Matching Items (99)

Biomimetic Actuators with Coiled Shape Memory Alloy Technology

Description

This project aims to use the shape memory alloy nitinol as the basis for a biomimetic actuator. These actuators are designed to mimic the behavior of organic muscles for use

This project aims to use the shape memory alloy nitinol as the basis for a biomimetic actuator. These actuators are designed to mimic the behavior of organic muscles for use in prosthetic and robotic devices. Actuator characterization included in the project examines the force output,electrical properties, and other variables relevant to actuator design.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

137739-Thumbnail Image.png

The Role of Retention and Forgetting in Context Dependent Sensorimotor Memory of Dexterous Manipulation

Description

The role of retention and forgetting of context dependent sensorimotor memory of dexterous manipulation was explored. Human subjects manipulated a U-shaped object by switching the handle to be grasped (context)

The role of retention and forgetting of context dependent sensorimotor memory of dexterous manipulation was explored. Human subjects manipulated a U-shaped object by switching the handle to be grasped (context) three times, and then came back two weeks later to lift the same object in the opposite context relative to that experience on the last block. On each context switch, an interference of the previous block of trials was found resulting in manipulation errors (object tilt). However, no significant re-learning was found two weeks later for the first block of trials (p = 0.826), indicating that the previously observed interference among contexts lasted a very short time. Interestingly, upon switching to the other context, sensorimotor memories again interfered with visually-based planning. This means that the memory of lifting in the first context somehow blocked the memory of lifting in the second context. In addition, the performance in the first trial two weeks later and the previous trial of the same context were not significantly different (p = 0.159). This means that subjects are able to retain long-term sensorimotor memories. Lastly, the last four trials in which subjects switched contexts were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.334). This means that the interference from sensorimotor memories of lifting in opposite contexts was weaker, thus eventually leading to the attainment of steady performance.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

137748-Thumbnail Image.png

A Study of 3D Human Arm Impedance Towards the Development of an EMG-controlled Exoskeleton

Description

I worked on the human-machine interface to improve human physical capability. This work was done in the Human Oriented Robotics and Control Lab (HORC) towards the creation of an advanced,

I worked on the human-machine interface to improve human physical capability. This work was done in the Human Oriented Robotics and Control Lab (HORC) towards the creation of an advanced, EMG-controlled exoskeleton. The project was new, and any work on the human- machine interface needs the physical interface itself. So I designed and fabricated a human-robot coupling device with a novel safety feature. The validation testing of this coupling proved very successful, and the device was granted a provisional patent as well as published to facilitate its spread to other human-machine interface applications, where it could be of major benefit. I then employed this coupling in experimentation towards understanding impedance, with the end goal being the creation of an EMG-based impedance exoskeleton control system. I modified a previously established robot-to-human perturbation method for use in my novel, three- dimensional (3D) impedance measurement experiment. Upon execution of this experiment, I was able to successfully characterize passive, static human arm stiffness in 3D, and in doing so validated the aforementioned method. This establishes an important foundation for promising future work on understanding impedance and the creation of the proposed control scheme, thereby furthering the field of human-robot interaction.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

137749-Thumbnail Image.png

fMRI-Based Validation of Penfield Motor Homunculus

Description

In 1937 Canadian neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield made the first to attempt to map the sensorimotor cortex of the human brain in his paper entitled Somatic Motor and Sensory Representation in

