Matching Items (223)

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Iphigenia the Intrepid and Agave the Animal: Masculinization in Classical Literature

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Classical literature features numerous prominent female characters. This thesis paper identifies and examines the pattern of masculinization of female characters in classical literature through case studies of two characters and two authors. The character Iphigenia is examined as an example

Classical literature features numerous prominent female characters. This thesis paper identifies and examines the pattern of masculinization of female characters in classical literature through case studies of two characters and two authors. The character Iphigenia is examined as an example of a heroically masculinized female character and the character Agave is examined as an example of an aggressively masculinized female character. The mythologies of these two women are analyzed through the writings of the authors Euripides and Ovid in order to compare and contrast the perspectives of a Greek and Roman author on masculinization. The texts analyzed for this paper were Euripides' Iphigenia at Aulis, Iphigenia Among the Taurians, and The Bacchae, as well as Ovid's Metamorphoses. This paper also analyzes the responses to masculinized female characters within the texts and identifies patterns of re-feminization in Euripides' writing and dehumanization in Ovid's writing. These responses are found to be reflective of cultural values regarding gender and this paper discusses how these literary characterization patterns are indicative of cultural anxieties regarding gender norms. Finally, this paper briefly addresses similar patterns of masculinization in modern film and literature exemplified by the proverbial "strong female character." This paper compares two modern "strong female characters", Katniss Everdeen from The Hunger Games and the Bride from Kill Bill, to Iphigenia and Agave and draws parallels in their masculinization patterns. The results of this paper's textual analysis conclude that classical authors (as well as some modern authors) often masculinized their female characters but expressed subsequent cultural discomfort with those characters as a reflection of uncertainty regarding established gender norms.

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2018-05

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Systematic Literature Review of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs

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Prescription opioid abuse has become a serious national problem. To respond to the opioid epidemic, states have created prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) to monitor and reduce opioids use. We conducted a systematic literature review to better understand metrics used

Prescription opioid abuse has become a serious national problem. To respond to the opioid epidemic, states have created prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) to monitor and reduce opioids use. We conducted a systematic literature review to better understand metrics used to quantify the effect that PDMPs have had on reducing opioid abuse, and solutions and challenges related to the integration of PDMPs with EHRs. Lessons learned can help guide federal and state-based efforts to better respond to the current opioid crisis.

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2018-05

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Comparing behavioral activities of male and female adolescent macaques

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Behavior of males and females may be mediated by their biological differences and, among cercopithecines, their divergent reproductive strategies. In order to have high reproductive success, individuals need to produce high quality offspring. Through pregnancy, lactation, and maternal care, females

Behavior of males and females may be mediated by their biological differences and, among cercopithecines, their divergent reproductive strategies. In order to have high reproductive success, individuals need to produce high quality offspring. Through pregnancy, lactation, and maternal care, females have a strong influence on the quality of their offspring. Within the cercopithecine mating system, males are limited in direct influence on offspring outcomes within the Cercopithecines, and are adapted to more typically maximize mating opportunities. In general, female reproductive strategies involve securing the most food while male reproductive strategies are geared towards helping them secure the most fertile females both somatically and behaviorally. In this paper, I investigated how the behaviors observed among female adolescent rhesus macaque monkeys would differ from the males as their divergent reproductive trajectories begin to manifest. I made predictions based off of four questions: who would be more affiliative with whom, who would be more aggressive and with whom, who would be more variable in their behaviors, and who would be lonelier. I predicted that females would be more affiliative with other females, due to the importance of social connectivity, and males would be more affiliative with males, due to the social bonds male adolescents form with each other. I predicted that males would be overall more aggressive than males because they were found to be by Bernstein et al. (1993). I predicted that males would show more variation in behavior since they may have to be more flexible to capitalize on all conditions to obtain mates. Finally, I predicted that males would be lonelier as an effect of social rank on males and female choice. In order to further understand these differences, 36 adolescent Macaca mulatta, N = 20 female and N=16 male, from the California Primate Center at University of California at Davis, CA were observed. The observer used a standardized method to score the subjects on a variety of behaviors like locomotion, aggression, grooming and more. Each individual underwent around 6 trials and the observations lasted 15 minutes. The data supported the first hypothesis that females are affiliative with each other and males are affiliative with each other. The date also showed that females are more aggressive than males and their aggression is generally targeted towards females. The third prediction was not supported by the data and females were actually more variable in their behaviors than males. Lastly, the data did not support the prediction that males are lonely moneys, however, it did support the alternative hypothesis that they are truly low sociable, low in sociability and low social connectivity.

