Matching Items (20)

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Let Them Eat Cake: Marginal Effects of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on Intra-State Conflict

Description

There is growing public concern about the implications of climate change for natural processes, such as the melting of ice at the poles, but less clear are the implications for

There is growing public concern about the implications of climate change for natural processes, such as the melting of ice at the poles, but less clear are the implications for food production. Famine and conflict have a long and complicated history, made increasingly complicated by the intricate global food system. In this paper, I explore the effect of increasingly severe El Niño Southern Oscillation cycles on conflict in an effort to determine how abnormal climate patterns affect food security and, indirectly, conflict. I use a non-linear probit model to analyze the relationship between several binary conflict variables and food supply.

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  • 2016-12

The Impact of Cultural Industries on economic development in developing countries: An Entrepreneurial Perspective

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Africa has some of the "fastest growing economies," yet there is a lack of a middle class (Economist). Natural resources have attracted foreign investments, however, most of the revenue exit

Africa has some of the "fastest growing economies," yet there is a lack of a middle class (Economist). Natural resources have attracted foreign investments, however, most of the revenue exit these economies. What remains a consistent, permanent advantage is culture; it has been the most integrated core value before and after colonialism. The concept of culture has become a part of the identity of Africa and it has not been leveraged to its full potential. The 2013 Creative Economy Report states, "Culture is a way to create jobs and improve people's lives. It empowers people. It works for development" (UNESCO/UNDP). Cultural industries create local sustainable jobs that are less susceptible to the fluctuation of the global economy compared to jobs in factories and multinational companies. They are based on "local tacit know how" that is not accessible globally as they are people intensive rather than capital intensive (Scott A.J, 1999). Activ8 seeks to tap into this opportunity by maximizing the economic potential of developing economies by investing in their cultural industries. Activ8 aspires to accomplish this by targeting two sets of customers: creators, who are the activators, and investors. Our activators consist of two target segments: one living and working in these industries in a developing country, and the other being refugee clients who may have been exposed to a cultural industry and may want to pursue developing cultural products in their new country of asylum. Our investors are globally minded individuals who want to be culturally aware, have an appreciation for authentic cultural products, or seek to invest in entrepreneurial pursuits in Africa. During our first phase we will focus on the cultural industries in Ghana, West Africa. This will range from products in the textiles industry to sculptures and traditional instruments. We plan to pilot the first phase in Ghana and in the second phase, form a partnership with the International Rescue Committee, a refugee settlement agency, in Arizona. Our goals are to provide education and mentoring, market accessibility, product development, and financing to encourage and empower activators to be self-sufficient and successful cultural entrepreneurs, whiles improving economic development in their communities. Our online store will feature our activators' authentic products, their stories, and the cultural importance of each product. There will also be a platform for entrepreneurs in other industries in Africa to connect with venture capitalists or angel investors around the world. The educational component will be infused with product development and entrepreneurship training derived from the "From AHA!! to EXIT" strategy coined by Aram Chavez from the College of Technology and Innovation at ASU. In order for Activ8 to successfully execute its mission, Activ8 will need to be able to give our team and our activators access to technology, mentorship, and financial resources to operate an online store and rum Activ8's educational program. We also envision creating partnerships with boutiques and retail corporations to adapt these cultural products. Our long-term goal is formulate the conditions conducive for economic growth and sustainable development to ensure Africans become the main agents of development.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12

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EFFECT OF AGE OF ARRIVAL ON REFUGEE PERFORMANCE: EARLY ADOLESCENSE THROUGH EARLY ADULTHOOD

Description

Are there measurable differences between the human capital of the refugee children born inside and outside of the United States? If so, does the amount of time spent abroad before

Are there measurable differences between the human capital of the refugee children born inside and outside of the United States? If so, does the amount of time spent abroad before immigrating matter, and can we get an idea of what happens to this gap over time? Looking at the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS) 1991-2006, I examine standardized test scores and other indicators of performance of young Indochinese refugees and immigrants. This study finds evidence for a negative correlation between being born abroad and performance in selected metrics at the time of early adolescence. This is extended into a negative relationship between the lengths of time abroad before coming to the United States (age of arrival) and those same metrics. However, this study finds signs that this gap in human capital is at least partly bridged by the time of early adulthood. It remains unclear though, whether this possible catch up is reflected in other early adult outcomes such as household income.

