Matching Items (14)

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Can location value capture pay for transit? Organizational challenges of transforming theory into practice

Description

Successful public transit systems increase the value of locations they serve. Capturing this location value to help fund transit is often sensible, but challenging. This article defines location value capture,

Successful public transit systems increase the value of locations they serve. Capturing this location value to help fund transit is often sensible, but challenging. This article defines location value capture, and synthesizes lessons learned from six European and North American transit agencies that have experience with location value capture funding. The opportunities for and barriers to implementing location value capture fall into three categories: agency institutional authority, agency organizational mission, and public support for transit. When any of these factors is incompatible with a location value capture strategy, implementation becomes difficult. In four of the cases studied, dramatic institutional change was critical for success. In five cases, acute crisis was a catalyst for institutional change, value capture implementation, or both. Using value capture strategies to fund transit requires practitioners to both understand agency organizational constraints, and to view transit agencies as institutions that can transform in response to changing situations.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05-12

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Residential Choice’s Impact on Sustainable Transportation Options: A Study in the Phoenix Metro Area

Description

This study adds to the literature about residential choice and sustainable transportation. Through the interviews and the personal stories gathered, there was diversity shown in the residential location choice process.

This study adds to the literature about residential choice and sustainable transportation. Through the interviews and the personal stories gathered, there was diversity shown in the residential location choice process. We also noticed that “commute” means different things to different households, and that many people did not consider their commute to work to be a primary factor determining their final home location. Moreover, many people were willing to increase their commute time, or trade access to desirable amenities for a longer commute. Commuting time to work was one example of the tradeoffs that homeowners make when choosing a home, but there were also others such as architectural type and access to neighborhood amenities. Lastly, time constraints proved to be a very significant factor in the home buying process. Several of our households had such strict time constraints that limited their search to a point of excluding whole areas. Overall, our study sheds light on transportation’s role in residential choice and underscores the complexity of the location choice process.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Lessons in Arcology: An Overview of Two Experimental Urban Projects and Their Viability in Phoenix's Sustainable Urban Development

Description

Defines the concept of the arcology as conceived by architect Paolo Soleri. Arcology combines "architecture" and "ecology" and explores a visionary notion of a self-contained urban community that has agricultural,

Defines the concept of the arcology as conceived by architect Paolo Soleri. Arcology combines "architecture" and "ecology" and explores a visionary notion of a self-contained urban community that has agricultural, commercial, and residential facilities under one roof. Two real-world examples of these projects are explored: Arcosanti, AZ and Masdar City, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Key aspects of the arcology that could be applied to an existing urban fabric are identified, such as urban design fostering social interaction, reduction of automobile dependency, and a development pattern that combats sprawl. Through interviews with local representatives, a holistic approach to applying arcology concepts to the Phoenix Metro Area is devised.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

How Do Students Travel While On-Campus?

Description

In an effort to address the lack of literature in on-campus active travel, this study aims to investigate the following primary questions:<br/>• What are the modes that students use to

In an effort to address the lack of literature in on-campus active travel, this study aims to investigate the following primary questions:<br/>• What are the modes that students use to travel on campus?<br/>• What are the motivations that underlie the mode choice of students on campus?<br/>My first stage of research involved a series of qualitative investigations. I held one-on-one virtual interviews with students in which I asked them questions about the mode they use and why they feel that their chosen mode works best for them. These interviews served two functions. First, they provided me with insight into the various motivations underlying student mode choice. Second, they provided me with an indication of what explanatory variables should be included in a model of mode choice on campus.<br/>The first half of the research project informed a quantitative survey that was released via the Honors Digest to attract student respondents. Data was gathered on travel behavior as well as relevant explanatory variables.<br/>My analysis involved developing a logit model to predict student mode choice on campus and presenting the model estimation in conjunction with a discussion of student travel motivations based on the qualitative interviews. I use this information to make a recommendation on how campus infrastructure could be modified to better support the needs of the student population.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Comparative Analysis: Transit Ridership in Dallas, Denver, Minneapolis, Phoenix, and Seattle

Description

Transit ridership is declining in most cities throughout America. Public transportation needs to be improved in order for cities to handle urban growth, reduce carbon footprint, and increase mobility across