In 1937 Canadian neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield made the first to attempt to map the sensorimotor cortex of the human brain in his paper entitled Somatic Motor and Sensory Representation in the Cerebral Cortex of Man as Studied by Electrical Stimulation. While analogous experimentation had been carried out previously using animal subjects, Penfield sought to understand the delicate and complex neuronal pathways that served as the hidden control mechanisms for human activity. The motor homunculus that followed from his findings has been widely accepted as the standard model for the relative spatial representation of the functionality of the motor cortex, and has been virtually unaltered since its inception. While Penfield took measures to collect cortical data in a manner as accurately as scientifically possible for the time period, his original model is deserving of further analysis using modern techniques. This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to quantitatively determine motor function volumes and spatial relationships for four motor tasks: toe, finger, eyebrow, and tongue. Although Penfield's general representation of the superior-to-inferior spatial distribution of the motor cortex was replicated with reasonable accuracy, relative mean task volumes seem to differ from Penfield's original model. The data was first analyzed in each individual patient's native anatomical space for task comparison within a single subject. The volumes of the motor cortex devoted to the eyebrow and toe tasks, which comprise only small portions of the Penfield homunculus, are shown to be relatively large in their fMRI representation compared to finger and tongue. However, these tasks have large deviation values, indicating a lack of consistency in task volume size among patients. Behaviorally, toe movement may include whole foot movement in some individuals, and eyebrows may include face movement, causing distributions that are more widespread. The data was then analyzed in the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) space, which is mathematically normalized for task comparison between different subjects. Tongue and finger tasks were the largest in volume, much like Penfield's model. However, they also had substantial deviation, again indicating task volume size inconsistencies. Since the Penfield model is only a qualitative spatial evaluation of motor function along the precentral gyrus, numerical deviation from the model cannot necessarily be quantified. Hence, the results of this study can be interpreted standalone without a current comparison. While future research will serve to further validate these distances and volumes, this quantitative model of the functionality of the motor cortex will be of great utility for future neurological research and during preoperative evaluations of neurosurgical patients.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

137769-Thumbnail Image.png

Electroactive Pressure Sensor for Haptic Interfacing of Devices

Description

Electrochemical sensors function by detecting electroactive species at the electrode surface of a screen printed sensor. As more force is applied, the concentration of electroactive species at the surface of

Electrochemical sensors function by detecting electroactive species at the electrode surface of a screen printed sensor. As more force is applied, the concentration of electroactive species at the surface of the sensor increases and a larger current is measured. Thus, when all conditions including voltage are made constant, as in Amp i-t, a quantifiable current can be read and the force applied can be calculated. Two common electrochemical techniques in which current is measured, cyclic voltammetry(CV) and amperometric i-t(Amp i-t), were used. A compressible sensor capable of transducing a force and acquiring feedback was created.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

137772-Thumbnail Image.png

An Investigation of Human Error Correction in Anthropomorphic Robotic Armatures

Description

As robots become more prevalent, the need is growing for efficient yet stable control systems for applications with humans in the loop. As such, it is a challenge for scientists

As robots become more prevalent, the need is growing for efficient yet stable control systems for applications with humans in the loop. As such, it is a challenge for scientists and engineers to develop robust and agile systems that are capable of detecting instability in teleoperated systems. Despite how much research has been done to characterize the spatiotemporal parameters of human arm motions for reaching and gasping, not much has been done to characterize the behavior of human arm motion in response to control errors in a system. The scope of this investigation is to investigate human corrective actions in response to error in an anthropomorphic teleoperated robot limb. Characterizing human corrective actions contributes to the development of control strategies that are capable of mitigating potential instabilities inherent in human-machine control interfaces. Characterization of human corrective actions requires the simulation of a teleoperated anthropomorphic armature and the comparison of a human subject's arm kinematics, in response to error, against the human arm kinematics without error. This was achieved using OpenGL software to simulate a teleoperated robot arm and an NDI motion tracking system to acquire the subject's arm position and orientation. Error was intermittently and programmatically introduced to the virtual robot's joints as the subject attempted to reach for several targets located around the arm. The comparison of error free human arm kinematics to error prone human arm kinematics revealed an addition of a bell shaped velocity peak into the human subject's tangential velocity profile. The size, extent, and location of the additional velocity peak depended on target location and join angle error. Some joint angle and target location combinations do not produce an additional peak but simply maintain the end effector velocity at a low value until the target is reached. Additional joint angle error parameters and degrees of freedom are needed to continue this investigation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

137282-Thumbnail Image.png

The Role of Primary Motor Cortex (M1) in the Context-Dependent Interference

Description

A previous study demonstrated that learning to lift an object is context-based and that in the presence of both the memory and visual cues, the acquired sensorimotor memory to manipulate

