Matching Items (610)

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Do 5-HT7R Antagonists have Anti-Cocaine Effects?

Description

Substance abuse costs the United States over $740 billion annually in healthcare, law enforcement, rehabilitation, and decreased work productivity costs. While there are certain clinical treatments for nicotine, opioid,

Substance abuse costs the United States over $740 billion annually in healthcare, law enforcement, rehabilitation, and decreased work productivity costs. While there are certain clinical treatments for nicotine, opioid, and alcohol addiction, there is yet an equivalent treatment for psychostimulant addiction. The 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) is one of the more recently discovered members of the serotonin receptor family. The involvement of 5-HT7Rs in thermoregulation, memory, and circadian rhythms, suggests that the receptor also plays a role in mood regulation, making it a potential target in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Given’ the distribution of the 5-HT7Rs in the brain and its known cellular functions, the receptor has also been implicated in addiction processes. Most studies to date have mainly focused on psychiatric conditions like depression, having yet to explore the role of 5-HT7Rs in psycho-stimulant behaviors. In our study, the effects of SB 269970(SB), a selective antagonist for 5-HT7Rs, were tested on 8-OH-DPAT induced hypothermia, cocaine-induced locomotion, and fos expression in the nucleus accumbens. We found that SB effectively reversed 8-OH-DPAT induced hypothermia, indicating the drug is indeed binding to the 5-HT7R. However, while cocaine did increase locomotor activity and fos expression in the nucleus accumbens in rats, SB had no effect on either measure. These results suggest that 5-HT7Rs may work through pathways other than motor and should be explored through additional behavioral tests. Other brain regions should also be studied for fos expression to see if there is a region-specific effect of 5-HT7Rs and fos expression. The efficacy of SB to 5-HT7Rs and results of past studies on the drug suggests its potential as a pharmacological treatment for psychostimulant disorders.

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  • 2019-05

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The Effects of Nature and Culture on Millennial Response to Food Advertisements

Description

The purpose of advertising is nearly always to persuade the viewer. Ads persuade us to buy products, to stop using products, to visit places, to vote for candidates, and more.

The purpose of advertising is nearly always to persuade the viewer. Ads persuade us to buy products, to stop using products, to visit places, to vote for candidates, and more. When it comes to food marketing, advertisements often use appeals that have nothing to do with the taste or nutritional value of the food its selling. They may use scantily clad models, famous celebrities, striking images, and funny quotes. However, the same advertisement does not appeal across all demographics. Culture and society play a role in the way we perceive the ads presented to us. Amongst millennials (the generation born between 1985-2000), changes in social norms and ideologies have particularly influenced the content this generation prefers to see, even across different ethnic groups. The digital age has changed the world that millennials have reached adulthood in, and social media and globalization have made us more connected than ever. By studying the kinds of food advertisements that entice millennials and turn them away, we can find trends that are popular across all cultures in this age division as well as the appeals that may alienate certain groups.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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The Contribution of Lithuanian Deportees’ Memoirs to Lithuanian National Identity

Description

Between 1941 and 1953, thousands of Lithuanians were deported by the Soviet Union as far from their homeland as the northern reaches of Siberia. While many perished as they contended

Between 1941 and 1953, thousands of Lithuanians were deported by the Soviet Union as far from their homeland as the northern reaches of Siberia. While many perished as they contended with hunger, thirst, illness, harsh weather, ill-suited clothing, and poor housing, several survived, returned, and recounted their experiences. Returned adult deportees often recall solidarity among Lithuanians, interactions with locals and authorities, and efforts to maintain agency and continue cultural traditions. Children remember going to school, relying on their parents, and returning to Lithuania. Deportees and others involved in recording their memoirs wrote them in Lithuanian or translated them into English for different purposes and with different intended audiences. The ways in which deportees describe their experiences and what they omit from their stories have shaped Lithuania’s national identity when it reemerged as the Soviet Union fell following Stalin’s death in 1953 and Lithuania redeclared its independence in 1990. The years in which memoirs were published also likely influence their contents. Despite the horrors of deportation, returnees describe positive aspects of the experience. Many deportees portray themselves as struggling for survival, but not as helpless victims. Relatively rare mention of conflict among Lithuanian deportees and identification of non-Lithuanian deportees’ ethnicities suggest the importance of Lithuanians striving together for a common goal: survival and return to Lithuania. The creation of museums focused on deportation, incorporation of memoirs in school curricula, observation of a Day of Mourning and Hope, and portrayal of deportations in works of literature and film demonstrate their lasting impact and significance.

