Matching Items (24)

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Contributing Factors to the Patient Burden of Work

Description

Patients face tremendous challenges when attempting to navigate the United States health care system. This difficulty to navigate the system creates a burden that is placed on the patient and

Patients face tremendous challenges when attempting to navigate the United States health care system. This difficulty to navigate the system creates a burden that is placed on the patient and caregiver, in turn affecting the health outcomes of the patient, resulting in higher health care costs, less than desirable outcomes, and a large strain on the patient and caregiver's daily lives. There are several ways that people have tried to create a comprehensive theoretical framework to understand the system from multiple perspectives. This work will expand existing theoretical frameworks that observes the relationship between the patient, their social networks, and health care services such as the Burden of Treatment Theory. Consisting of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary literature review, research was derived from the disciplines of medicine, informatics, management, and ethics. In this paper, I attempt to identify key contributing factors and then develop and categorize these stressors into a typology. Since there are many contributing factors that affect the burden of work at multiple levels, a nested typology will be used which will link micro- and macro-leveled pressures to a single system while also showcasing how each level interacts and is influenced by the others. For the categorization of the contributing factors, they will be sorted into individual actors, organizational level, and macro-level factors. The implications of this work suggest that a combination of historical shifts, structural design, and secondary effects of policy contribute to patients' burden of work.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Cognitive Planning Improved after Cycling Exercise in Older Adults with Down Syndrome

Description

Executive function is a crucial part of daily living and activities for individuals with Down Syndrome (DS). The aim of this study was to examine if Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT)

Executive function is a crucial part of daily living and activities for individuals with Down Syndrome (DS). The aim of this study was to examine if Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) would improve cognitive planning as measured by the Tower of London (TOL), set switching as measured by the modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and spatial memory as measured by the Corsi Block Test in older adults with DS. Twenty-six participants were randomly assigned to one of three interventions over eight weeks. 1) Thirteen older adults with DS completed the ACT intervention, which is stationary cycling with the assistance of a motor to maintain a cadence at least 35% greater than voluntary cycling. 2) Eleven older adults with DS completed voluntary cycling (VC) and 3) Two older adults with DS were in our no cycling intervention. There were tests administered a week prior to the invention (or no intervention) and one week after their completed intervention (or no intervention). The pre- and post-tests were used to assess different measures, which could have been influenced from the eight-week intervention. The measures analyzed from our study were as followed; Tower of London, Card Sorting Test, and the Corsi Block Test. Our results showed that cognitive planning improved after ACT and VC, but not NC. Cognitive planning was assessed through the TOL task and showed improvements after the eight-week intervention (due to its sensitive nature in analyzing smaller changes pre- and post-intervention). Our results are discussed with respect to upregulation of neurotrophic factors that increase functioning in the prefrontal cortex that accompanies exercise.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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The Commit to be Well Program: An Effective Worksite Wellness Program

Description

Health and wellness coaching has shown promising results in numerous studies. However, there is lack of published research evaluating the impact of using wellness-coaching interventions implemented by coaching trainees in

Health and wellness coaching has shown promising results in numerous studies. However, there is lack of published research evaluating the impact of using wellness-coaching interventions implemented by coaching trainees in a worksite setting. The main objective was to examine the changes in self-reported scores of the 12-wellness dimensions of health in ASU students, faculty, and staff after participating in an eight-week health and wellness program. The secondary outcome was to evaluate if additional health and wellness recommendations had a significant impact. The participants were aged 18 to 58 years and were divided into two groups: the first group received health and wellness coaching, while the second group received the health and wellness coaching in addition to recommendations on specific worksite social/embedded programs and supporting activities. Both groups had significantly increased scores in Eating/Nutrition and Thinking (p<0.001 and P<0.014 respectively). Health and wellness coaching trainees were effective in assisting clients on reaching realistic progress. Our program shows potential benefits in worksite wellness.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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The association between screen time, physical activity levels, and metabolic markers in elementary school-aged children

Description

Hispanic children have the highest prevalence of obesity versus other ethnic groups. This leaves this population susceptible to many adverse health risks, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and high blood pressure.

