Matching Items (123)

132494-Thumbnail Image.png

MULTIPLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM PROSTHETIC ELBOW JOINT: DESIGN OF A PROSTHETIC ELBOW JOINT WITH FLUID JOINT MEMBRANE SAC TO ENABLE MORE FLUID ROTATIONAL MOVEMENT

Description

Current prosthetic designs have limitations with properly representing the full range of motion that a human elbow provides. The structure of the biological elbow was analyzed to assess how it

Current prosthetic designs have limitations with properly representing the full range of motion that a human elbow provides. The structure of the biological elbow was analyzed to assess how it produces the flexion/extension and pronation/supination movement. The humerus and ulna have a hinge joint relationship, the humerus acts as a concave cylinder and the ulna acts as a convex cylinder, and the radius and ulna have a pivot joint relationship, the radius rotates around the ulna on a single axis. The joint cavity is responsible for flexion/extension and pronation/supination and also provides lubrication and strength of the elbow joint. A new design of a prosthetic elbow joint was created to mimic human elbow movements. The design uses a ball-and-socket socket joint that allows for flexion/extension and pronation/supination movement while incorporating a hydrogel lining to provide lubrication and restriction of pronation/supination to not go beyond human capacity. This joint was designed to be assembled from the back to the front; the socket has a cap on the outside that would allow for the ball to be inserted inside the socket and the cap be placed onto the socket. Once the final design and assembly process was completed, analysis of the design was performed to determine whether the design would be functional and reliable. The analysis concluded that the design and the material chosen for the design would not result in fracture and would also result in a large factor of safety, thus indicating that the prosthetic joint would not be easily damaged. Further research and development of this prosthetic elbow joint could be performed to allow it to be interchangeable with hinge joints that are currently used. Future work will include further research on the hydrogel lubricant, further analysis of the design and possible design modifications to allow for use in current practices and to account for the weak points in the current design. In summary, a successful redesign of the elbow joint prosthetic that provides low friction flexion/extension as well as pronation/supination movement will better serve the needs of individuals with amputation.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

132591-Thumbnail Image.png

Assessing the Voids in the Space Liability Framework: Space Privatization and Space Debris

Description

This thesis seeks to examine shortcomings in space law by focusing on two interconnected aspects: privatization and space debris. The aspects of privatization and space debris will be examined under

This thesis seeks to examine shortcomings in space law by focusing on two interconnected aspects: privatization and space debris. The aspects of privatization and space debris will be examined under the context of the Outer Space Treaty (OST) and other relevant legal instruments. Privatization and space debris are two current challenges that the OST fails to regulate efficiently. While the OST was being drafted, the international community did not foresee problems such as privatization and space debris. This is significant because we are witnessing an increase in privatization of space activities and corporations as well as a massive accumulation of dangerous space debris. While the OST grants states the power to regulate private space companies and the accretion of space debris, national laws rarely align with the OST, leading to the abuse of international space laws. We will make recommendations at the end of the thesis in an effort to revise the use of soft language in the OST to attune national laws with international laws as well as address the growing ambiguity surrounding privatization and space debris.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

132635-Thumbnail Image.png

Optimization of a Human Gastrin Receptor for LCP Crystallization

Description

The human gastrin receptor (CCKBR or CCK2R) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) found throughout the central nervous system, stomach, and a variety of cancer cells. CCK2R is

The human gastrin receptor (CCKBR or CCK2R) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) found throughout the central nervous system, stomach, and a variety of cancer cells. CCK2R is implicated in the regulation of biological processes, including anxiety, satiety, arousal, analgesia, psychosis, and cancer cell growth and proliferation. While CCK2R is an attractive drug target, few drugs have managed to effectively target the receptor, and none have been brought to market. Contributory to this is the lack of high-resolution crystal structure capable of elucidating the binding regions of CCK2R to streamlining drug screening. While GPCRs are not amenable to traditional structural analysis methodologies, the advent of lipidic cubic phase (LCP) crystallography and serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs), has extended the applicability of X-ray crystallography to these integral membrane proteins. LCP-SFX depends on optimizing the protein of interest for extraction, purification, and crystallization. Here we report our findings regarding the optimization of CCK2R suggesting the synergistic relationship between N-terminal truncations and the insertion of a fusion protein along ICL3, in addition to a 30-residue truncation of the C-terminus. Samples were expressed in Sf9 insect cells using a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system, extracted using n-Dodecyl-β-D-Maltoside detergent, and purified via TALON immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography. The constructs were characterized via SDS-PAGE, Western blot, and size exclusion chromatography. These findings demonstrate the improvements to CCK2R’s crystallographic amenability upon these modifications, however significant improvements must be made prior to crystallization trials. Future work will involve screening C-terminal truncations, thermostabilizing point mutations, and co-crystallizing ligands. Ideally this investigation will serve as a model for future CCK2R structural analysis and contribute to a heightened interest in CCK2R as a therapeutic target.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

