Matching Items (3)

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Modeling of Copper Migration In CdTe Photovoltaic Devices

Description

Thin-film modules of all technologies often suffer from performance degradation over time. Some of the performance changes are reversible and some are not, which makes deployment, testing, and energy-yield prediction

Thin-film modules of all technologies often suffer from performance degradation over time. Some of the performance changes are reversible and some are not, which makes deployment, testing, and energy-yield prediction more challenging. The most commonly alleged causes of instability in CdTe device, such as “migration of Cu,” have been investigated rigorously over the past fifteen years. As all defects, intrinsic or extrinsic, interact with the electrical potential and free carriers so that charged defects may drift in the electric field and changing ionization state with excess free carriers. Such complexity of interactions in CdTe makes understanding of temporal changes in device performance even more challenging. The goal of the work in this dissertation is, thus, to eliminate the ambiguity between the observed performance changes under stress and their physical root cause by enabling a depth of modeling that takes account of diffusion and drift at the atomistic level coupled to the electronic subsystem responsible for a PV device’s function. The 1D Unified Solver, developed as part of this effort, enables us to analyze PV devices at a greater depth.

In this dissertation, the implementation of a drift-diffusion model defect migration simulator, development of an implicit reaction scheme for total mass conservation, and a couple of other numerical schemes to improve the overall flexibility and robustness of this coupled Unified Solver is discussed. Preliminary results on Cu (with or without Cl-treatment) annealing simulations in both single-crystal CdTe wafer and poly-crystalline CdTe devices show promising agreement to experimental findings, providing a new perspective in the research of improving doping concentration hence the open-circuit voltage of CdTe technology. Furthermore, on the reliability side, in agreement of previous experimental reports, simulation results suggest possibility of Cu depletion in short-circuited cells stressed at elevated temperature. The developed solver also successfully demonstrated that mobile donor migration can be used to explain solar cell performance changes under different stress conditions.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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A Unified 2D Solver for Modeling Carrier and Defect Dynamics in Electronic and Photovoltaic Devices

Description

Semiconductor devices often face reliability issues due to their operational con-

ditions causing performance degradation over time. One of the root causes of such

degradation is due to point defect dynamics and

Semiconductor devices often face reliability issues due to their operational con-

ditions causing performance degradation over time. One of the root causes of such

degradation is due to point defect dynamics and time dependent changes in their

chemical nature. Previously developed Unified Solver was successful in explaining

the copper (Cu) metastability issues in cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells. The

point defect formalism employed there could not be extended to chlorine or arsenic

due to numerical instabilities with the dopant chemical reactions. To overcome these

shortcomings, an advanced version of the Unified Solver called PVRD-FASP tool was

developed. This dissertation presents details about PVRD-FASP tool, the theoretical

framework for point defect chemical formalism, challenges faced with numerical al-

gorithms, improvements for the user interface, application and/or validation of the

tool with carefully chosen simulations, and open source availability of the tool for the

scientific community.

Treating point defects and charge carriers on an equal footing in the new formalism

allows to incorporate chemical reaction rate term as generation-recombination(G-R)

term in continuity equation. Due to the stiff differential equations involved, a reaction

solver based on forward Euler method with Newton step is proposed in this work.

The Jacobian required for Newton step is analytically calculated in an elegant way

improving speed, stability and accuracy of the tool. A novel non-linear correction

scheme is proposed and implemented to resolve charge conservation issue.

The proposed formalism is validated in 0-D with time evolution of free carriers

simulation and with doping limits of Cu in CdTe simulation. Excellent agreement of

light JV curves calculated with PVRD-FASP and Silvaco Atlas tool for a 1-D CdTe

solar cell validates reaction formalism and tool accuracy. A closer match with the Cu

SIMS profiles of Cu activated CdTe samples at four different anneal recipes to the

simulation results show practical applicability. A 1D simulation of full stack CdTe

device with Cu activation at 350C 3min anneal recipe and light JV curve simulation

demonstrates the tool capabilities in performing process and device simulations. CdTe

device simulation for understanding differences between traps and recombination

centers in grain boundaries demonstrate 2D capabilities.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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One-dimensional fast transient simulator for modeling CdS/CdTe solar cells

Description

Solar energy, including solar heating, solar architecture, solar thermal electricity and solar photovoltaics, is one of the primary energy sources replacing fossil fuels. Being one of the most important techniques,

Solar energy, including solar heating, solar architecture, solar thermal electricity and solar photovoltaics, is one of the primary energy sources replacing fossil fuels. Being one of the most important techniques, significant research has been conducted in solar cell efficiency improvement. Simulation of various structures and materials of solar cells provides a deeper understanding of device operation and ways to improve their efficiency. Over the last two decades, polycrystalline thin-film Cadmium-Sulfide and Cadmium-Telluride (CdS/CdTe) solar cells fabricated on glass substrates have been considered as one of the most promising candidate in the photovoltaic technologies, for their similar efficiency and low costs when compared to traditional silicon-based solar cells. In this work a fast one dimensional time-dependent/steady-state drift-diffusion simulator, accelerated by adaptive non-uniform mesh and automatic time-step control, for modeling solar cells has been developed and has been used to simulate a CdS/CdTe solar cell. These models are used to reproduce transients of carrier transport in response to step-function signals of different bias and varied light intensity. The time-step control models are also used to help convergence in steady-state simulations where constrained material constants, such as carrier lifetimes in the order of nanosecond and carrier mobility in the order of 100 cm2/Vs, must be applied.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013