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  • 2016-05

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Microfinance: Poverty Alleviation Across Cultures

Description

Microfinance is a term that refers to providing basic financial services to the poor; it has become a powerful tool for poverty alleviation. The idea is a relatively new one

Microfinance is a term that refers to providing basic financial services to the poor; it has become a powerful tool for poverty alleviation. The idea is a relatively new one - modern microfinance began through experiments in the 1970's - but it has grown quickly and currently serves over 155 million clients worldwide. There are many studies that provide evidence of the positive impact of microfinance and the movement has an array of enthusiastic proponents. It is certainly not the only solution in the battle against poverty, however, and there are also studies that question the true depth of its impact. In looking at microfinance around the globe, one thing becomes clear: although it is an international phenomenon, microfinance has definitely found more success in some regions over others.

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  • 2012-12

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Effect of a Local Labor Demand Shock on Postsecondary Education Enrollment

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A growing number of jobs in the US require a college degree or technical education, and the wage difference between jobs requiring a high school diploma and a college education

A growing number of jobs in the US require a college degree or technical education, and the wage difference between jobs requiring a high school diploma and a college education has increased to over $17,000 per year. Enrollment levels in postsecondary education have been rising for at least the past decade, and this paper attempts to tease out how much of the increasing enrollment is due to changes in the demand by companies for workers. A Bartik Instrument, which is a measure of local area labor demand, for each county in the US was constructed from 2007 to 2014, and using multivariate linear regression the effect of changing labor demand on local postsecondary education enrollment rates was examined. A small positive effect was found, but the effect size in relation to the total change in enrollment levels was diminutive. From the start to the end of the recession (2007 to 2010), Bartik Instrument calculated unemployment increased from 5.3% nationally to 8.2%. This level of labor demand contraction would lead to a 0.42% increase in enrollment between 2008 and 2011. The true enrollment increase over this period was 7.6%, so the model calculated 5.5% of the enrollment increase was based on the changes in labor demand.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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A Comparative Case Study on the Economic Disruption of Earthquakes: A Look into New Zealand, Haiti, and Guatemala

Description

The January 12, 2010 Haiti earthquake, which hit Port-au-Prince in the late afternoon, was the cause of over 220,000 deaths and $8 billion in damages \u2014 roughly 120% of national

The January 12, 2010 Haiti earthquake, which hit Port-au-Prince in the late afternoon, was the cause of over 220,000 deaths and $8 billion in damages \u2014 roughly 120% of national GDP at the time. A Mw 7.5 earthquake struck rural Guatemala in the early morning in 1976 and caused 23,000-25,000 deaths, three times as many injuries, and roughly $1.1 billion in damages, which accounted for approximately 30% of Guatemala's GDP. The earthquake which hit just outside of Christchurch, New Zealand early in the morning on September 4, 2010 had a magnitude of 7.1 and caused just two injuries, no deaths, and roughly 7.2 billion USD in damages (5% of GDP). These three earthquakes, all with magnitudes over 7 on the Richter scale, caused extremely varied amounts of economic damage for these three countries. This thesis aims to identify a possible explanation as to why this was the case and suggest ways in which to improve disaster risk management going forward.

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  • 2016-05

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The Methodology of Economics: How Economists Choose Between Theories

Description

I began this thesis because I was confused about economics. I wondered why there were so many different models. I didn't understand how they fit together. I was also confused

I began this thesis because I was confused about economics. I wondered why there were so many different models. I didn't understand how they fit together. I was also confused by the assumptions being made. For instance, the assumption that humans are rational utility-maximizers did not seem to agree with my own experiences. With my director Dr. Edward Schlee's help, my thesis has become an inquiry into the state of economic methodology, both in theory and in practice. The questions that drive this paper are: How do economists choose between theories? What is the purpose of economic theory? What is the role of empirical data in assessing models? What role do assumptions play in theory evaluation, and should assumptions make sense? Part I: Methodology is the theoretical portion of the paper. I summarize the essential arguments of the two main schools of thought in economic methodology, and argue for an updated methodology. In Part II: A case study: The expected utility hypothesis, I examine methodology in practice by assessing a handful of studies that seek to test the expected utility hypothesis. Interestingly, I find that there is a different between what economists say they are doing, and what they actually seem to be doing. Throughout this paper, I restrict my analysis to microeconomic theory, simply because this is the area with which I am more familiar. I intend this paper to be a guide for my fellow students and rising economists, as well as for already practicing economists. I hope it helps the reader better understand methodology and improve her own practice.

