) at least three weight cycles of at least 20lbs. Results: NC were significantly (p < 0.05) younger and had lower BMI than the MC and SC groups. There were no significant differences in any of the MEQ subscores based on WCI groups. There were no significant relationships between WCI and any of the MEQ subscores. Conclusion: The Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ), was an insufficient discriminatory measure for use in an observational study on a complex behavior such as weight cycling. Further research to understand eating behavior domains, mindful awareness skills, and risk of weight cycling is needed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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The Effects of Exposure to Body Positive and Fitspiration Instagram Content on Undergraduate Women’s State Body Satisfaction, State Body Appreciation, and Mood

Description

The promulgation of the thin-ideal is associated with bulimia, dieting, supplement use, negative affect, and body dissatisfaction. “Fitspiration” was created as an “antidote” to the thin-ideal through the promotion of

The promulgation of the thin-ideal is associated with bulimia, dieting, supplement use, negative affect, and body dissatisfaction. “Fitspiration” was created as an “antidote” to the thin-ideal through the promotion of healthy eating and exercise; however, research indicates Fitspiration continues to promote the thin-ideal with similarly detrimental outcomes. Recently, research has shifted from a focus on body disturbance to concepts of positive body image (Halliwell, 2015), often researched through the concept of body appreciation. While the research is limited, a few studies have shown increases in body appreciation and mood after viewing body positive images. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to experimentally examine the impact of exposure to body positive and Fitspiration Instagram images on the body satisfaction, body appreciation, and mood of undergraduate women. Participants were 98 female undergraduate students (18-29 years old) currently attending Arizona State University. Participants were randomly assigned to view Fitspiration, Body Positive, or appearance neutral Instagram images. Dependent variables of state body appreciation, state body dissatisfaction, and state mood were measured using Visual Analogue Scales. Trait thin-ideal internalization, trait social comparison, and body mass index (BMI) were included as covariates. Qualitative short-answer questions were included as an exploratory aim. A one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine group differences in post-test scores followed by post-hoc analyses using the Bonferroni correction when significant. After controlling for baseline score, trait thin-ideal internalization, trait social comparison, and BMI, post-test body appreciation scores within Fitspiration condition were significantly lower than the control (MD= 9.818, SE=3.743, p=.031) and Body Positive condition (MD=9.372, SE=3.492, p=0.26). After controlling for baseline score, trait thin-ideal internalization, trait social comparison, and BMI, the Body Positive condition demonstrated significantly higher post-test body satisfaction scores than the control (MD= 11.134, SE=3.093, p=.002) and Fitspiration condition (MD=17.312, SE=3.092, p=<.001). After controlling for baseline scores, mean post-test positive mood scores within the Fitspiration group were significantly lower than the Body Positive condition (MD=-0.378, SE=.135, p=.019). There were no differences in post-test negative mood across conditions. Findings suggest short-term exposure to body positive images may improve body appreciation, Body Positivity, and positive mood among undergraduate females.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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A Cross-Sectional Examination of the Relationship Between Trait Mindfulness, Behavioral Regulation Toward Exercise, Exercise Intention, Perceived Stress, and Physical Activity in University Undergraduates

Description

Physical inactivity is a continuing public health crisis because of its negative effects on health (e.g. hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes). To combat the rising prevalence of these non-communicable

Physical inactivity is a continuing public health crisis because of its negative effects on health (e.g. hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes). To combat the rising prevalence of these non-communicable diseases, physical activity (PA) promotion is a public health priority. However, current programs seem to be ineffective in the long-term promotion of PA. Resultingly new, effective interventions are needed. Recent studies have established a link between mindfulness and PA engagement. Based on the current literature, the present study sought to investigate the associations between trait mindfulness, behavioral regulation towards exercise, exercise intention, stress, and self-reported PA. This study also examined whether trait mindfulness was independently associated with meeting weekly, leisure-time, moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA] recommendations in university undergraduate students after controlling for demographic characteristics, past PA experience, exercise intention, stress, and motivation.

The study used a cross-sectional design and participants consisted of 180 undergraduate university students (aged 18 to 24 years). Participants completed a one-time survey that assessed demographic characteristics, trait mindfulness, behavioral regulation toward exercise, exercise intention, perceived stress and PA. Bivariate associations between the variables were assessed with Pearson or Spearman correlations. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which variables were independently associated with meeting weekly, leisure-time MVPA guidelines. Results of this study found weak positive associations between the mindfulness domain of acceptance and leisure time MVPA ( = .168, p < .05), no associations between mindfulness and transportation PA, and negative associations between mindfulness (MAAS,  = –.238, p < .01; acceptance,  = –.175, p < .05) and sitting time. Results of logistic regression found that only relative autonomy (OR = 1.085, 95% CI [1.008, 1.168], p = .030) and intention (OR = 2.193, 95% CI [1.533, 3.138], p < .0001) were independently associated with meeting weekly, leisure- time MVPA recommendations. The results of this study show that while there is only a weak direct relationship between trait mindfulness and PA, mindfulness may be related with other factors associated with PA. More research is needed in order to better understand the potential mechanisms behind the results found in this, and past, studies.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Correlates of exercise self-efficacy in older adults with arthritis