Transit ridership is declining in most cities throughout America. Public transportation needs to be improved in order for cities to handle urban growth, reduce carbon footprint, and increase mobility across income groups. In order to determine what causes changes in transit ridership, I performed a descriptive analysis of five metro areas in the United States. I studied changes in transit ridership in Dallas, Denver, Minneapolis, Phoenix, and Seattle from 2013 through 2017 to determine where public transportation works and where it does not work. I used employment, commute, and demographic data to determine what affects transit ridership. Each metro area was studied as a separate case because the selected cities are difficult to compare directly. The Seattle metro area was the only metro to increase transit ridership throughout the period of the study. The Minneapolis metro area experienced a slight decline in transit ridership, while Phoenix and Denver declined significantly. The Dallas metro area declined most of the five cities studied. The denser metro areas fared much better than the less dense areas. In order to increase transit ridership cities should increase the density of their city and avoid sprawl. Certain factors led to declines in ridership in certain metro areas but not all. For example, gentrification contributed to ridership decline in Denver and Minneapolis, but Seattle gentrified and increased ridership. Dallas and Phoenix experienced low-levels of gentrification but experienced declining ridership. Therefore, organizations such as the American Public Transportation Association (APTA) who attempt to find the single factor causing the decline in transit ridership, or the one factor that will increase ridership are misguided. Above all, this thesis shows that there is no single factor causing the ridership decline in each metro area, and it is wise to study each metro area as a separate case.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Phoenix Urban Village Efficacy: A Comparative Analysis on Commuter Automobile Dependency

Description

Since 1979, Phoenix has been organized into 15 theoretically self-contained urban villages in order to manage rapid growth. The major objective of the village plan was to decrease demand

Since 1979, Phoenix has been organized into 15 theoretically self-contained urban villages in order to manage rapid growth. The major objective of the village plan was to decrease demand for personal vehicle use by internalizing travel to the closest village core, or an adjacent village core, instead of expanding travel to one metropolitan core. Phoenix’s transition from a monocentric urban structure to a more polycentric structure has yet to be studied for its efficacy on this goal of turning personal vehicle travel inward. This paper pairs more conventional measures of automobile dependence, such as, use of alternative modes of transportation in place of private vehicle use and commute times, with more nuanced measures of internal travel between work and home, job housing ratio, and job industry breakdowns to describe Phoenix’s reliance on automobiles. Phoenix’s internal travel ratios were higher when compared to adjacent cities and either on-par or lower when compared to non-adjacent cities that were comparable to Phoenix in population density and size.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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The effects of urban density on the efficiency of dockless bike sharing system: a case study of Beijing, China

Description

Bicycle sharing systems (BSS) operate on five continents, and they change quickly with technological innovations. The newest “dockless” systems eliminate both docks and stations, and have become popular in China

Bicycle sharing systems (BSS) operate on five continents, and they change quickly with technological innovations. The newest “dockless” systems eliminate both docks and stations, and have become popular in China since their launch in 2016. The rapid increase in dockless system use has exposed its drawbacks. Without the order imposed by docks and stations, bike parking has become problematic. In the areas of densest use, the central business districts of large cities, dockless systems have resulted in chaotic piling of bikes and need for frequent rebalancing of bikes to other locations. In low-density zones, on the other hand, it may be difficult for customers to find a bike, and bikes may go unused for long periods. Using big data from the Mobike BSS in Beijing, I analyzed the relationship between building density and the efficiency of dockless BSS. Density is negatively correlated with bicycle idle time, and positively correlated with rebalancing. Understanding the effects of density on BSS efficiency can help BSS operators and municipalities improve the operating efficiency of BSS, increase regional cycling volume, and solve the bicycle rebalancing problem in dockless systems. It can also be useful to cities considering what kind of BSS to adopt.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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An Equity Analysis of Phoenix Bicyclist and Pedestrian Involved Crash Rates

Description

Walking and bicycling bring many merits to people, both physically and mentally.

However, not everyone has an opportunity to enjoy healthy and safe bicycling and

walking. Many studies suggested that

Walking and bicycling bring many merits to people, both physically and mentally.