132645-Thumbnail Image.png

Modeling Dynamics of Methamphetamine Markets and Use: A Case Study of Arizona and California

Description

Substance abuse has become a major problem in the USA in the past decade, with immense public health and societal consequences. Methamphetamine (meth) use has grown due to an increased

Substance abuse has become a major problem in the USA in the past decade, with immense public health and societal consequences. Methamphetamine (meth) use has grown due to an increased number of meth production and distribution markets. Border states such as Arizona and California are especially concerned with Mexico’s production and distribution of meth to their residents. A mathematical model for meth use and markets was developed and then analyzed to track multiple types of drug markets and drug-related arrests for possession or distribution. The importance of social influences as a major causal factor in the onset of illicit drug use is explicitly incorporated. The model parameters are then estimated using meth-related data from California and Arizona. A parameter sensitivity analysis on the model output was carried out. The results suggest that law enforcement policy aimed at marketers will be significantly more effective than targeting current users. Moreover, local unorganized markets have a greater role in maintaining the endemic level of meth users. Whereas, global organized markets play a role in initiating meth use outbreaks. Some implications for interventions and health promotion for the two states are also discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

132186-Thumbnail Image.png

Research and Design of an Epilepsy Clinic in Developing Countries Based on Sustainability and Ambient Environment

Description

Worldwide there are over 50 million people suffering from epilepsy, eighty percent (80%) of whom live in low to middle income countries. Of that eighty percent (80%) of people suffering

Worldwide there are over 50 million people suffering from epilepsy, eighty percent (80%) of whom live in low to middle income countries. Of that eighty percent (80%) of people suffering from this disease, seventy-five percent (75%) do not receive treatment. The current design and treatment methods of epilepsy have many limitations in these specific countries. These limitations include: lack of education about the disease leading to stigmas surrounding it, inability to afford treatment options, and the absence of healthcare practitioners who specialize in the treatment of neurological illnesses. Additionally, the healthcare system worldwide is a large contributor to climate change calling for a need to implement sustainable practices in both the treatment of patients and creation of healthcare centers. This thesis has been developed in order to theorize the design of a clinic that can be beneficial to epileptics in developing countries and to the environment. Through the methodology of case studies and research on existing strategies implemented in specific hospitals, we were able to focus on three main aspects that should be taken into consideration for an epilepsy clinic: the ambient environment, sustainability, and target demographic - developing countries. The idea ambient environment, it was found, plays a large role in the healing process through reduction of stress on patients. From there the most important features specific to epilepsy were able to be considered and synthesized for the best possible theoretical design of a clinic focused on the treatment and diagnosis of epilepsy in a developing country.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

132745-Thumbnail Image.png

Female Solicitation and Male Rejection During Mating Events in Wild Chimpanzees

Description

Humans are seemingly unique among the great apes with regard to their monogamous mating behavior. Since chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are humans closest living relative, understanding their actions may give insight

Humans are seemingly unique among the great apes with regard to their monogamous mating behavior. Since chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are humans closest living relative, understanding their actions may give insight into the evolutionary development of certain behaviors. In this paper, the mating behavior of chimpanzees will be evaluated in hopes of better understanding any similarities or differences compared to that of humans. Wild male chimpanzees have shown to reject solicitations from females at full swelling. The hypothesis being tested was that a male chimpanzee will reject a female who solicits a mating event due to age, rank, and parity. Long term data from Gombe National Park in Tanzania, Africa was used to test this. As expected, parous females were less likely to be rejected than nulliparous females, rejection was more likely if several other swollen females were present, and rejection was less likely if the female was higher-ranking/older. Surprisingly, it was found that younger males were more likely to reject females than prime males were. This was most likely due to the fact that almost always, higher-ranking males were also present, which may have deterred young males from mating. The results also showed that there was no effect of male rank and female reproductive state on the probability of rejection. The findings of this study may help to show a potential evolutionary step towards conscious mate selection as seen in humans.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

132895-Thumbnail Image.png

Latrine use, boiled water, and bed nets: associations between biomarkers of immune status and public health in a subsistence population

Description

This study examines associations between clean water, sanitation, mosquito net usage, and immune biomarkers among the Tsimane, a remote subsistence population of forager-horticulturalists with a high pathogen load. Interviews with