Description

Purpose: This study explored the potential correlates of exercise self-efficacy among older adults with a self-reported diagnosis of arthritis. Methods: This study was a secondary data analysis and used a

Purpose: This study explored the potential correlates of exercise self-efficacy among older adults with a self-reported diagnosis of arthritis. Methods: This study was a secondary data analysis and used a cross-sectional design. Data was collected from a convenience sample of Non-Hispanic White and Non-Hispanic Black individuals between 2006-2008 (N=208). Descriptive statistics were run to assess means and frequencies within the sample. Bivariate statistics (Pearson and Spearman correlations, T-tests and one-way analysis of variance) were run to examine relationships between the independent and dependent variables. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine independent predictors of self-efficacy for exercise (SEE) and barriers self-efficacy for exercise (BSE). Results: Participants were predominantly female (85.6%), white (62.9%), retired (58.1%) and had a mean age of 66.6 [10.7] years. For education level, 23.4% reported a Master’s degree or higher and 18.6% reported they had at most a high school degree or GED. Nearly 47% of the sample were classified as obese based on self-reported body mass index (BMI) and 68.3% of the sample were not meeting the American College of Sports Medicine physical activity (PA) recommendations. Participants reported a relatively high BSE (22.6) and an average SEE (22.7). Significant positive associations were seen with outcome expectation for exercise (EOE), social support, and total minutes of PA and negative associations with BMI, physical function, pain, and negative affect with SEE and BSE. Meeting the PA guidelines (t134.5=4.60, 95%CI= 4.7(6.71-2.68), p<0.001) and being white (t164=2.82, 95%CI=2.82(0.57-5.08), p=0.014) were associated with SEE and BSE (t165=3.42, 95%CI= 4.37(6.89-1.85), p=0.001) and (t164=2.34, 95%CI= 2.95(0.46-5.43), p=0.021), respectively. In regression analyses, significant predictors of SEE were education (p=.006), physical function (p=.006) and EOE (p<.001). Significant predictors of BSE were physical function (p=.020), social support (p=.031), EOE (p=<.001), education level (p=.037), and total minutes of PA (p=.022). The variables in the SEE model accounted for 50.5% (R=.737, R2=.505) of the total variance and the variables in BSE model accounted for 41.1% (R=.672, R2=.411) of the total variance of the model. Discussion: EOE appears to be an important predictor of SEE and BSE. Examining the temporal relationship between EOE and SEE is warranted.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Associations of Physical Activity, Mindfulness, & Resilience Practices with Perceived Quality of Life Among Female College Veterans

Description

Female college veterans face a host of struggles both personally and academically. Research that focuses primarily on female veterans’ wellness needs as they transition into civilian life is limited and

Female college veterans face a host of struggles both personally and academically. Research that focuses primarily on female veterans’ wellness needs as they transition into civilian life is limited and this population is woefully understudied in comparison to male veterans. The purpose of this study was to describe and explore some of the wellness needs of female college veterans making the transition from military service to college/civilian life. Twelve hundred and thirty female veterans from a University Veterans Center were sent a recruitment email where 125 successfully completed a life satisfaction (Frisch, 1994), physical activity (Craig et al., 2003), resilience (Connor & Davidson, 2003), and a five-facet mindfulness (Baer et al., 2008) questionnaire. The means for this population were: Quality of life (M= 37.8), Resilience (M= 70.5), Physical Activity MET minutes (M= 4,605), and Five-facet mindfulness (M= Observing 3.50, Describing = 3.38, Acting with Awareness M= 3.02, Non-Judging of Inner Experience M= 2.98, Non-reactivity to Inner Experience M= 3.06). Resilience was significantly (p <0.01) and positively correlated to all five domains of mindfulness (range r = 0.332 – 0.534) and was negatively associated with Quality of Life (QOL) (r= -0.204). Vigorous Activity minutes and Total Met Minutes were both positively associated with QOL (r= 0.300 and r= 0.199 respectively). This population of female veterans self-reported to have very low/low life satisfaction, low resilience, and high physical activity levels. The behaviors and traits reported in these female college veterans provide important information for developing resources and potential interventions in the future.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Calm College: Testing a brief mobile app meditation intervention among stressed college students

Description

College students experience a considerable amount of stress. Unmanaged stress is associated with poor academic performance, health risk behaviors (i.e., inadequate sleep and physical activity, alcohol consumption, poor dietary behaviors),

College students experience a considerable amount of stress. Unmanaged stress is associated with poor academic performance, health risk behaviors (i.e., inadequate sleep and physical activity, alcohol consumption, poor dietary behaviors), and poor mental health. Coping with stress has become a priority among universities. The most tested stress-related programs to date have been mindfulness-based and face-to-face. These programs demonstrated significant improvements in stress, mindfulness, and self-compassion among college students. However, they may be burdensome to students as studies report low attendance and low compliance due to class conflicts or not enough time. Few interventions have used more advanced technologies (i.e., mobile apps) as a mode of delivery. The purpose of this study is to report adherence to a consumer-based mindfulness meditation mobile application (i.e., Calm) and test its effects on stress, mindfulness, and self-compassion in college students. We will also explore what the relationship is between mindfulness and health behaviors.