However, not everyone has an opportunity to enjoy healthy and safe bicycling and

walking. Many studies suggested that access to healthy walking and bicycling is heavily

related to socio-economic status. Low income population and racial minorities have

poorer transportation that results in less walking and bicycling, as well as less access to

public transportation. They are also under higher risks of being hit by vehicles while

walking and bicycling. This research quantifies the relationship between socioeconomic

factors and bicyclist and pedestrian involved traffic crash rates in order to establish an

understanding of how equitable access to safe bicycling and walking is in Phoenix. The

crash rates involving both bicyclists and pedestrians were categorized into two groups,

minor crashes and severe crashes. Then, the OLS model was used to analyze minor and

severe bicycle crash rates, and minor and severe pedestrian crash rates, respectively.

There are four main results, (1) The median income of an area is always negatively

related to the crash rates of bicyclists and pedestrians. The reason behind the negative

correlation is that there is a very small proportion of people choosing to walk or ride

bicycles as their commuting methods in the high-income areas. Consequently, there are

low crash rates of pedestrians and bicyclists. (2) The minor bicycle crash rates are more

related to socio-economic determinants than the severe crash rates. (3) A higher

population density reduces both the minor and the severe crash rates of bicyclists and

pedestrians in Phoenix. (4) A higher pedestrian commuting ratio does not reduce bicyclist

and pedestrian crash rates in Phoenix. The findings from this study can provide a

reference value for the government and other researchers and encourage better future

decisions from policy makers.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Regional economic inequality analysis : a comparative study of the United States and China

Description

Economic inequality is always presented as how economic metrics vary amongst individuals in a group, amongst groups in a population, or amongst some regions. Economic inequality can substantially impact the

Economic inequality is always presented as how economic metrics vary amongst individuals in a group, amongst groups in a population, or amongst some regions. Economic inequality can substantially impact the social environment, socioeconomics as well as human living standard. Since economic inequality always plays an important role in our social environment, its study has attracted much attention from scholars in various research fields, such as development economics, sociology and political science. On the other hand, economic inequality can result from many factors, phenomena, and complex procedures, including policy, ethnic, education, globalization and etc. However, the spatial dimension in economic inequality research did not draw much attention from scholars until early 2000s. Spatial dependency, perform key roles in economic inequality analysis. The spatial econometric methods do not merely convey a consequence of the characters of the data exclusively. More importantly, they also respect and quantify the spatial effects in the economic inequality. As aforementioned, although regional economic inequality starts to attract scholars' attention in both economy and regional science domains, corresponding methodologies to examine such regional inequality remain in their preliminary phase, which need substantial further exploration. My thesis aims at contributing to the body of knowledge in the method development to support economic inequality studies by exploring the feasibility of a set of new analytical methods in use of regional inequality analysis. These methods include Theil's T statistic, geographical rank Markov and new methods applying graph theory. The thesis will also leverage these methods to compare the inequality between China and US, two large economic entities in the world, because of the long history of economic development as well as the corresponding evolution of inequality in US; the rapid economic development and consequent high variation of economic inequality in China.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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First-last mile life cycle assessment of Los Angeles transit

Description

With high potential for automobiles to cause air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, there is concern that automobiles accessing or egressing public transportation may cause emissions similar to regular automobile

With high potential for automobiles to cause air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, there is concern that automobiles accessing or egressing public transportation may cause emissions similar to regular automobile use. Due to limited literature and research that evaluates and discusses environmental impacts from first and last mile portions of transit trips, there is a lack of understanding on this topic. This research aims to comprehensively evaluate the life cycle impacts of first and last mile trips on multimodal transit. A case study of transit and automobile travel in the greater Los Angeles region is evaluated by using a comprehensive life cycle assessment combined with regional household travel survey data to evaluate first-last mile trip impacts in multimodal transit focusing on automobile trips accessing or egressing transit. First and last mile automobile trips were found to increase total multimodal transit trip emissions by 2 to 12 times (most extreme cases were carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds). High amounts of coal-fired energy generation can cause electric propelled rail trips with automobile access or egress to have similar or more emissions (commonly greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide, and mono-nitrogen oxides) than competing automobile trips, however, most criteria air pollutants occur remotely. Methods to reduce first-last mile impacts depend on the characteristics of the transit systems and may include promoting first-last mile carpooling, adjusting station parking pricing and availability, and increased emphasis on walking and biking paths in areas with low access-egress trip distances.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016