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Growing Mya-1 T Cells for Adoptive Immunotherapy

Description

CD4+CD25+ FOXP3+ cells are recognized as the most reliable regulatory T cell subset. However, the intracellular nature of the FOXP3 transcription factor limits its use for the isolation or selection

CD4+CD25+ FOXP3+ cells are recognized as the most reliable regulatory T cell subset. However, the intracellular nature of the FOXP3 transcription factor limits its use for the isolation or selection of viable regulatory T cells for adoptive immunotherapy. Nuclear localization of FOXP3 has been more strongly associated with induced regulatory T cell (Treg) function than increased expression of FOXP3 alone. Several different cell culture methods and T cell activation techniques can induce increased expression of FOXP3 in a variety of T cell models, but Rapamycin (an mTOR inhibitor) was recently shown to differentially induce nuclear localization of FOXP3 when compared with IL-10 and TGFβ. Feline Tregs have been well characterized and share many of the phenotypic and functional characteristics of murine and human Tregs. We cultured feline Mya-1 T cells in conditions that would differentially promote effector or regulatory phenotypes and correlated nuclear localization of FOXP3 with other quantitative morphologic features using imaging flow cytometry. We compared the morphologic features of cells with high intra-nuclear concentrations of FOXP3 cultured without IL-2, with IL-2, and with IL-2 and Rapamycin before and after non-specific antigenic stimulation with Concanavalin-A. This analysis may help identify a population of pure regulatory T cells that would be more likely to maintain regulatory function following in-vitro expansion and activation. Furthermore, the feline T cell model could help elucidate important differences between murine and human Treg cells that would further translational efforts in adoptive immunotherapy. Now, we ask if nuclear localization of FOXP3 could be used to identify other morphologic differences between activated effector and regulatory T cells using a feline T cell line.

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  • 2018-05

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Trying to Keep Up: Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption, Student Involvement, and Sleep Among Diverse College Freshmen

Description

Background While extensive research has been conducted among college students consuming alcohol with energy drinks, there is limited research exploring how extracurricular activities could have an impact on energy drink

Background While extensive research has been conducted among college students consuming alcohol with energy drinks, there is limited research exploring how extracurricular activities could have an impact on energy drink consumption and sleep. Understanding the association between student involvement and the impact it could have on sleep and energy drink consumption among college freshmen is essential in promoting healthy behaviors while in college. Objectives The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between student involvement, average hours of sleep, and predicted prevalence of energy drink and coffee consumption amongst college freshmen living in residence halls at a large, public university in the Southwest. Student involvement and fewer hours of sleep hypothesized to observe higher energy drink consumption. Methods This study was a secondary data analysis of the second wave of the longitudinal SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College) study assessing college freshmen (n=599; 70.6% female; 50.9% non-white) living on campus. Students were enrolled in this study during the 2015\u20142016 school year. Mutually adjusted generalized estimating equation (GEE) binomial models examined the relationship between involvement (academic clubs, sport clubs, honors, taking 16 or more credit hours, and having a job) and sleep with energy drink and coffee consumption, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, Pell grant status, ever having tried alcohol, and clustering of students in residence halls. Results On average, students were enrolled in 15 credits, slept an average 8 hours per night, those who had a job worked 14 hours for pay per week, 35% reported consuming energy drinks in the past week, and about 29% of students reported coffee consumption. Males showed a higher predicted prevalence of energy drink consumption compared to females (p<0.001), where females showed a higher predicted prevalence of coffee consumption compared to males (<0.001); energy drink consumption was less prevalent amongst Hispanic students compared to white students (p=0.018), but more prevalent amongst black students compared to white students (p=0.002); no associations between race were found in predicted prevalence of coffee consumption. Average hours of sleep per night was inversely associated with energy drink consumption predicted prevalence (p<0.001). There was a lower predicted prevalence of energy drink and coffee consumption in honors student status (p<0.001) compared to non-honors students. Students taking 16 or more class credit hours showed a higher predicted prevalence in both energy drink (p=0.050) and coffee consumption (p=0.023) compared to students taking less than 16 class credit hours. Students involved in physically active clubs showed a greater predicted prevalence of coffee consumption (p<0.001) compared to students not in physically active clubs. There was no difference in the predicted prevalence in energy drink consumption amongst students involved in physically active clubs (p=0.710), non-physically active clubs (p=0.493), and having a job (p=0.146). Coffee consumption predicted prevalence showed no significant prevalence amongst students of different race and ethnicity [Black (p=0.507), Hispanic (p=103), Other (p=116)] as well as students involved in non-physically active (p=0.839) clubs and who had a paid job (p=0.088). Conclusion Associations observed between average hours of sleep, the different types of involvement of student activities, and energy drink and coffee consumption, were interesting in that a few findings were found to be contrary to the hypotheses. Future research should delve deeper into student involvement within honors programs to understand the contextual factors of why these students showed a significant inverse association in energy drink consumption. Contrary to hypothesis, sleep and energy drink consumption prevalence were indirectly related leading future research to examine and understand why students are consuming energy drinks since on average participants were meeting recommended sleep guidelines. Nutrition interventions are needed for the groups at consuming energy drinks and alcohol in combination due to the study finding increased predicted prevalence amongst these groups as well as the increased risky health behavior associated with the combination found in the literature. Support or Funding Information This study was supported by the NIH Common Fund from the Office of the Director and the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, grant number 1DP5OD017910-01 (PI: M. Bruening). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

