Matching Items (13)

152980-Thumbnail Image.png

Parental pressure for academic sucess in India

Description

Academic achievement among Asians has been widely recognized in the literature, but the costs of this success may be tied to significant mental health consequences. Three samples of undergraduate students

Academic achievement among Asians has been widely recognized in the literature, but the costs of this success may be tied to significant mental health consequences. Three samples of undergraduate students in India were recruited from cities such as Chennai, Kerala, and Delhi totaling 608 (303 male, 301 females). Both online and in class recruitment occurred.

There were three main purposes of this study: 1) to construct a quantitative measure of parental pressure, 2) to evaluate whether self-esteem was a potential buffer of the negative impacts of parental pressure and academic stress, and 3) to understand better the factors impacting suicidality among adolescents in India by testing a path model of possible predictors suggested by the literature. Prevalence data of suicidal ideation and attempt history were also collected. Reporting on their experience over the past six months, 14.5% (n = 82) of the participants endorsed suicidal ideation and 12.3% (n = 69) of the participants admitted to having deliberately attempted to hurt or kill themselves.

Five constructs were explored in this study: parental pressure, academic stress, depression, suicidality, and self-esteem. The Parental Pressure for Success Scale, designed for this study, was used to measure parental pressure. The Educational Stress Scale-Adolescents was used to measure academic stress. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale was used to measure depressive symptomology. Two items from the Youth Self-Report Checklist were used as a measure of suicidality in the past six months. The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale was used to measure global self-esteem.

Preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Parental Pressure for Success Scale was found. While self-esteem was not a significant moderator in this study, it was a predictor of both stress and depression. Results of the path analysis indicated that parental pressure predicted academic stress, stress predicted depression, and depression predicted suicidality. Parental pressure indirectly predicted suicidality through academic stress and depression. Results were discussed in the context of cultural influences on study findings such as the central role of parents in the family unit, the impact of cultural valuing of education, collectivistic society, and the Hindu concept of dharma, or duty.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

152975-Thumbnail Image.png

Saving Face(book): effects of interactions with third parties on social attractiveness of a Facebook profile owner

Description

The purpose of this study was to determine how a profile owner's (PO's) response to a

friend's comment on Facebook impacts social attractiveness of the PO. A 3 (response type: denial,

The purpose of this study was to determine how a profile owner's (PO's) response to a

friend's comment on Facebook impacts social attractiveness of the PO. A 3 (response type: denial, humble, no response) x 2 (sex of the participant) between-subjects experiment was conducted using 297 participants who were recruited from a large public university and a community college in the southwest United States. It was hypothesized that being humble and accepting of implied negative behavior statements would increase the social attractiveness of the profile owner compared to denial or no response. A one- way ANCOVA with social desirability as the covariate was used to analyze the data. Results were non-significant for the main effects of response type but were significant for the main effects of the sex of the participant with male participants finding the profile owners more socially attractive than female participants. The results suggest that a PO's response to a negative Friend comment does not impact the PO's social attractiveness.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

157647-Thumbnail Image.png

Financial Knowledge is Power: Exploring the Protective Benefits of Financial Self-Efficacy Among Young Adults

Description

Personal finances are an essential part of adulthood, yet we find that many Americans have low financial literacy (Financial Industry Regulatory Authority Investor Education Foundation, 2016). This phenomenon is especially

Personal finances are an essential part of adulthood, yet we find that many Americans have low financial literacy (Financial Industry Regulatory Authority Investor Education Foundation, 2016). This phenomenon is especially true for young adults (18-25 years old) (Lusardi, 2019). Lusardi, Mitchell, and Curto (2009) found that fewer than one-third of young adults possess basic financial knowledge. The present study examined whether financial self-efficacy and financial hardship were moderators between financial literacy and financial anxiety among a young adult sample (18-25 years old; Arnett, 2000). The current study utilized moderated moderation analyses to explore the associations between financial literacy, financial anxiety (i.e., the concern and worry about finances), financial self-efficacy, and financial hardship for young adults( N = 549, 71.6% female, Mage = 20.49). Based on survey data from the Financial and Social Stress Study (Tran & Mintert, n.d.), moderated moderation results show (a) an inverse association between financial literacy and financial anxiety (direct effects) and (b) financial self-efficacy and financial hardship moderate this relationship. Specifically, for young adults experiencing high financial hardship with high financial self-efficacy, there was a strong inverse association between financial literacy and financial anxiety. This study contributes to our knowledge of the vital role of financial literacy and its association with financial anxiety for young adults. Further, these findings highlight financial self-efficacy as a potential factor for mental health providers to consider when working with young adults experiencing high financial hardship.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