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  • 2019-05

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桜のバイキング: Exploring the Intersection of Medieval European and Japanese Culture Through Chainmail

Description

Since I was a child, I was active in the Society for Creative Anachronism, a medieval reenactment group. Through my involvement with the group, I developed an interest in medieval

Since I was a child, I was active in the Society for Creative Anachronism, a medieval reenactment group. Through my involvement with the group, I developed an interest in medieval European history, and I had the opportunity to take several jewelry making classes. I have been making jewelry for about seven years, and I especially love making chainmail jewelry, so I knew I wanted to incorporate that in this project. Rather than preparing a jewelry collection, I decided on a larger, more focused project – a period dress made of chainmail. I chose the Viking apron dress because it is a style that I myself have often worn in the SCA. To make the piece more personal to me, I incorporated influence from my Japanese heritage as well, both in the weave and in the cherry blossom theme of the dress. This project allowed me to explore the similarities and differences between Viking and Japanese culture, as well as to work with new metals and metalworking techniques that I had not worked with previously. For this project, I crafted an apron dress out of copper and nickel using the Hikaru weave, a variant of Japanese 6-in-1. I also sewed an underdress with simple chainmail trim and crafted a pair of cherry blossom shaped pins in place of the traditional tortoise brooches. This piece was a challenge to myself, as this was my first attempt at a project on this scale, and I had the opportunity to learn many new techniques along the way. While my finished piece has changed quite a bit from my original vision, I’ve learned so much from this project – about the cultures I tried to convey with the piece, as well as about myself and what I am capable of accomplishing.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Levels of Formality in French Translations of American TV Shows

Description

In a world where people can access a foreign language as easily as they can access Netflix, looking at and comparing translations can aid in considering the differences between cultures

In a world where people can access a foreign language as easily as they can access Netflix, looking at and comparing translations can aid in considering the differences between cultures as they are conveyed through language. The purpose of my thesis is to investigate the translation of levels of formality in American TV Shows into their French dubbed version. In particular, I survey the presence of specific lexical and morpho-syntactic French indicators of formality in the translations of five American TV Shows and how the inclusion of such features establishes the formality of a situation or relationship. Through my analysis, I explore the difficulties and concerns of translations, the effect of the translation on the audiences, and possible reasons behind the translators’ choices. When it comes to the incorporation of French lexical features, translations seem to be affected by the cultural differences between American and French society since these features deal with cultural material that is difficult to find a proper equivalence for. On the other hand, translations of morpho-syntactic features are concerned with transferring meaning from an American English structure into a French structure. When we consider these features one by one, we see how culture is filtered through language and the difficulty of translating language that is bound to a society, its institutions, and its culture.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Characterizing Diurnal Density and Temperature Variations in the Martian Atmosphere Using Data/Model Comparisons

Description

This project focuses on using Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) density data for carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen during deep dip campaigns 5, 6, and 8.

This project focuses on using Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) density data for carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen during deep dip campaigns 5, 6, and 8. Density profiles obtained from NGIMS were plotted against simulated density profiles from the Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (MGITM). Averaged temperature profiles were also plotted for the three deep dip campaigns, using NGIMS data and MGITM output. MGITM was also used as a tool to uncover potential heat balance terms needed to reproduce the mean density and temperature profiles measured by NGIMS.

This method of using NGIMS data as a validation tool for MGITM simulations has been tested previously using dayside data from deep dip campaigns 2 and 8. In those cases, MGITM was able to accurately reproduce the measured density and temperature profiles; however, in the deep dip 5 and 6 campaigns, the results are not quite the same, due to the highly variable nature of the nightside thermosphere. MGITM was able to fairly accurately reproduce the density and temperature profiles for deep dip 5, but the deep dip 6 model output showed unexpected significant variation. The deep dip 6 results reveal possible changes to be made to MGITM to more accurately reflect the observed structure of the nighttime thermosphere. In particular, upgrading the model to incorporate a suitable gravity wave parameterization should better capture the role of global winds in maintaining the nighttime thermospheric structure.

This project reveals that there still exist many unknowns about the structure and dynamics of the night side of the Martian atmosphere, as well as significant diurnal variations in density. Further study is needed to uncover these unknowns and their role in atmospheric mass loss.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Questioning the Man in the Glass Booth: Analyzing Depictions of the Eichmann Trial

Description

The thesis explores the trial of the Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann, which occurred in Jerusalem in 1961. In order to do this, the thesis analyzes four sources—two films and