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  • 2018-05

Nutrition Education Video Series for the Improvement of Arizona State University Student Health

Description

Most reliable nutrition information can be found online, but it can be nearly impossible to differentiate from the unreliable blogs and websites that claim their information is correct. Because of

Most reliable nutrition information can be found online, but it can be nearly impossible to differentiate from the unreliable blogs and websites that claim their information is correct. Because of this, it can be difficult for students to determine which information is true and which advice they will follow. During this time of growth and learning, it is essential that students have access to accurate information that will help them to be healthier individuals for years to come. The goal of this project was to provide students with an easily accessible and reliable resource for nutrition information that was presented in a simple and relatable way. The following videos and attached materials were created in response to ASU student needs and will be available for students on the ASU wellness website. Eating Healthy on a Budget: https://youtu.be/H-IUArD0phY Healthy Choices at Fast Food Restaurants: https://youtu.be/ZxcjBblpRtM Quick Healthy Meals: https://youtu.be/7uIDFe15-dM

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Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Stationary cycling did not improve reaction time in older adults with Down Syndrome

Description

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on information processing measured by simple reaction time in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS).

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on information processing measured by simple reaction time in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to one of three interventions over eight weeks. 1) Eleven older adults with Down Syndrome completed the ACT intervention, which is stationary cycling with the assistance of a motor to maintain a cadence at least 35% greater than voluntary cycling. 2) Eight older adults with Down Syndrome completed the voluntary cycling (VC) intervention and 3) two older adults with Down Syndrome were in our no cycling (NC) intervention. Both exercise groups participated in the eight-week, supervised exercise protocol for at least three, 30-minute sessions per week. None of our results reached conventional levels of significance. However, the greatest improvements in reaction time occurred following the voluntary cycling (VC) intervention. Our results are discussed with respect to physiological differences in older adults with DS that may limit improvements in executive function following exercise. These physiological differences and limitations include muscle atrophy and reduced perceptions, age related latency between motor cortex activation and onset of muscle activity, as well as general age related slowing in reaction time. Although it may be difficult to improve executive function in older adults with DS, we suggest other benefits to exercise which include improving social communication, gross motor skills, and exercise perception. Future research should continue to investigate the effects of exercise on multiple areas in older adults with DS with the hopes of improving quality of life.