Hispanic children have the highest prevalence of obesity versus other ethnic groups. This leaves this population susceptible to many adverse health risks, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and high blood pressure. Unfortunately, little research has been done investigating the contributing cause to this issue, specifically common sedentary behaviors in children that limit physical activity and it’s purpose in expending energy. Amongst these behaviors, amount of time spent on electronic devices has proven to have increased drastically in recent years. The relationship between screen time and electronic device use, specifically with television, video games, and computer usage, and physical activity levels, and how those affect cardiometabolic disease risk factors, were explored in this study. Participants of this study were elementary school-aged children from Maricopa County, AZ. Electronic device usage, physical activity amounts, and presence of the specific devices in the child’s were collected from the participants’ parents through self-reported survey questions. Anthropometric and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic disease risk were directly measured. The average time spent engaged in physical activity per day by these participants was 20.02 ± 21.1 minutes and the average total screen time per day was 655 ± 605 minutes. Findings showed strong significance between total screen time and computer and video game use (r=0.482; p=0.01 and r=0.784; p=0.01, respectively). Video game time in the group of children with a video game in their room (350.66 ± 445.96 min/day) was significantly higher than the sample of kids without one in their room (107.19 ± 210.0 min/day ; p=0.000). Total screen time was also significantly greater with children who had a video game system in their room (927.56 ± 928.7 min/day) versus children who did not (543.14 ± 355.11 min/day; p=0.006). Additionally, significance was found showing children with a computer in the bedroom spent more time using the computer per day (450.95 ± 377.95 min/day), compared to those children who did not have a computer in their room (333.5 ± 395.6 min/day; p=0.048). No significant association was found between metabolic markers and screen time. However, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin proved to be dependent on BMI percentile (r=-0.582; p=0.01, r=0.476; p=0.01, r=0.704; p=0.01 respectively). Our data suggest further research needs to be done investigating other potential sources that limit physical activity so that strategies can focus on reducing obesity incidence and the associated health risks. Future studies should use larger sample sizes to be more representative of this population, and develop more direct observations instead of self-reported values to limit bias.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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How do perceptions of nutrition influence student nutritional health behavior and nutritional health seeking behavior?

Description

The transition from high school to college is, for many, a drastic change in lifestyle, social networks, and dietary choices. The prevalence of obesity in college students has been steadily

The transition from high school to college is, for many, a drastic change in lifestyle, social networks, and dietary choices. The prevalence of obesity in college students has been steadily increasing. Freshmen weight gains have been associated with a decrease in fruits and vegetables and an increase in unhealthy items such as desserts, alcohol, and late night snacking after dinner. A survey of college students was constructed to gauge students' perceptions of nutrition how these perceptions influenced dietary practices and behaviors. Survey results indicated that awareness of nutrition and health does not translate to dietary practices, aligning with results from previous studies. Several sex differences were noted in regards to dietary choices and perceptions, knowledge seeking behavior, and sources of information. While there were some similarities, it is clear from the results obtained that men and women have different approaches and thoughts with regard to nutrition. The results showed that college students who actively seek our nutritional information are more likely to do so in the form of social media or Internet sources. This study could be useful for those planning on conducting college-based nutritional programs in that the results indicate patterns and trends that should be taken into consideration in order for a successful nutrition intervention

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Identifying Barriers to Care Coordination for Children with Special Health Care Needs: the Provider Perspective Comparing Physical & Behavioral Disability

Description

The term "Children with Special Health Care Needs," often abbreviated as CSHCN, is an umbrella term, encompassing a wide variety of children with a range of health conditions. As of

The term "Children with Special Health Care Needs," often abbreviated as CSHCN, is an umbrella term, encompassing a wide variety of children with a range of health conditions. As of 2011, CSHCN constituted 15-20% of all children age 0-17 in the United States (Bethell et al., 2013). Despite this, CSHCN "account for 80% of all pediatric medical expenses." (Hardy, Vivier, Rivara, & Melzer, 2012). This project specifically compares children with physical disability and behavioral disability in hopes of gaining a greater insight into both groups, assessing/comparing differences, and evaluating whether or not having a co-morbidity has a mediating or contending effect on care coordination.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

Barriers to Healthcare Access within Native American Populations

Description

Introduction: Health disparities for the Native American population in the United States have been well documented for years. Native Americans face many barriers to healthcare access, including low socioeconomic status,