This study examines associations between clean water, sanitation, mosquito net usage, and immune biomarkers among the Tsimane, a remote subsistence population of forager-horticulturalists with a high pathogen load. Interviews with heads of household (n=710, aged 18-92, median age 40 years) were conducted to ascertain household water sources, ownership and usage of mosquito nets, and latrine use. In this sample, 21% of households used latrines, 20% always boiled their water, and 85% used mosquito nets. Regression models estimate their associations biomarkers of pathogen exposure, including white blood cell count (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), eosinophils, and sedimentation rate (ESR). Controlling for age, sex, and distance from the closest market town, latrine use (Std. β = -0.11, p= 0.017) and boiling water (Std. β = -0.08, p= 0.059) are associated with lower WBCs. Latrine use is marginally associated with higher hemoglobin (Std. β = 0.09, p= 0.048), but not boiling water (p= 0.447). ESR trends toward lower levels for households that always boil water (Std. β= -0.09, p= 0.131), but is not associated with latrine use (p=0.803). Latrine use was significantly associated with lower eosinophil counts (Std. β= -0.14, p=0.013), but not boiling water (p=0.240). Mosquito nets are not associated with any of these biomarkers. Both boiling water and latrine use are associated with better health outcomes in this sample. These results suggest that scarce public health resources in rural subsistence populations without malarial risk may wish to prioritize boiling water and latrine use to improve health outcomes.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

131286-Thumbnail Image.png

Examining Women as Agents of Violence Within ISIS: Including a Case Study on the Recruitment of Sudanese Medical Students with Historical Analysis

Description

We live in an era where the notion of feminism is widespread. Just walking on the Arizona State University campus, one can see people wearing t-shirts and holding coffee cups

We live in an era where the notion of feminism is widespread. Just walking on the Arizona State University campus, one can see people wearing t-shirts and holding coffee cups that say "FEMINIST," working from computers covered in stickers calling for gender equity. I, myself, am a feminist. On any given day, I fit in perfectly with many others on campus - sporting a t-shirt that says, "Raise Boys and Girls the Same Way," and lugging around my laptop covered in feminist propaganda stickers. I subscribe to Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's definition of feminism. In essence, a feminist is "a person who believes in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes," regardless of religion, ethnicity, race, and class (Adichie, 2012). Through the lens of this definition and those like it, women have made many advancements (though there is still significant progress to be made in this arena, particularly for women of color) – more women participate in the workforce and education, women have gained greater autonomy over their bodies, and domestic responsibilities are, in many societies, no longer only assumed by women.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

131130-Thumbnail Image.png

Systemic Oppression through Microaggressions: An Analysis of Heteronormative Schema in University Healthcare

Description

This project was designed to assess whether Arizona State University’s current Health and Counseling services perpetuate healthcare discrimination against its LGBTQIA+ student population: a pervasive problem that both researchers and

This project was designed to assess whether Arizona State University’s current Health and Counseling services perpetuate healthcare discrimination against its LGBTQIA+ student population: a pervasive problem that both researchers and patients have observed in the general healthcare landscape--on university campuses and beyond. A two-part online survey, including multiple-choice and free-response questions, was administered to ASU students attending any of the four campuses in order to receive a wide range of student feedback from diverse populations and assess the queer and transgender healthcare experience on campus. This survey data was used to pinpoint gaps and/or problems in student care and to assess how these concerns might be addressed. Results showed that a number of participants experienced discrimination, including incorrect references to gender pronouns, name preferences, and sexual identity. In response to survey participants’ desire for clearer information about health care services, a prototype for a resource pamphlet and corresponding mock-up of an online platform were created. These prototype resources clearly outline information about the sexual, mental, and physical health resources provided by ASU and include supplementary off-campus programs to fill the gaps in university services. Additionally, these findings were used to create a prototype that could be used to help ensure healthcare workers are familiar with LGBTQIA+ specific healthcare needs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

131161-Thumbnail Image.png

Ionic Liquids in Simplifying Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Description

The goal of this thesis was to simplify the sample preparation process for cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM), clearing the way for the imaging of larger biomolecules and further expansion of

The goal of this thesis was to simplify the sample preparation process for cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM), clearing the way for the imaging of larger biomolecules and further expansion of the field. Various protic ionic liquids (PILs) were chosen for synthesis according to their pH and other physical properties. After several failed synthesizes, one PIL, cholinium dihydrogen phosphate, was chosen for further testing. This solution was put through a series of vitrification tests in order to understand its crystallization limits. Once limits were understood, cholinium dihydrogen phosphate was combined with ribosomal proteins and viewed under a transmission electron microscope to collect negative stain images. After adjusting the ratio of PIL to buffer and the concentration of ribosomes, images of whole intact ribosomes were captured. Samples were then placed in an EM grid, manually dipped in liquid nitrogen, and viewed using the the cryo-EM. These grids revealed ice too thick to properly image, an issue that was not solved by using a more aggressive blotting technique. Although the sample preparation process was not simplified, progress was made towards doing so and further testing using different techniques may result in success.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05