Matching Items (117)

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State-Level School Resource Officer Programs and Their Relationship to Student Demographics

Description

As a result of recent public attention on school resource officers (SROs), concerns regarding the effects of police presence in America’s schools have emerged. Despite this, little is known about

As a result of recent public attention on school resource officers (SROs), concerns regarding the effects of police presence in America’s schools have emerged. Despite this, little is known about how SROs and SRO programs function within the U.S. This project uses qualitative and quantitative methods to describe the six state-level programs that exist to regulate and fund SROs, as well as analyze the relationship between the schools that receive funding and their student demographics. Program elements were inconsistent among states, though some commonalities were found, such as the usage of the triad model, training sources, usage of a memorandum of understanding (MOU), and lack of regular evaluations or assessments. No relationship was found between student demographics and SRO-funded schools when compared to the overall state. The findings highlight a need for regulation and consistency among SRO programs, as well as more reliable publicly available information regarding these programs.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Exposure to Sexually Explicit Material and its Correlation to Sexual Offending

Description

The primary purpose of this project is to study the correlation between exposure to sexually-explicit materials and sexual offending. A thorough literature review has been conducted. The analyses include the

The primary purpose of this project is to study the correlation between exposure to sexually-explicit materials and sexual offending. A thorough literature review has been conducted. The analyses include the definitions and history of sexual deviancy and paraphilia, a review of existing research that examines the complex relationship between said materials and criminal behavior, methods individuals use to access sexually-explicit materials, and case studies of individuals whose behavior is relevant to the purposes of this study. There does not appear to be a causal relationship between these two factors. However, there is an intricate, interrelated dynamic between the two that is worth examining more thoroughly. Further research should study the timeline in which sexual offenders first consumed sexually-explicit material, as well as the genesis of their sexually-deviant behaviors. This may lead to a clearer comprehension of their psychosexual criminality. Further understanding will hopefully lead to improved policies proposed by law makers, refined prevention/intervention strategies by law enforcement, and more effective rehabilitative methods for offenders.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Crime media distorts public perception: An analysis of Arizona media bias

Description

Forensic science has commanded the spotlight in mainstream media, both fact-based and fictional. Popular fictional shows, like CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, give unrealistic scenarios of criminal proceedings by forensic scientists

Forensic science has commanded the spotlight in mainstream media, both fact-based and fictional. Popular fictional shows, like CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, give unrealistic scenarios of criminal proceedings by forensic scientists and investigators. From inaccurate timetables to blurred job responsibilities, fictional media has spread misconceptions of the industry. Fictional shows depict unrealistic relationships between the investigators and the scientists. Documentary crime shows and movies, while based in fact, are often oversimplified for entertainment purposes. Public safety officials and the news media are often at odds. The media yearns to release case details as quickly as possible, while officials attempt to keep investigations closed to the public to minimize public harm. This research takes a unique approach to study the impact media entities have on the public's perception of Arizona's criminal just system, and how the system has responded as the public's expectations have been altered. Evidence collecting procedures have changed, along with the sheer volume of evidence processed on a daily basis at crime labs around the state. Courtroom procedures have also changed, as juries now expect physical evidence to be presented in every case. Mass media must do a better job of accurately portraying criminal investigative techniques in order to better educate the public, and to produce a better informed jury pool with reasonable expectations concerning criminal evidence. Higher education also has a significant role to play in both making the public aware of the power and limitations of forensic science, and in preparing future generations of forensic scientists.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Suggestibility, Plausibility, and Consistency: Questioning Child Witnesses Alleging Sexual Abuse in Criminal Trials

Description

This study examined the type and frequency of questions asked by attorneys in cases of children alleging sexual abuse. Of interest was whether child age would affect the questions asked.

This study examined the type and frequency of questions asked by attorneys in cases of children alleging sexual abuse. Of interest was whether child age would affect the questions asked. The participants included 25 child witnesses testifying in criminal trials in Maricopa County over a recent ten-year period. Children were placed into two groups: younger (five to seven-year-olds) and older (eight to nine-year-olds). Every question asked, and answer provided, during children's testimony, was systematically and reliably coded for the content of the interaction. Attorneys exhibited developmental sensitivity, varying the amount of question they asked across content areas by the age of the child. In addition, attorneys varied in what they asked about: the prosecution focused more on the plausibility of abuse, whereas the defense focused more on how others may have suggestively influenced the child's report. Both attorneys were equally concerned about the consistency of narratives. The findings from the present study have direct policy implications for how attorneys structure their arguments, both in an attempt to establish, and question, children's credibility in these important cases. Keywords: children, age, suggestibility, consistency, inconsistency, plausibility

