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Increasing Precision of Clinical Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease Using a Combined Algorithm Incorporating Clinical and Novel Biomarker Data

Description

Establishing the in vivo diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or other dementias relies on clinical criteria; however, the accuracy of these criteria can be limited. The diagnostic accuracy is 77%

Establishing the in vivo diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or other dementias relies on clinical criteria; however, the accuracy of these criteria can be limited. The diagnostic accuracy is 77% for a clinical diagnosis of AD, even among experts. We performed a review through PubMed of articles related to specific diagnostic modalities, including APOE genotyping, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing, fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography (PET), amyloid PET, tau PET, computed tomography (CT), single-photon emission CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and B12 and thyroid-stimulating hormone screening, to determine the specificity and sensitivity of each test used in the clinical diagnosis of AD. We added a novel immunomagnetic reduction assay that provides ultrasensitivity for analyzing the levels of plasma tau and beta amyloid 42 (Aβ[subscript 42]). The sensitivity and specificity of the current diagnostic approach (structural CT or MRI with screening labs) remain low for clinical detection of AD and are primarily used to exclude other conditions. Because of limited diagnostic capabilities, physicians do not feel comfortable or skilled in rendering a clinical diagnosis of AD. Compounding this problem is the fact that inexpensive, minimally invasive diagnostic tests do not yet exist. Biomarkers (obtained through CSF testing or PET imaging), which are not routinely incorporated in clinical practice, correlate well with pathologic changes. While PET is particularly costly and difficult to assess, CSF measures of tau and beta amyloid are not costly, and these tests may be worthwhile when the tiered approach proposed here warrants further testing. There is a need for developing bloodborne biomarkers that can aid in the clinical diagnosis of AD. Here we present a streamlined questionnaire-enriched, biomarker-enriched approach that is more cost-effective than the current diagnosis of exclusion and is designed to increase clinical confidence for a diagnosis of dementia due to AD.

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Date Created
  • 2017-07-21

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Plasma Levels of Aβ42 and Tau Identified Probable Alzheimer’s Dementia: Findings in Two Cohorts

Description

The utility of plasma amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau levels for the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia has been controversial. The main objective of this study was to

The utility of plasma amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau levels for the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia has been controversial. The main objective of this study was to compare Aβ42 and tau levels measured by the ultra-sensitive immunomagnetic reduction (IMR) assays in plasma samples collected at the Banner Sun Health Institute (BSHRI) (United States) with those from the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH) (Taiwan). Significant increase in tau levels were detected in AD subjects from both cohorts, while Aβ42 levels were increased only in the NTUH cohort. A regression model incorporating age showed that tau levels identified probable ADs with 81 and 96% accuracy in the BSHRI and NTUH cohorts, respectively, while computed products of Aβ42 and tau increased the accuracy to 84% in the BSHRI cohorts. Using 382.68 (pg/ml)[superscript 2] as the cut-off value, the product achieved 92% accuracy in identifying AD in the combined cohorts. Overall findings support that plasma Aβ42 and tau assayed by IMR technology can be used to assist in the clinical diagnosis of AD.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-07-24