A previous study demonstrated that learning to lift an object is context-based and that in the presence of both the memory and visual cues, the acquired sensorimotor memory to manipulate an object in one context interferes with the performance of the same task in presence of visual information about a different context (Fu et al, 2012).
The purpose of this study is to know whether the primary motor cortex (M1) plays a role in the sensorimotor memory. It was hypothesized that temporary disruption of the M1 following the learning to minimize a tilt using a ‘L’ shaped object would negatively affect the retention of sensorimotor memory and thus reduce interference between the memory acquired in one context and the visual cues to perform the same task in a different context.
Significant findings were shown in blocks 1, 2, and 4. In block 3, subjects displayed insignificant amount of learning. However, it cannot be concluded that there is full interference in block 3. Therefore, looked into 3 effects in statistical analysis: the main effects of the blocks, the main effects of the trials, and the effects of the blocks and trials combined. From the block effects, there is a p-value of 0.001, and from the trial effects, the p-value is less than 0.001. Both of these effects indicate that there is learning occurring. However, when looking at the blocks * trials effects, we see a p-value of 0.002 < 0.05 indicating significant interaction between sensorimotor memories. Based on the results that were found, there is a presence of interference in all the blocks but not enough to justify the use of TMS in order to reduce interference because there is a partial reduction of interference from the control experiment. It is evident that the time delay might be the issue between context switches. By reducing the time delay between block 2 and 3 from 10 minutes to 5 minutes, I will hope to see significant learning to occur from the first trial to the second trial.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

137409-Thumbnail Image.png

Comparing and Analyzing Electromyography and Electroencephalography

Description

Electromyography (EMG) and Electroencephalography (EEG) are techniques used to detect electrical activity produced by the human body. EMG detects electrical activity in the skeletal muscles, while EEG detects electrical activity

Electromyography (EMG) and Electroencephalography (EEG) are techniques used to detect electrical activity produced by the human body. EMG detects electrical activity in the skeletal muscles, while EEG detects electrical activity from the scalp. The purpose of this study is to capture different types of EMG and EEG signals and to determine if the signals can be distinguished between each other and processed into output signals to trigger events in prosthetics. Results from the study suggest that the PSD estimates can be used to compare signals that have significant differences such as the wrist, scalp, and fingers, but it cannot fully distinguish between signals that are closely related, such as two different fingers. The signals that were identified were able to be translated into the physical output simulated on the Arduino circuit.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

134461-Thumbnail Image.png

Effect of splinting techniques on the correction of hand deformities: a scoping review

Description

The purpose of this paper was to systematically review current literature regarding the effect of hand splints on aesthetic outcomes for individuals with acquired hand deformities. Hand splints vary in

The purpose of this paper was to systematically review current literature regarding the effect of hand splints on aesthetic outcomes for individuals with acquired hand deformities. Hand splints vary in form and function, and are used to maintain or ameliorate hand function and aesthetics. A literature search was performed on peer-reviewed publications that used splinting as an intervention for conservative hand improvement. Evidence from ten randomized clinical trials (published from 2003 to 2015) was evaluated for aesthetic improvement among a total of 659 subjects. Cosmetic outcomes were analyzed by a change in angle measurements, such as extensor lag, ulnar deviation, and passive and active range of motion. Of these ten studies, five focused on hand deformities caused by neurological impairment, while the other five measured those with musculoskeletal complications. Only two of the ten studies concluded that splinting could aesthetically improve the hands, and only one of these reporting statistical significance in its data. The data was not only limited in quantity, but was presented in heterogeneous formats. There was an extensive variation in measured outcomes, intervention protocols, follow-up times, and many other aspects of the studies; this dissimilarity led to difficulty in performing a systematic assessment. The majority of evidence concludes that splinting does not improve the appearance of deformities, however none directly investigated this measure. Therefore, further RCTs that include measurements of cosmetic traits are necessary to better quantify the effect of splinting for management of hand deformities. This review was the first of its kind to evaluate the correction of hand deformities using splints as an intervention.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

135353-Thumbnail Image.png

Design of a Collapsible Instrument for Studying Grasp of Breakable Objects

Description

Research on human grasp typically involves the grasp of objects designed for the study of fingertip forces. Instrumented objects for such studies have often been designed for the simulation of

Research on human grasp typically involves the grasp of objects designed for the study of fingertip forces. Instrumented objects for such studies have often been designed for the simulation of functional tasks, such as feeding oneself, or for rigidity such that the objects do not deform when grasped. The goal of this thesis was to design a collapsible, instrumented object to study grasp of breakable objects. Such an object would enable experiments on human grip responses to unexpected finger-object events as well as anticipatory mechanisms once object fragility has been observed. The collapsible object was designed to be modular to allow for properties such as friction and breaking force to be altered. The instrumented object could be used to study both human and artificial grasp.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012-05