Matching Items (127)

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Social Support and Physical Activity in Latino Adolescents with Obesity and Prediabetes

Description

To determine whether a 3-month lifestyle intervention could increase social support (SS) and physical activity (PA) in Latino adolescents with obesity. Participants in the intervention will increase (SS) from family

To determine whether a 3-month lifestyle intervention could increase social support (SS) and physical activity (PA) in Latino adolescents with obesity. Participants in the intervention will increase (SS) from family and friends and PA. Youth attended weekly nutritional and exercise sessions at the YMCA. Familial and Friend SS for PA is not significant; moderate to vigorous PA is significant. Culturally-grounded & community-based intervention leads to changes in SS for PA and PA in Latino adolescents.

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  • 2019-05

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Latrine use, boiled water, and bed nets: associations between biomarkers of immune status and public health in a subsistence population

Description

This study examines associations between clean water, sanitation, mosquito net usage, and immune biomarkers among the Tsimane, a remote subsistence population of forager-horticulturalists with a high pathogen load. Interviews with

This study examines associations between clean water, sanitation, mosquito net usage, and immune biomarkers among the Tsimane, a remote subsistence population of forager-horticulturalists with a high pathogen load. Interviews with heads of household (n=710, aged 18-92, median age 40 years) were conducted to ascertain household water sources, ownership and usage of mosquito nets, and latrine use. In this sample, 21% of households used latrines, 20% always boiled their water, and 85% used mosquito nets. Regression models estimate their associations biomarkers of pathogen exposure, including white blood cell count (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), eosinophils, and sedimentation rate (ESR). Controlling for age, sex, and distance from the closest market town, latrine use (Std. β = -0.11, p= 0.017) and boiling water (Std. β = -0.08, p= 0.059) are associated with lower WBCs. Latrine use is marginally associated with higher hemoglobin (Std. β = 0.09, p= 0.048), but not boiling water (p= 0.447). ESR trends toward lower levels for households that always boil water (Std. β= -0.09, p= 0.131), but is not associated with latrine use (p=0.803). Latrine use was significantly associated with lower eosinophil counts (Std. β= -0.14, p=0.013), but not boiling water (p=0.240). Mosquito nets are not associated with any of these biomarkers. Both boiling water and latrine use are associated with better health outcomes in this sample. These results suggest that scarce public health resources in rural subsistence populations without malarial risk may wish to prioritize boiling water and latrine use to improve health outcomes.

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  • 2019-05

Analysis of Sexual Dimorphism in Sub-adult Crania

Description

Forensic anthropologists rely on the validated sex determination methods that utilize post-cranial elements in adult remains, but, recently, research has been conducted to determine adult remain sex using just the

Forensic anthropologists rely on the validated sex determination methods that utilize post-cranial elements in adult remains, but, recently, research has been conducted to determine adult remain sex using just the skull. Similar research for sub-adult remains is lacking the robustness and validation that adult determination methods possess. This study utilized 20 crania measurements taken from CT scans of child patients with known sexes at the Phoenix Children’s Hospital to investigate if a sex determination method could be produced. The measurements were assessed with a t-Test, Linear Discriminant Analysis, and Principle Component Analysis to determine if sexual dimorphism was detectable and if the predictive model had discriminant power when the sample size was categorized by age. The results revealed that a few measurements were dimorphic, but were not statistically significant to determine the sex of a sub-adult outside of the sample population. Future investigations will remove age group classification to observe if this model can predict age.

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  • 2019-05

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A Cross-State Longitudinal Study of Opioid-Related Deaths Associated with Opioid and Naloxone Prescribing and Prevention Laws

Description

More than 40% of all U.S. opioid overdose deaths in 2016 involved a prescription opioid, with more than 46 people dying every day from overdoses involving prescription opioids, (CDC, 2017).

More than 40% of all U.S. opioid overdose deaths in 2016 involved a prescription opioid, with more than 46 people dying every day from overdoses involving prescription opioids, (CDC, 2017). Over the years, lawmakers have implemented policies and laws to address the opioid epidemic, and many of these vary from state to state. This study will lay out the basic guidelines of common pieces of legislation. It also examines relationships between 6 state-specific prescribing or preventative laws and associated changes in opioid-related deaths using a longitudinal cross-state study design (2007-2015). Specifically, it uses a linear regression to examine changes in state-specific rates of opioid-related deaths after implementation of specific policies, and whether states implementing these policies saw smaller increases than states without these policies. Initial key findings of this study show that three policies have a statistically significant association with opioid related overdose deaths are—Good Samaritan Laws, Standing Order Laws, and Naloxone Liability Laws. Paradoxically, all three policies correlated with an increase in opioid overdose deaths between 2007 and 2016. However, after correcting for the potential spurious relationship between state-specific timing of policy implementation and death rates, two policies have a statistically significant association (alpha <0.05) with opioid overdose death rates. First, the Naloxone Liability Laws were significantly associated with changes in opioid-related deaths and was correlated with a 0.33 log increase in opioid overdose death rates, or a 29% increase. This equates to about 1.39 more deaths per year per 100,000 people. Second, the legislation that allows for 3rd Party Naloxone prescriptions correlated with a 0.33 log decrease in opioid overdose death rates, or a 29% decrease. This equates to 1.39 fewer deaths per year per 100,000 people.