College students were recruited using fliers on college campus and social media. Eligible participants were randomized to one of two groups: (1) Intervention - meditate using Calm, 10 min/day for eight weeks and (2) Control – no participation in mindfulness practices (received the Calm application after 12-weeks). Stress, mindfulness, and self-compassion and health behaviors (i.e., sleep disturbance, alcohol consumption, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption) were measured using self-report. Outcomes were measured at baseline and week eight.

Of the 109 students that enrolled in the study, 41 intervention and 47 control participants were included in analysis. Weekly meditation participation averaged 38 minutes with 54% of participants completing at least half (i.e., 30 minutes) of meditations. Significant changes between groups were found in stress, mindfulness, and self-compassion (all P<0.001) in favor of the intervention group. A significant negative association (p<.001) was found between total mindfulness and sleep disturbance.

An eight-week consumer-based mindfulness meditation mobile application (i.e., Calm) was effective in reducing stress, improving mindfulness and self-compassion among undergraduate college students. Mobile applications may be a feasible, effective, and less burdensome way to reduce stress in college students.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Hospice Music Therapy: A Mindfulness-Informed Conceptual Framework

Description

Hospice Music Therapy is an established specialization area within the field of music therapy with significant empirical research confirming its efficacy. Much of the current research on hospice music therapy

Hospice Music Therapy is an established specialization area within the field of music therapy with significant empirical research confirming its efficacy. Much of the current research on hospice music therapy concerns the use of receptive music therapy and traditional counseling and psychotherapy techniques. According to a survey of people with terminal illness, the most common needs experienced are: pain management, support for autonomy to the fullest extent possible, psychosocial support, and spiritual support. Mindfulness and mindfulness based interventions have been linked to increased self-compassion, reduced stress, reduced anxiety, and a reduction in self-reported perception of pain. While music therapy performs well in empirical measures of hospice-related need areas, mindfulness techniques and practice may enhance the music therapist’s capacity for self-care and administering hospice treatment. Additionally, music therapy may be a good companion to a mindfulness based therapy due to similar cognitive effects and processes that are utilized in each. This thesis will formulate a conceptual framework in which mindfulness and body awareness might be used as an integral aspect to the music therapist's practice in the hospice setting.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Associations among self-compassion, stress, and eating behavior in college freshmen

Description

In the past decade, research has demonstrated the relationship between higher levels of self-compassion and lower levels of negative psychological outcomes. More recently, the concept of self-compassion has been explored

In the past decade, research has demonstrated the relationship between higher levels of self-compassion and lower levels of negative psychological outcomes. More recently, the concept of self-compassion has been explored within the context of various health behaviors. Very few studies have investigated the potential relationship between self-compassion and eating behaviors. Based on literature and the established relationship between negative self-evaluation and abnormal eating behaviors/eating disorders, the current study sought to examine correlations between self-compassion, eating behaviors, and stress in first time college freshmen. The study population consisted of 1478 participants; ages 18-22 years; females = 936 (63%), males = 541 (37%). Participants self-reported measures of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), and the Self Compassion Scale (SCS). PSS score, the overall score and individual subscale scores of SCS, and the three subscale scores of the TFEQ (restraint, disinhibiton, hunger) were examined with Pearson correlations. Results of this study indicate significant (p = < .05) differences between males and females in PSS and all three negative SCS subscales. There was a strong and consistent correlation between the eating behavior of disinhibition and all three negative constructs of self-compassion (self-judgment, r = .29; isolation, r = .23; over-identification, r = .28) in females. The eating behavior of restraint was similarly correlated with SCS self-judgment in females (r = .26). More research is needed to understand differences in stress, self-compassion, and eating behaviors between males and females and to better comprehend the weak associations between eating behaviors and the positive psychological constructs of self-compassion (self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness) for males and females. Additionally, future research should focus on the three subscales of disinhibition as they relate to the negative constructs of self-compassion. The preliminary results of this study suggest it would be beneficial, particularly to female college freshmen, to more fully understand the dynamics of the relationship between eating behaviors and self-compassion; this knowledge may help to better structure appropriate coping strategies for the prevention of disordered eating behaviors.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013