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Using Mummification and Temperature to Estimate Postmortem Interval

Description

Mummification is an alternative to human decomposition that involves desiccation of the tissues of the body, particularly the skin. A total of 44 decedents with known postmortem intervals (PMIs) were

Mummification is an alternative to human decomposition that involves desiccation of the tissues of the body, particularly the skin. A total of 44 decedents with known postmortem intervals (PMIs) were collected from the Maricopa County Medical Examiner's Office and given a cumulative mummification score (CMS) describing the extent of their mummification using a novel scale. PMI was multiplied by the ambient temperature of the scene to allow for the creation of a new variable, accumulated degree days (ADDs). A non-linear relationship was found between PMI and ADD. The variables were transformed to generate a linear relationship. Pearson correlations and regression analyses were performed and generated a final graphical model (p < 0.05, r = 0.750, n = 34). An equation was calculated based off of a previously-established protocol that produced a range of possible PMIs from a given CMS. The accuracy of the ranges the equation provided was not very high (14%). When expanded to the 95% confidence intervals, 41% of cases fell within the predicted range. The data collected may not have been accurate due to the method of PMI calculation. The PMIs were calculated from the time the decedent was last known alive, which was likely artificially high as many of the individuals were socially isolated premortem. There were also several confounding variables that were not accounted for. Any variable that prevented or accelerated the escape of water from the body's tissues would slow down or speed up mummification, respectively, including clothing, skin-skin or skin-surface contact, position, body mass, humidity, and airflow. Ideally, this study would be performed with decedents with known PMIs who were tracked longitudinally.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Assessing Attrition of Students within Barrett, the Honors College

Description

This thesis project examines the likely factors that cause students to drop out of Barrett, the Honors College. Honors literature regarding retention and attrition suggests four areas encompassing individual student

This thesis project examines the likely factors that cause students to drop out of Barrett, the Honors College. Honors literature regarding retention and attrition suggests four areas encompassing individual student attributes and honors program characteristics which may impact a student's decision to stay or leave an Honors College. The primary question in focus is, "Why do students leave the Honors College?" followed by the tertiary questions of, "what can be done to mitigate this occurrence?" and, "how does this affect the quality of an honors education?" Assessing attrition can be broken down into biographical, cognitive-behavioral, socio-environmental, and institutional-instrumental components. Students who graduated with honors and those who did not graduate with honors were assessed on these four components through survey methods and qualitative interviews to investigate specific reasons why students leave the honors program. The results indicated a wide array of reasons impacting student attrition, the most significant being negative perceptions towards (1) honors courses and contracts, (2) difficulty completing a thesis project, and (3) finding little to no value in "graduating with honors." Each of these reasons reflect the institutional-instrumental component of student attrition, making it the most salient group of reasons why students leave the Honors College. The socio-environmental component also influences student attrition through peer influence and academic advisor support, though this was found to be within the context of institutional-instrumental means. This project offers solutions to ameliorate each of the four components of attrition by offering standardized honors contracts and more mandatory honors classes, mandatory thesis preparatory courses instead of workshops, and emphasizing the benefit Barrett gives to students as a whole. These solutions aim at increasing graduation rates for future honors students at Barrett as well as improving the overall quality of an honors education.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Exploring Police and Refugee Community Relationships in Phoenix: An Analysis of Stakeholder Interviews

Description

Every year, millions of people find themselves displaced from their homes because of fear or threats of violence. Some of these people will become refugees, who will then be resettled

Every year, millions of people find themselves displaced from their homes because of fear or threats of violence. Some of these people will become refugees, who will then be resettled in the United States. In order to help with the resettlement process, refugees are given cultural orientations through their resettlement organizations. The Phoenix Police Department teaches one of these cultural orientations for local resettlement agencies in order to dispel some of the fears refugees have about law enforcement and build a stronger relationship with the refugee community. Past research on this topic has been limited within the United States, but communities are still trying to figure out how to interact with refugees despite not knowing how to do it. There are various possible complications inherent in the integration process and many potential methods of trust building available to the refugee community and public services like law enforcement. This project seeks to understand the refugee resettlement process through field observation of the cultural orientation taught by the Phoenix Police Department and interviews with detectives familiar with the process in Phoenix. Cultural and language differences as well as lack of education and research on the topic of refugee resettlement are all key points in comprehending what the police, refugees, and resettlement organizations are doing during the integration process. Once these issues are addressed to alleviate gaps in knowledge about refugees, it may be possible to adjust the process to be easier for stakeholders involved in refugee resettlement.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The Effects of Serial Killers on FBI Policies & Investigations By: Joseph Muzupappa