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  • 2018-05

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Assisted Cycling Therapy Improves Self-Efficacy and Exercise Perception in Older Adults with Down Syndrome

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The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on self-efficacy and exercise perception in older adults with Down syndrome (DS) after a three

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on self-efficacy and exercise perception in older adults with Down syndrome (DS) after a three times a week for 8 weeks intervention. Thirteen participants were in the ACT group in which a motor assisted their cycling to be performed at least 30% faster than voluntary cycling (VC), 11 participants were in the voluntary cycling group and two participants were in the no cycling (NC) group. The results showed that both exercise groups (i.e., ACT and VC) improved in their self-efficacy after the 8 week intervention. In addition, exercise perception improved following ACT and not VC or NC. Our results are discussed with respect to their future implications for exercise in the DS population. It might be that the yielded results were due to differences in effort required by each intervention group as well as the neurotrophic factors that occur when muscle contractions create synaptic connections resulting in improvement in cognition and feelings of satisfaction. In the future, research should focus on the psychological factors such as social accountability and peer interaction as they relate to ACT and physical activity in person's with DS.

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  • 2018-05

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Using Ancient DNA Methods to Examine Dire Wolf Population History

Description

Dire wolves have recently risen to fame as a result of the popular television program Game of Thrones, and thus many viewers know dire wolves as the sigil and loyal

Dire wolves have recently risen to fame as a result of the popular television program Game of Thrones, and thus many viewers know dire wolves as the sigil and loyal companions of the Stark house. Far fewer recognize dire wolves by their scientific name, Canis dirus, or understand the population history of this ‘fearsome wolf’ species that roamed the Americas until the megafaunal mass extinction event of the Late Pleistocene. Although numerous studies have examined the species using morphological and geographical methods, thus far their results have been either inconclusive or contradictory. Remaining questions include the relationships dire wolves share with other members of the Canis genus and the internal structure of their populations. Advancements in ancient DNA recovery methods may make it possible to study dire wolf specimens at the molecular level for the first time and may therefore prove useful in clarifying the answers to these questions. Eighteen dire wolf specimens were collected from across the United States and subjected to ancient DNA extraction, library preparation, amplification and purification, bait preparation and capture, and next-generation sequencing. There was an average of 76.9 unique reads and 5.73% coverage when mapped to the Canis familiaris reference genome in ultraconserved regions of the mitochondrial genome. The results indicate that endogenous ancient DNA was not successfully recovered and perhaps ancient DNA recovery methods have not advanced to the point of retrieving informative amounts of DNA from particularly old, thermally degraded specimens. Nevertheless, the ever-changing nature of ancient DNA research makes it vital to continually test the limitations of the field and suggests that ancient DNA recovery methods will prove useful in illuminating dire wolf population history at some point in the future.

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  • 2018-05

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The Commit to be Well Program: An Effective Worksite Wellness Program

Description

Health and wellness coaching has shown promising results in numerous studies. However, there is lack of published research evaluating the impact of using wellness-coaching interventions implemented by coaching trainees in

Health and wellness coaching has shown promising results in numerous studies. However, there is lack of published research evaluating the impact of using wellness-coaching interventions implemented by coaching trainees in a worksite setting. The main objective was to examine the changes in self-reported scores of the 12-wellness dimensions of health in ASU students, faculty, and staff after participating in an eight-week health and wellness program. The secondary outcome was to evaluate if additional health and wellness recommendations had a significant impact. The participants were aged 18 to 58 years and were divided into two groups: the first group received health and wellness coaching, while the second group received the health and wellness coaching in addition to recommendations on specific worksite social/embedded programs and supporting activities. Both groups had significantly increased scores in Eating/Nutrition and Thinking (p<0.001 and P<0.014 respectively). Health and wellness coaching trainees were effective in assisting clients on reaching realistic progress. Our program shows potential benefits in worksite wellness.