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  • 2013-05

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Recommendations for the Management of Oil Wealth in Kazakhstan

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This paper explores policies for the management of oil wealth in Norway, Mexico, and Russia, and applies them to the situation in Kazakhstan to create policy guidelines to improve the

This paper explores policies for the management of oil wealth in Norway, Mexico, and Russia, and applies them to the situation in Kazakhstan to create policy guidelines to improve the management of oil wealth in Kazakhstan. Ultimately the paper recommends that Kazakhstan transfer oil wealth to the oil stabilization fund directly, that it increase the cap on annual transfers from the fund to the budget to 11 billion dollars, and that it create strict policies for the promotion of growth.

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  • 2013-05

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Environmental Regulations and the Welfare Effects of Job Layoffs in the United States: A Spatial Approach

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This article develops welfare-consistent measures of the employment effects of environmental regulation. Our analysis is based on a microeconomic model of how households with heterogeneous preferences and skills decide where

This article develops welfare-consistent measures of the employment effects of environmental regulation. Our analysis is based on a microeconomic model of how households with heterogeneous preferences and skills decide where to live and work. We use the model to examine how job loss and unemployment would affect workers in Northern California. Our stylized simulations produce earnings losses that are consistent with empirical evidence. They also produce two new insights. First, we find that earnings losses are sensitive to business cycle conditions. Second, we find that earnings losses may substantially understate welfare losses once we account for the fact that workers may have to commute further or live in a less desirable community after losing a job.

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  • 2014-11-30

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Essays in open economy development

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This dissertation consists of two essays that deal with the development of open developing economies. These economies have experienced drastic divergence in terms of economic growth from the 1970s through

This dissertation consists of two essays that deal with the development of open developing economies. These economies have experienced drastic divergence in terms of economic growth from the 1970s through the 2010s. One important feature of those countries that have lagged behind is their failure to build up their domestic innovation capacity.

Abstract The first chapter discusses the policies that may have an impact on the long-run innovation capacity of developing economies. The existing literature emphasizes that the backward linkage of foreign-owned firms is a key to determining whether FDI is beneficial or detrimental to a domestic economy. However, little empirical evidence has shown which aspects of FDI policies lead to a strong backward linkage between foreign-owned and domestic firms. This paper focuses on the foreign ownership structure of these foreign-owned firms. I show that joint ventures (i.e, firms with 1%-99% foreign share) have stronger backward linkages than MNC affiliates (i.e, firms with 100% foreign share) with domestic firms. I also find that the differences in backward linkages are strong enough to translate into a positive correlation between domestic innovation and the density of joint ventures and a negative correlation between domestic innovation and the density of MNC affiliates. Finally, I find that the channel through which foreign ownership structure affects domestic innovation raises innovation TFP in domestic firms. My results suggest that policies that affect the foreign ownership structure of foreign-owned firms could have a persistent effect on domestic innovation because they shift the comparative advantage of an developing economy towards the innovation sector in the long run.

Abstract The second chapter provides a unified theory to study what causes the divergence in economic growth of developing economies and how the innovation sector emerges in the developing countries. I show that open developing economies become trapped at the middle-income level because they tend not to specialize in sectors that generate spillover or factor accumulation (the innovation sector). Using a dynamic Heckscher-Ohlin (H-O) model, I show that the fast growth of developing economies tends to end before they can fully catch up with the developed world, and the innovation sector will not operate in the developing countries. However, the successful growth stories of Korea and Taiwan challenge this view. In order to explore the economic miracle that happened in Korea and Taiwan, I generalize a dynamic Heckscher-Ohlin (H-O) model by introducing technology adoption and explore how it generates spillovers to domestic innovation. I show that countries with policies that encourage technology adoption will benefit most from FDI: in addition to the fact that foreign technology raises productivity in the host country, the demand for skilled labor to adopt these technologies raises the education level in equilibrium, which benefits domestic innovation and leads to catch-up in the long run.

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Date Created
  • 2015