155009-Thumbnail Image.png

The effect of text messaging preferences and behavior on romantic relationship satisfaction

Description

Proponents of cues-filtered-out approaches to communication suggest that the quality of person-to-person interaction is diminished when that interaction is mediated by technology. This postulation has implications for communication given the

Proponents of cues-filtered-out approaches to communication suggest that the quality of person-to-person interaction is diminished when that interaction is mediated by technology. This postulation has implications for communication given the surging popularity of text messaging in the United States. It is important to examine the degree to which text messaging may inhibit successful communication due to the detriments of technologically mediated communication. The relation between text messaging and romantic relationship satisfaction in individuals ages 18-45 was investigated because successful communication is widely known by researchers and lay individuals to be an integral aspect of healthy intimate relationships. The Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS) (Hendricks, 1988) and an inventory of text messaging behavior was administered to graduate students (n = 22), undergraduate students (n = 24), and people not affiliated with universities (n = 104). Using responses on these inventories, whether or not (1) frequency of text messaging and (2) preference for a particular method of communication are related to romantic relationship satisfaction were evaluated. It was hypothesized that (1) a higher frequency of text messaging will be inversely related with romantic relationship satisfaction and (2) that a participant indicating a preference for verbal phone communication over text messaging communication will be positively correlated with romantic relationship satisfaction. The lack of statistically significant results prevented the drawing of conclusions about relationships between text messaging frequency or preference for voice communication over texting and romantic relationship satisfaction.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

154943-Thumbnail Image.png

PROP status and weight loss: does taster-type predict weight loss success?

Description

Given the continued increase in obesity rates in the United States, there has been growing research regarding factors related to obesity. Researchers have examined biological factors, such as set

Given the continued increase in obesity rates in the United States, there has been growing research regarding factors related to obesity. Researchers have examined biological factors, such as set point theory, as well as various psychological factors such as motivation, self-efficacy, and eating styles. Taster-type, defined as how an individual experiences the perception of taste (particularly bitterness), is a recent area of research that has explored the potential relationship between this phenomenon and obesity. The current study examined whether taster-type impacted weight loss, along with secondary measures of BMI, waist circumference, and food neophobia, as well as taster-type’s impact on these measures over time. This study also examined the potential role of taster-type as a predictor of weight loss, independent of the psychological variables of motivation, self-efficacy, and eating styles. Ninety adult participants, consisting of 64 females and 19 males were recruited for this study. They were asked to diet for four weeks; 60 finished the full four weeks and completed psychosocial measures over two time periods. They were asked to record their food using an online food journal, attend weekly meetings for weigh-ins, and were given psychoeducational materials regarding factors affecting weight loss. The results indicated that taster-type was not a significant factor in BMI or waist circumference, but taster-type did interact with time to reveal that supertasters consistently lost weight across the four week dieting period while nontasters leveled off after Week 2. Additionally, both groups increased in food neophobia from the start of the dieting period to the end of Week 4. Consistent with previous research, motivation and self-efficacy predicted weight loss; however, taster-type did not increase the prediction of weight loss across the dieting period. This effect only occurred at Week 2. By Week 4, no psychosocial variables were significant predictors of weight loss.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

153187-Thumbnail Image.png

Going the distance

Description

Romantic relationships are often viewed as an important, meaningful part of a person's life. Most romantic relationships do not last forever. Research regarding romantic relationship satisfaction and quality have thus

Romantic relationships are often viewed as an important, meaningful part of a person's life. Most romantic relationships do not last forever. Research regarding romantic relationship satisfaction and quality have thus grown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals who train for endurance events such as running, cycling, or triathlons with their romantic partner have greater relationship satisfaction and quality than do individuals who do not train with their romantic partner. Participants, 54 males and 60 females whose mean age was 33.4, completed a demographic questionnaire, the Quality of Relationships Inventory (QRI), the Perceived Relationship Quality Component (PRQC), the Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS), and the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS). Of these 114 participants, 52 trained with their romantic partner. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed that individuals who trained with their romantic partner reported higher relationship satisfaction and quality compared to those that did not train for an endurance event with their romantic partner. There were no statistically significant differences in relationship satisfaction or relationship quality between men and women or between married individuals and dating individuals. These findings suggest that couples may benefit from engaging in shared activities.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

154383-Thumbnail Image.png

Couples coping with a childs chronic illness: effects of dyadic coping on stress and well-being

Description

The prevalence of chronic illness among children in the United States is on the rise (CDC, 2014). Having a child with a chronic illness can be a substantial source of

The prevalence of chronic illness among children in the United States is on the rise (CDC, 2014). Having a child with a chronic illness can be a substantial source of stress for a couple, including physical, emotional, and financial demands of caregiving as well as difficult decision-making regarding the child’s health (Mayo Clinic, 2015). Coping with such stressors can have a negative effect on the couple’s well-being, and, if not managed within the relationship, can lead to increased negative outcomes for both partners. Partners can, however, learn to cope with stress by engaging in the coping process together with dyadic coping (DC). Couples can engage in positive (i.e., supportive emotion-focused, supportive problem-focused, and delegated) or negative forms of DC. DC has been shown to mitigate stress for couples, while increasing reports of individual well-being (IWB) and relational well-being (RWB), but it has not been examined in the context of couples with a child with a chronic illness.