Introduction: Health disparities for the Native American population in the United States have been well documented for years. Native Americans face many barriers to healthcare access, including low socioeconomic status, historical trauma, and lack of access to healthcare facilities. Barriers to healthcare and challenges associated with achieving optimal health among Native Americans contribute to health disparities within these populations. If these barriers are to be overcome, they must be understood and addressed. Purpose: The purpose of this review was to identify barriers to healthcare access for Native American populations as well as strategies to address barriers. Method: A preliminary scan of several online databases was conducted. Key terms used in the search included American Indians, Native American, healthcare, healthcare access, health disparities, barriers, and intervention. Articles were selected based on relevance, and data from each chosen article were extracted and categorized. Results: The initial search resulted in 272 articles of potential interest. Based on the abstract review, 32 were deemed relevant, and full text reviews were completed. Based on the full text review, an additional 10 articles were excluded, resulting in a final review of 22 articles. The articles addressed barriers related to various health conditions: cancer treatment, drug or alcohol use, maternal and child health, historical trauma, diabetes and chronic illnesses, and oral health. Conclusion: Native Americans face several barriers to healthcare access that are associated with social, physical, and mental health disparities. Successful efforts to address these barriers include patient-centered, culturally-competent interventions. Others include interventions which focus on community involvement.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Implicit Racial/Ethnic Bias and Latino Health: A Systematic Review

Description

In the United States, the Latino population is projected to reach approximately 28.6% of the total U.S. population by 2060. Despite their growing presence, Latinos encounter health disparities and worse

In the United States, the Latino population is projected to reach approximately 28.6% of the total U.S. population by 2060. Despite their growing presence, Latinos encounter health disparities and worse health outcomes in comparison to their non-Hispanic White (NHW) counterparts. Latinos/ Hispanics have a higher prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and late stage cancer diagnosis. Various social determinants of health (SDoH) such as socioeconomic status, education, insurance enrollment, language proficiency, immigration status among other variables intersect to influence Latino health status. However, even when all those factors were held equal, disparities remained. The aforementioned list did not include race/ethnicity, though race/ethnicity is a critical SDoH that influences one's access to care and the quality of care they receive. As such, examining the role of race may be the key to reducing persistent health disparities in access to care, quality of care, and health outcomes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Analysis of Screening Tools for Identifying Sex Trafficking Victims in the Medical Setting

Description

The purpose of this study was to create a screening tool specifically for the identification of sex trafficking victims in the medical setting through the analysis of existing human trafficking

The purpose of this study was to create a screening tool specifically for the identification of sex trafficking victims in the medical setting through the analysis of existing human trafficking screening tool studies geared towards use in the medical setting. Screening questions from these studies were compiled and modified into a survey that was distributed to healthcare professionals through the nationwide HEAL (Health Professional Education, Advocacy, Linkage) Trafficking listserv. Each screening tool study demonstrated benefits and disadvantages that were helpful in the sampling and selection of screening tool questions. The small sample size and a lack of data on the attitudes of medical professionals on sex trafficked victims were noted as limitations to this study. Further implications for this study would include validating the screening tool questions in a medical setting to determine the sensitivity of the survey in identifying patients as possible sex trafficking victims.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Exploring the Clinical Responses in Glioblastoma Patients From Varying Temozolomide Cycles

Description

Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most aggressive type of brain tumor. GBMs are known for their aggressive and invasive nature because of their ability to easily grow and spread into the

Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most aggressive type of brain tumor. GBMs are known for their aggressive and invasive nature because of their ability to easily grow and spread into the surrounding areas of the brain. The annual incidence rate of GBM is 2 to 3 people per 100,000 people in the United States and Europe, and the median survival for patients with an aggressive GBM is 14.6 months. The standard of care for GBMs follows a protocol of surgery, radiation concurrent with the chemotherapeutic drug, temozolomide (TMZ), followed by the administration of up to 6 cycles of TMZ in an adjuvant setting. The objective of this retrospective study was to compare the clinical responses in a patient cohort from varying amount of adjuvant TMZ cycles. Using patient overall survival, the responses to TMZ cycles were tested within different groupings, and the patient covariates were analyzed. The results from the different analyses indicated that survival success of GBM patients is not solely dependent on the number of TMZ cycles, but that other covariates can also affect survival outcomes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05