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  • 2019-05

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Development of a Novel Zebrafish Model for Dynamin-1 Epileptic Encephalopathy

Description

Epileptic encephalopathies (EE) are genetic or environmentally-caused conditions that cause “catastrophic” damage or degradation to the sensory, cognitive, and behavioral centers of the brain. Whole-exome sequencing identified de novo heterozygous

Epileptic encephalopathies (EE) are genetic or environmentally-caused conditions that cause “catastrophic” damage or degradation to the sensory, cognitive, and behavioral centers of the brain. Whole-exome sequencing identified de novo heterozygous missense mutations within the DNM1 gene of five pediatric patients with epileptic encephalopathies. DNM1 encodes for the dynamin-1 protein which is involved in endocytosis and synaptic recycling, and it is a member of dynamin GTPase. The zebrafish, an alternative model system for drug discovery, was utilized to develop a novel model for dynamin-1 epileptic encephalopathy through a small molecule inhibitor. The model system mimicked human epilepsy caused by DNM1 mutations and identified potential biochemical pathways involved in the production of this phenotype. The use of microinjections of mutated DNM1 verified phenotypes and was utilized to determine safe and effective antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for treatment of this specific EE. This zebrafish dynamin-1 epileptic encephalopathy model has potential uses for drug discovery and investigation of this rare childhood disorder.

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  • 2019-05

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A Case Study in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease of Two Ancient Andean Agriculturalists

Description

As a child passes through the birth canal, they become inoculated with vital gram positive and gram-negative bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes. Breast milk helps to support this growing microbiome by

As a child passes through the birth canal, they become inoculated with vital gram positive and gram-negative bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes. Breast milk helps to support this growing microbiome by providing oligosaccharides that support its proliferation. Breast milk can be considered the most nutritious source of food available to a growing infant by providing the necessary nutrients, growth hormones and antibodies to promote digestive health, growth, and a strong immune system. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Theory (DOHaD) is a theory that suggests a growing fetus and nursing child's nutrients and immune system are dependent on the mother's exposure to nutrients and toxins. Studies have shown a positive correlation between the length of nursing and a child's overall health through life. In addition, consuming an enriched diet after weaning builds a strong immunological and nutritional basis from which the child can grow. This leads to improvements in a child's overall health, which has beneficial long-term effects on morbidity and mortality. This project applied the theory to two Middle Horizon (AD500-1100) individuals from Akapana, Tiwanaku, in the Lake Titicaca Basin, Bolivia. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis was applied to first molar serial samples of these two individuals to determine weaning age and early childhood diet. Both individuals were male; one male died in adolescence between the age of 9-15 years, and the other died as an elderly adult around the age of 50-59 years. The results showed that the male who died in adulthood was provisioned with supplemental and post-weaning foods high in animal protein, and received breast milk until around 37 months of age. The adolescent male was weaned between 11-12 months and consumed a diet dominated by C4 plants \u2014 most likely maize \u2014 with much less protein. The correlation between prolonged access to breast milk and a healthier and more nutritious childhood diet and longevity are consistent with the theory discussed above.

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  • 2018-12

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Homelessness and Mental Illness: The Relationship Between These Two Factors, and Effective Service Model Solutions

Description

The purpose of this research study was to examine the intersection of the relationship between homelessness and mental illness, including other factors such as substance abuse. A secondary purpose of

The purpose of this research study was to examine the intersection of the relationship between homelessness and mental illness, including other factors such as substance abuse. A secondary purpose of this study was to gain an awareness of service delivery models and associated funding streams for providing services to homeless persons with mental illness. A thorough literature review was conducted by the author in order to aid in answering these questions. The author also conducted interviews with 27 homeless and formerly homeless clients living in Denver who were receiving services through the Colorado Coalition for the Homeless. Finally, the author conducted 4 qualitative interviews with policy experts who worked extensively in homeless services and advocacy in the Metro-Denver area. All data was entered into an Excel workbook, and a series of graphs and tables were made to present the research results. The themes of mental illness and substance abuse were common amongst the sample population, but the most common theme was that of the lack of affordable housing available. The majority of respondents also cited involvement in the criminal justice system such as incarceration, as well as family issues as major factors in them becoming homeless. The policy experts all cited the Housing First as well as the Permanent Supportive Housing model as the most effective service delivery model for those who are both homeless and mentally-ill, and Denver is utilizing some very innovative funding streams for these service delivery models. In conclusion, the author found through both the literature review and quantitative research, that homelessness is not truly a mental illness or substance abuse issue alone, though this relationship does hold clinical importance. Homelessness is instead the result of an excessive shortage of permanent and affordable housing units across the United States.

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Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Phoenix's 90-90-90 Plan: Is the City on Track to Meet its Goals?

