In this dissertation two kinds of strongly interacting fermionic systems were studied: cold atomic gases and nucleon systems. In the first part I report T=0 diffusion Monte Carlo results for the ground-state and vortex excitation of unpolarized spin-1/2 fermions in a two-dimensional disk. I investigate how vortex core structure properties behave over the BEC-BCS crossover. The vortex excitation energy, density profiles, and vortex core properties related to the current are calculated. A density suppression at the vortex core on the BCS side of the crossover and a depleted core on the BEC limit is found. Size-effect dependencies in the disk geometry were carefully studied. In the second part of this dissertation I turn my attention to a very interesting problem in nuclear physics. In most simulations of nonrelativistic nuclear systems, the wave functions are found by solving the many-body Schrödinger equations, and they describe the quantum-mechanical amplitudes of the nucleonic degrees of freedom. In those simulations the pionic contributions are encoded in nuclear potentials and electroweak currents, and they determine the low-momentum behavior. By contrast, in this work I present a novel quantum Monte Carlo formalism in which both relativistic pions and nonrelativistic nucleons are explicitly included in the quantum-mechanical states of the system. I report the renormalization of the nucleon mass as a function of the momentum cutoff, an Euclidean time density correlation function that deals with the short-time nucleon diffusion, and the pion cloud density and momentum distributions. In the two nucleon sector the interaction of two static nucleons at large distances reduces to the one-pion exchange potential, and I fit the low-energy constants of the contact interactions to reproduce the binding energy of the deuteron and two neutrons in finite volumes. I conclude by showing that the method can be readily applied to light-nuclei.