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2018-05

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Best Practices for Undergraduate Mental Health Support for Study Abroad

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This paper describes a mixed methods investigation of undergraduate mental health support practices at Arizona State University (ASU), as well as an outside look at peer and other leading institutions. Methods employed in this study include: ASU undergraduate student survey

This paper describes a mixed methods investigation of undergraduate mental health support practices at Arizona State University (ASU), as well as an outside look at peer and other leading institutions. Methods employed in this study include: ASU undergraduate student survey to assess perception of resources provided by ASU and the likelihood to disclose physical and mental health conditions, key informant interviews to understand ASU mental health support from the perspective of those who implement support measures, participant observation of study abroad events that provide resources to prospective and pre-departure students, and a document review of the study abroad website from peer and other institutions. The target population of this study is undergraduate students who participate or plan to participate in study abroad programs across the United States. The sample population for the undergraduate student survey is undergraduate students at ASU, as well as sixteen institutions for the document review. Significant findings from the research include student concerns about financial and academic barriers to study abroad, as well as a greater likelihood to disclose physical health conditions rather than mental health conditions due to fear of stigma or of being a burden to program coordinators. Additionally, it was found that there is a separation between available resources and student awareness and use of these resources. ASU can work to remedy this disconnect by explicitly presenting easily accessible resource information on the website and in pre-departure materials, as well as addressing mental health awareness abroad in an inclusive manner towards all students in addition to those with pre-existing mental health conditions. Overall, more work should be done to fulfill the vision of comprehensive mental health support at ASU.

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2018-05

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The effects of exercise on locomotor recovery after partial spinal cord injury in a rat model

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This study was conducted to examine the potential effects of exercise training on partial spinal cord injury on locomotor recovery in juvenile rats. Three groups were tested, where three female Long-Evans rats 10-12 weeks of age were studied for their

This study was conducted to examine the potential effects of exercise training on partial spinal cord injury on locomotor recovery in juvenile rats. Three groups were tested, where three female Long-Evans rats 10-12 weeks of age were studied for their locomotion. All animals underwent a T8-T9 laminectomy and two of the three in each group received a dorsal, partial spinal cord injury. Locomotion was then analyzed every week, over 8-10 weeks. One of the two injured animals was given open access to a wheel after 2 weeks for voluntary exercise training. The results of this study suggested that injured animals displayed more irregular stepping patterns, larger hindlimb bases of support, greater and more variable interpaw distances, slower hindlimb speed, and increased dependency of swing-phase duty cycle on hindlimb speed. Trained animals displayed quicker recovery of stepping patterns, stepping of the hindpaw in relation to the preceding ipsilateral forepaw, and higher swing-duty cycle dependency on hindlimb speed in comparison to injured animals that did not receive exercise training. Due to a small sample size, there was a large amount of variation between individual animals in most parameters. These results are considered to be potential effects that may be seen in further study with a larger sample size. The research team will continue the research project to examine changes in neural pathways in the spinal cord and the effects of exercise on recovery after injury.