Description

The overall goal of the research study was to determine if the City of Phoenix is going to attain their 90-90-90 targets for 2020 as part of the Fast-Track Cities

The overall goal of the research study was to determine if the City of Phoenix is going to attain their 90-90-90 targets for 2020 as part of the Fast-Track Cities initiative. The Fast-Track Cities plan includes that by 2020, 90% of people living with HIV know their HIV status, 90% of people who know their HIV-positive status are on treatments, and 90% of people on treatment have suppressed viral loads. In order to achieve the Fast-Track Cities Initiative goals, the number of people who are aware of their status will need to increase by an additional 5%. The number of people living with HIV who are on HIV medications will need to increase 39%, and the number of people virally suppressed will need to increase 40% (City of Phoenix, 2016). This study was executed by first comparing HIV/AIDS epidemiology reports from the years of 2015-2017 to see the incidence trends. The city of Phoenix was also compared to the second largest city in Arizona, Tucson, to see if Phoenix was making more advances towards ending the HIV/AIDS epidemic in 2030. Next, interviews were conducted with members of the Ad-Hoc committee to gain their opinion on whether Phoenix is going to meet their 90-90-90 goals for the upcoming year. It was concluded that the City of Phoenix is making great progress, however, is not going to achieve their goals by 2020. The Ad-Hoc committee still is aiming to end the HIV/AIDS epidemic by 2030 and have implemented various projects such as the rapid-start protocol and the HIV home test kit initiative to meet this goal. Future improvements for the Fast-Track cities initiative include obtaining more accurate data and improving funding for the HIV stigma focus group as well as recruiting more political leaders.

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  • 2019-05

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Reefer Madness: An Introduction to Cannabis (ASB 420)

Description

Weed, pot, chronic, kaya, and kush are just a few names for one of the world’s most far-reaching and impactful substances. This course is designed with inclusive teaching devices for

Weed, pot, chronic, kaya, and kush are just a few names for one of the world’s most far-reaching and impactful substances. This course is designed with inclusive teaching devices for students to explore how the roots of economies, cultures, and histories have been intertwined with the subsistence of a plant. We will explore the biological and chemical nature of cannabis, historical accounts of human interactions with cannabis, production and industries, medicinal and recreational applications, legal and criminal ramifications, as well as future directions for legislation and economic opportunities. This class is intended to provide you with past research and facts, paired with coverage of events and movements happening today, so that you can make well-informed decisions for your future. The goal of this class is to motivate students to approach the topic of cannabis from various thought perspectives, so they can critically develop both life science knowledge and social science understandings regarding this polarizing subject. At the end of the course, students should be able to 1) Describe the basic anatomy and biology of cannabis plants, and the effects of psychoactive strains of cannabis on humans, 2) Explain the effects of cannabis on U.S. culture, as well as how U.S. culture has shaped the status of cannabis, 3) Differentiate evidence-based arguments from opinions and anecdotal positions, 4) Evaluate the interconnectedness of history, economics, criminal justice, and social contexts as they relate to cannabis, and 5) Demonstrate the ability to integrate evidence-based understandings into creating and disseminating knowledge through structured conversations and organized presentations.

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  • 2019-05

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Identifying and Evaluating the Impact of Ecological Factors on the Patterns of Health Risk Behaviors Among Arizona State University Students: A Survey-Based Study

Description

Ecological modeling can be used to analyze health risk behaviors and their relationship to ecological factors, which is useful in determining how social environmental factors influence an individual’s decisions. Environmental

Ecological modeling can be used to analyze health risk behaviors and their relationship to ecological factors, which is useful in determining how social environmental factors influence an individual’s decisions. Environmental interactions shape the way that humans behave throughout the day, either through observation, action, or consequences. Specifically, health risk behaviors can be analyzed in relation to ecological factors. Alcohol drinking among college students has been a long concern and there are many risks associated with these behaviors in this population. Consistent engagement in health risk behaviors as a college student, such as drinking and smoking, can pose a much larger issues later in life and can lead to many different health problems. A research study was conducted in the form of a 27 question survey to determine and evaluate the impact of ecological factors on drinking and smoking behaviors among Arizona State University students. Ecological factors such as demographics, living conditions, contexts of social interactions, and places where students spend most of their time were used to evaluate the relationship between drinking and smoking behaviors and the ecological factors, both on- and off- campus. The sample size of this study is 541 students. Statistical tests were conducted using Excel and RStudio to find relationships between patterns of health risk behaviors and various ecological factors. The data from the survey was analyzed to address three main questions. The first question analyzed drinking behaviors in relation to demographics, specifically gender and race. The second question assessed drinking behaviors with participation in Greek life and clubs on campus. The third question evaluated the relationship between health risk behaviors and students’ living conditions, such as living on or off campus. The results show that while gender does not have a statistically significant influence on drinking behaviors, race does. White individuals are more likely to engage in drinking behaviors and are more at risk than non-whites. Participation in Greek life was shown to be statistically significant in determining health risk behaviors, while involvement in clubs was not. Finally, on campus students are less likely to engage in health risk behaviors than off-campus students.

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  • 2019-05