The thesis explores the trial of the Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann, which occurred in Jerusalem in 1961. In order to do this, the thesis analyzes four sources—two films and two books—that exist as representations of and responses to the historic trial. My analyses investigate the role of the witnesses who offered testimony during the trial and the sentencing that occurred at the trial’s conclusion, which are two major aspects of the trial. By comparing the way that various witnesses, who appear in multiple representations of the trial, are portrayed, the thesis will make conclusions regarding the way that each source utilizes the witness testimony. In order to evaluate the way each source presents the sentencing of the trial, the thesis uses Yasco Horsman’s concepts of the constative and performative aspects of judgement. The thesis concludes by discussing the value that each of these works has as a representation of the Holocaust. Ultimately, as time distances the modern generation from the events of the Holocaust and post-Holocaust trials, the need for such representations as the four examined in this thesis continues to grow in importance.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Latrine use, boiled water, and bed nets: associations between biomarkers of immune status and public health in a subsistence population

Description

This study examines associations between clean water, sanitation, mosquito net usage, and immune biomarkers among the Tsimane, a remote subsistence population of forager-horticulturalists with a high pathogen load. Interviews with

This study examines associations between clean water, sanitation, mosquito net usage, and immune biomarkers among the Tsimane, a remote subsistence population of forager-horticulturalists with a high pathogen load. Interviews with heads of household (n=710, aged 18-92, median age 40 years) were conducted to ascertain household water sources, ownership and usage of mosquito nets, and latrine use. In this sample, 21% of households used latrines, 20% always boiled their water, and 85% used mosquito nets. Regression models estimate their associations biomarkers of pathogen exposure, including white blood cell count (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), eosinophils, and sedimentation rate (ESR). Controlling for age, sex, and distance from the closest market town, latrine use (Std. β = -0.11, p= 0.017) and boiling water (Std. β = -0.08, p= 0.059) are associated with lower WBCs. Latrine use is marginally associated with higher hemoglobin (Std. β = 0.09, p= 0.048), but not boiling water (p= 0.447). ESR trends toward lower levels for households that always boil water (Std. β= -0.09, p= 0.131), but is not associated with latrine use (p=0.803). Latrine use was significantly associated with lower eosinophil counts (Std. β= -0.14, p=0.013), but not boiling water (p=0.240). Mosquito nets are not associated with any of these biomarkers. Both boiling water and latrine use are associated with better health outcomes in this sample. These results suggest that scarce public health resources in rural subsistence populations without malarial risk may wish to prioritize boiling water and latrine use to improve health outcomes.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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#MeToo: Polarization and Discourse in the Digital Age

Description

Social media is explosively popular in discussing socio-political issues. This work provides a preliminary study on how polarization occurs online. Chapter I begins by introducing limitations of the internet in

Social media is explosively popular in discussing socio-political issues. This work provides a preliminary study on how polarization occurs online. Chapter I begins by introducing limitations of the internet in maintaining a free flow of information. Not only do users seek out groups of like-minded individuals and insulate themselves from opposing views, social media platforms algorithmically curate content such that it will be in line with a user’s preconceived notions of the world. The work then defines polarization and carefully discusses its most prominent causes. It then shifts focus to analyze a closely-related issue regarding political discourse: outrage, which is both a noticeable effect of and further cause of polarization. It is clearly prevalent in traditional media, but for completion, I provide a case study to measure its incidence in social media. In Chapter II, I scrutinize the language used in the #MeToo movement on Twitter and draw conclusions about the issues Twitter users focus on and how they express their views. This chapter details the method I used, the challenges I faced in designing the exploratory study, and the results I found. I benchmark patterns I find in the Twitterverse against those I find in The Wall Street Journal. The analysis relies upon the metric of word similarity, based on proximity of and frequency of words used together, to make distinctions about what users are most commonly saying with respect to given topics, or keywords. Chapter III closes the essay with conclusions of socio-political polarization, discourse, and outrage in social media. Finally, the essay outlines potential channels for future work.

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  • 2019-05

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Millennial Participation and Civic Engagement in Local Government: How Municipal Governments Can Increase Civic Engagement of Young People

Description

Local government is an area of politics that is often put on the back burner by citizens. As compared to national government, participation at the local level is dismal. Participation

Local government is an area of politics that is often put on the back burner by citizens. As compared to national government, participation at the local level is dismal. Participation in governments includes (but is not limited to) voting, attending public meetings, working with neighbors, and having baseline knowledge of current events in local government. This disinterest is particularly concerning with young voters. This thesis seeks to provide possible remedies for local governments to increase "millennial" participation and knowledge of the local government process. This project serves as a pilot study and draws upon interviews from sixty young people (ages 18-30) regarding their involvement in Arizona local government. These interviews determined their level of interest, knowledge, and participation in their local government. I used my findings to create a prescriptive approach for local government officials to increase the participation of young people in local government.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05