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2018-05

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Phylogenetic Assessment of the Genus Steinius (Euprimates; Omomyidae)

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The genus Steinius has been determined to be one of the earliest forms of omomyids after being hypothesized to belong in the earliest anaptomorphines dating back to the Eocene. This genus is thought to be one of the ancestors of

The genus Steinius has been determined to be one of the earliest forms of omomyids after being hypothesized to belong in the earliest anaptomorphines dating back to the Eocene. This genus is thought to be one of the ancestors of later omomyids. Other ancestors would include an early omomyid with characteristics resembling the primitive characteristics of Steinius. There are two sister taxa belonging to this genus, Steinius annectens and Steinius vespertinus. Both taxa appear within the strata at Bighorn Basin in Wyoming, with S. annectens appearing in early forms of stratigraphy compared to S. vespertinus. Specimens of both taxa are also lacking with only jaw fragments and single teeth specimens being known today. Although much of Steinius is unknown, it can be associated with Tarsiiformes, or tarsiers. The specimens in this study consisted of lower jaw fragments that were assessed via a microscope containing a reticle calibrated for tooth measurements. These measurements and visual assessments could be used later in the study to determine the relatedness of both taxa. This thesis provides an assessment on the dental morphological characteristics of the genus Steinius that includes both qualitative and quantitative data. The relationship between both sister taxa of this genus is also discussed in detail with a comparison of the similarities found in both teeth. The results obtained from this evaluation showed that both taxa can be determined to be related. One key difference that was noted, however, is that S. annectens has an average tooth size that is larger than that of S. vespertinus and other early omomyids.

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2018-05

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Eat In, Not Out: A Comparative Analysis Between at Home Cooking and Restaurant Dining

Description

This creative project seeks to demonstrate the nutritional and financial benefits of cooking in versus eating out to college age students. We sought to determine what factors significantly differentiated restaurant meals versus home-cooked versions, and how we could share this

This creative project seeks to demonstrate the nutritional and financial benefits of cooking in versus eating out to college age students. We sought to determine what factors significantly differentiated restaurant meals versus home-cooked versions, and how we could share this information with our peers to potentially influence them to make a healthy lifestyle change. The first step was to determine the factors that influence college-aged students eating habits, and was presented with a review of relevant literature in several topics. We researched food literacy in young adults, the impact of fast food, social media's role in healthy eating habits, health behavior change in young adults, and the benefits of home cooking to obtain a general baseline of the knowledge of college-aged students. The initial research was utilized to write more effective blog posts that appropriately addressed our targeted demographic and to determine what platforms would be most appropriate to convey our information. These ideas were taken and then translated into a blog and Instagram account that contained healthy, copycat recipes of popular restaurant meals. We wrote 30 blog posts which were made up of 20 original recipes, 8 nutrition informational posts, and an introduction/conclusion. Finally, a focus group was hosted to ascertain the opinions of our peers, and to determine if they would be willing to make a lifestyle change in the form of cooking more frequently as opposed to eating out regularly. We provided them with a pre and post survey to gather their opinions before and after reviewing the findings of our research and project. We concluded that if given the information in an accessible way, college students are willing to eat in, not out.

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2018-05

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Self-Esteem, Dietary Habits, and Perception of Body Image Among the Homeless Population

Description

Since underserved individuals do not have a steady supply of food, this study explored whether their standards of what they view as healthy differs from individuals who can afford a basic living that includes food and shelter. Data collection from

Since underserved individuals do not have a steady supply of food, this study explored whether their standards of what they view as healthy differs from individuals who can afford a basic living that includes food and shelter. Data collection from surveys provided information to see whether the struggles of obtaining food affects what is perceived as healthy, and whether there is a difference in dietary habits, perception of body image, and self-esteem. Homeless individuals displayed that they were more aware than non-homeless individuals that the food they were consuming was unhealthy. They were also less satisfied with their daily food diet, as most of them wished that they ate greater quantities of certain foods. Their daily food intake did confirm that they consumed more unhealthy food that lacked nutrition compared to non-homeless individuals. They also generally believed that thicker body images were healthier and more attractive compared to non-homeless people who thought that thinner body images were healthier and attractive. Homeless people also generally ranked lower on the body image scale than the image they thought was most desirable and healthy. This revealed a lack of satisfaction with their own current body. Additionally, the self-efficacy score displayed that homeless individuals generally scored lower for their self-esteem level compared to non-homeless people. This demonstrated that their daily struggles and lifestyle impacts their emotions and overall confidence.