Description

Serial killers have had a profound impact on the United States' most powerful law enforcement agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Through a brief history of the FBI, the birth

Serial killers have had a profound impact on the United States' most powerful law enforcement agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Through a brief history of the FBI, the birth of the Behavioral Analysis Unit is highlighted and criminal profiling is realized as a tool to apprehend these serial killers. Four serial killer cases are presented as important representations to illustrate the contributions that were made to the FBI's investigatory procedure. As serial killings make up only one percent of the murders in the U.S. each year, it is still evident that these cases have had a profound impact on the U.S.'s top law enforcement agency. The FBI has been able to react to each case more effectively than the last. Constant learning on the job, as each impactful case happens within a short time span from the last, has been a necessity for investigators and has been a prime strength of the FBI. There is no way to tell when an individual will begin to commit serial murder, so while the FBI's methods are not perfect, the Bureau has been able to respond in full to each challenge a new serial killer case has presented and arrest the guilty party. Through an analysis of the criminal profile, stereotypes attributed to serial killers, and the application of forensic evidence to serial killer investigations, the impact of the investigations of these cases by the FBI is examined. A real world application of the FBI's recommended procedure for a serial killer investigation is spotlighted and analyzed to determine its practicality in modern-day investigations.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Law Enforcement Use of Force: An Analysis of the Literature in Criminal Justice and Psychology

Description

Highly publicized cases involving citizen fatalities due to police use of force raise questions about perceptions of danger. Arrest-related deaths due to weapons, accidental injuries, and natural causes remain high

Highly publicized cases involving citizen fatalities due to police use of force raise questions about perceptions of danger. Arrest-related deaths due to weapons, accidental injuries, and natural causes remain high year after year. Communities are greatly affected, and mistrust with the police continues to increase when these situations happen. There seem to be inaccurate perceptions that may stem from implicit associations, stereotypes, and social learning. These psychological concepts may provide theoretical explanations of how decisions are made when police officers are faced with danger. Some elements of this decision-making process may include suspect characteristics, officer experience, and police sub-culture. In this review, race/ethnicity and socio-economic status are examined as factors that contribute to police use of force. Disparities in use of force data often involve young, Black males living in low-income neighborhoods. The stereotype that this group is more dangerous than others stems from underlying prejudices and previous situations where Black people are targeted more in certain areas. Training, education, and community outreach programs can assist in mending relations between police and affected communities. Acknowledging these inaccurate perceptions, making the adjustments to police training and community relations, and being open to exploration in future research of other minority groups will assist in eliminating prejudices and creating better connections between law enforcement and the community.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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The Practical Differences of Higher Education in Prison

Description

Abstract What began in 1971 as a "War on Drugs," led to the political position of being "tough on crime" and has ultimately given birth to the mass incarceration crisis

Abstract What began in 1971 as a "War on Drugs," led to the political position of being "tough on crime" and has ultimately given birth to the mass incarceration crisis that we see in 2017. The United States composes 5% of the world's population, yet holds 25% of the world's incarcerated. At least 95% of those incarcerated in the United States will be released at some time and each year, 690,000 people are released from our prisons. These "criminals" become our neighbors, our colleagues, and our friends. However, the unfortunate reality is that they will go back to prison sooner than we can embrace them. In order to end this cycle of recidivism, higher education in prison must be made more available and encouraged. Those who participate in education programs while incarcerated have a 43% less chance of recidivating than those inmates who do not participate. This thesis dissects that statistic, focusing on higher education and the impact it has on incarcerated students, how it affects society as a whole, and the many reasons why we should be actively advocating for it. Additionally, I wish to demonstrate that students, educators, and volunteers, as a collective, have the power to potentially change the punitive function of the prison system. That power has been within education all along. While statistics and existing research will play heavily in the coming pages, so will anecdotes, first-hand experiences, assessments of established programs, and problems that still need to be overcome. By no means are the following pages a means to an end, but rather a new beginning in the effort to change the interpretation of being "tough on crime." Keywords: higher education, prison, recidivism

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12