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  • 2017-12

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Understanding the Need for a Transitional Living Program for Individuals with Physical Disabilities

Description

The present study addresses the usefulness of additional programming/education within a transitional living home/community for individuals with physical disabilities. The study also addresses potential topics that could be covered in

The present study addresses the usefulness of additional programming/education within a transitional living home/community for individuals with physical disabilities. The study also addresses potential topics that could be covered in said programming/education. The study was conducted over 4 weeks during which 9 responses were received from an online survey sent out to 26 individuals via email. The results of the study indicate that there is a definite need for additional programming/education to be paired with the experience of living in a transitional living home. The study also found that topics to be included should cover job training/job readiness, finances, laws that protect these individuals' rights, and areas of self-reliance such as coordinating transportation, cooking, housekeeping, and budgeting/money management. Overall the study concluded that the participants generally believe they are living an independent life, but they do express some dissatisfaction and desire to change their current situations. All findings of the study will be used specifically within Arizona Lions Camp Tatiyee to further the development of the proposed program.

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  • 2017-12

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Maternal and Infant Feeding Status Related to Infant Temperament, Postpartum Depression, and Weight

Description

This longitudinal research study addresses the correlations between infant feeding status in relation to infant temperament, maternal postpartum depression, and weight changes over time in a lower income, diverse population

This longitudinal research study addresses the correlations between infant feeding status in relation to infant temperament, maternal postpartum depression, and weight changes over time in a lower income, diverse population sample. The majority of participants were enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in Mesa, Arizona. Each participant was recruited in their third trimester and followed for the infants' first six months of life. A series of four home visits were made in which demographic surveys, temperament questionnaires, postpartum depression scales, weight changes over time, fecal, vaginal, saliva, and breast milk samples were taken. Due to the extensive process of extracting and sequencing of the microbiome samples, data has yet to be collected from the fecal, vaginal, saliva, and breast milk samples and were not included in this study. Correlational and descriptive statistics were run on the qualitative data including various demographic questions, total temperament, depression, and healthy eating index scores. It was found that lower socioeconomic factors contributed to more difficult infant temperaments, mothers who breastfed had higher post-delivery postpartum depression scores, and mothers with healthier eating indexes formula or mixed fed their infants. The findings from this data will be compared to the incoming microbiome data to examine the role of the microbiome of mothers and infants and its effects on infant temperament, postpartum depression, and weight changes over time.

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  • 2018-05

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Patient and Provider Perceptions of mHealth Technologies in Clinical Settings

Description

Mobile health or "mHealth" defines a broad spectrum of medical or public health practice supported by mobile devices. The patient's perception of mobile health applications is the key point in

Mobile health or "mHealth" defines a broad spectrum of medical or public health practice supported by mobile devices. The patient's perception of mobile health applications is the key point in confronting whether or not patients will utilize the tools at their disposal As such, the primary aim of this study was to examine participant feedback through quantitative and qualitative measures using the Therapy Evaluation Questionnaire and a patient interview, respectively, to further understand the patient rated acceptability of using BeWell24 and SleepWell24 for improving health outcomes. For BeWell24, it was hypothesized that patients who received the Multicomponent version would report higher acceptability scores than those randomized to the Health Education version. Furthermore, in regard to SleepWell24, it was hypothesized that the SleepWell24 patient would provide positive feedback and suggestions regarding their own experience with the SleepWell24 app. Data from this thesis was pulled from two ongoing randomized controlled trials currently being conducted at the Phoenix Veteran Affairs Health Care Service (PVACHS) and Mayo Clinic hospitals. Means, standard deviations, frequencies, and percentages were commuted to summarize demographics and TEQ scores. In addition, key concepts from a qualitative interview with a SleepWell24 participant were derived. The results showed a greater acceptability of the multicomponent versions of BeWell24 and SleepWell24 but a lower TEQ score of perceived usability. mHealth implementations pose a potential to become an important part of the health sector for establishing innovative approaches to delivering care, and while benefits have been highly praised, it is clear that the perceptions of mHealth must be positive if the technology is to transcend into a practical clinical setting.

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  • 2018-05