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2018-05

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Socioeconomic and Cultural Ideas of Endometriosis in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Narrative Literature Review

Description

Background: Endometriosis is a condition characterized by the growth of the endometrium, or the tissue that lines the uterus, outside of the uterus, and it is diagnosed through the presence of endometriotic lesions in the pelvic region. The disease is

Background: Endometriosis is a condition characterized by the growth of the endometrium, or the tissue that lines the uterus, outside of the uterus, and it is diagnosed through the presence of endometriotic lesions in the pelvic region. The disease is most often associated with abnormal and painful vaginal bleeding. Currently, minimal literature exists concerning the management of endometriosis in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), which may influence the lack of a cultural competent understanding of menstruation in LMICs and, therefore, a lack of evidence-based policies concerning menstruation.

Methods: Social and cultural barriers influencing endometriosis reporting and management in LMICs were examined through a systematic literature review. Online databases yielded a list of relevant studies. Then, use of MAXQDA, a qualitative data analysis software program, helped to extract and code specific text segments from each study that pertain to the research topic. In-context analysis of coded segments revealed the most common trends, which were organized into broader themes.

Results: Findings demonstrated that social and cultural ideas regarding vaginal bleeding influenced the lack of disease reporting and management of endometriosis in LMICs. Socioeconomic challenges include a lack of hygiene and sanitation measures and education regarding menstruation and vaginal bleeding. Also, many diseases associated with the abnormal vaginal bleeding are often disregarded and not prioritized in clinical settings. It also became clear that cultural taboos regarding menstruation and vaginal bleeding often create feelings of anxiety and fear in women and girls throughout communities in LMICs. However, further research is needed to examine the ways in which women in those communities treat symptoms of irregular vaginal bleeding related to endometriosis.

Conclusions: Socioeconomic, gender, and sex-related factors may influence the ways in which endometriosis is reported and treated and may affect the way the related diseases are understood. Evidence-based policies using a culturally competent understanding of abnormal vaginal bleeding in LMICs may help positively affect the reproductive health of women and girls in such areas.

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2019-05

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Sex Trafficking in the US: A Case Study of the Stories We Tell and Who they Exclude

Description

In the current political moment, sex trafficking is an issues that has gained increased political and media attention. This thesis first analyzes the stories that are told about sex trafficking in policy and the media. Analyzing these stories help us

In the current political moment, sex trafficking is an issues that has gained increased political and media attention. This thesis first analyzes the stories that are told about sex trafficking in policy and the media. Analyzing these stories help us make sense of whose voices, experiences, and needs we listen to, and in relief, whose we do not. Through a case study that evaluates the research, policy work, and advocacy being conducted through the Office of Sex Trafficking Intervention Research at ASU, I first explore how they are dominating the conversation about sex trafficking in Arizona. I offer four critiques on STIR's approach to sex trafficking. First, I critique the language that STIR uses, and the implications of explaining this social issue as sex trafficking instead of survival sex. I then critique the policy and responses around the experiences of LGBTQ youth, and how the theory of dynamic nominalism informs the way we should represent LGBTQ youth in research. Through analyzing specific responses to sex trafficking prevention that STIR offers, such as calling 911, I will explore the need for intersectionality to protect the wellbeing of youth of color. Lastly, through theoretical critiques of neoliberalism, I will explore the ways in which STIR's research, advocacy, and trainings neglect to explore the systems youth must navigate and exist in, and how those systems fail. Through each of these unique critiques, we notice different silences and important considerations that are missing from the work that is dominating the discussion of sex trafficking in the US. Ultimately, this thesis does not argue that we should not care about sex trafficking, but instead argues we need to care more. It explores the ways that acknowledging the complexity and nuance of this great social problem can provide the ability to create meaningful solutions that care for and listen to youth.

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2018-05