To bridge this gap, the present study examined how couples cope with general stress as well as stress associated with their child’s diagnosis of a chronic illness (CI-related stress) and whether positive DC and negative DC moderate association between stress (general stress and CI-related stress) and well-being (IWB and RWB). Consistent with hypotheses, there were significant main effects of both types of stress (general and CI-related stress) on both types of well-being (IWB and RWB). Contrary to the hypotheses that DC (positive DC and negative DC) would moderate the associations between both types of stress and both types of well-being, only one significant interaction was found between CI-related stress and negative DC on IWB. Implications of these findings are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

153413-Thumbnail Image.png

Intraracial discrimination: do hair texture and skin tone really matter?

Description

ABSTRACT

Colorism is the intra-racial system of inequality based on skin color, hair texture, and facial features. In the African American culture, colorism has deeply rooted origins that continue

ABSTRACT

Colorism is the intra-racial system of inequality based on skin color, hair texture, and facial features. In the African American culture, colorism has deeply rooted origins that continue to affect the lives of African Americans today. This study examined how colorism effects perceptions of personal characteristics, personal attributes, work ability, and hiring decisions of African American women 18 and older.

Participants for this study consisted of 188 African American women who self-identified as African American/Black and who were over 18 years of age living in the United States. All participants completed a demographic sheet and three instruments: Occupational Work Ethic Inventory (OWEI; Petty, 1995), Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; Spence, Helmreich, & Stapp, 1974) and Personal Efficacy Beliefs Scale (PEBS; Riggs et al., 1994). They were randomly assigned to one of six vignettes describing a young African American/Black woman applying for a job. She was described as having one of three skin-tones (light, brown, or dark) and having kinky or straight hair.

A multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) failed to reveal differences in personal characteristics, personal attributes, and work ability due to skin tone or to hair texture. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that hair texture predicted hiring decision, after controlling for relevant demographic variables. Participant education and vignette hair texture influenced hiring decisions, accounting for 8.2% of the variance. The woman in the vignette with straight hair was more likely to be recommended for hire and more educated participants were more likely to recommend hiring. These findings suggest that education may be an important factor in changing the influence of colorism in African American culture and that hair texture may be a factor of colorism that influences hiring of applicants.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

150239-Thumbnail Image.png

Factors influencing attitudes toward euthanasia

Description

Over recent decades, euthanasia has been a topic of increasing debate. With legalization of euthanasia in the states of Oregon and Washington and attempted reform in several other U.S. states

Over recent decades, euthanasia has been a topic of increasing debate. With legalization of euthanasia in the states of Oregon and Washington and attempted reform in several other U.S. states and nations worldwide, it has become increasingly important to understand the roles and values of helping professionals who might be working with clients considering this option. The current study targeted 85 undergraduate students, 54 doctoral students in counseling psychology, and 53 doctoral-level professionals in psychology to assess both their personal values regarding euthanasia and their willingness to allow a client the autonomy to make a decision about euthanasia. Several factors were analyzed in regards to their relation to client autonomy and attitudes toward euthanasia, including age of client and sex of client. These variables were manipulated in vignettes to create four scenarios: a 24 year old male, 24 year old female, 80 year old male, 80 year old female. Other factors included level of education of the participant, spirituality and strength of religiosity of the participant, and personal experiences with deaths of friends or family members. Results indicated that more education was associated with greater support for euthanasia and that stronger religiosity and spirituality were related to less support for euthanasia. This study also found that participants did not exhibit differential levels of support based solely on the age or the sex of the client depicted in the vignette. Results further indicated that for doctoral students and professionals the loss of a loved one, regardless of cause of death, did not have a significant effect on their attitudes toward euthanasia. It is important for training programs to be aware of these findings in order to monitor trainees in terms of personal biases in the therapy relationship. With objectivity a high priority while working with clients, it is necessary to be aware of outside factors potentially influencing one's work with clients surrounding this value-laden issue.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

154402-Thumbnail Image.png

College students' social interactions: costs and benefits of joining campus organizations

Description

There is limited research on bullying among college students and even less research on hazing behaviors among students who are in a campus organization. Previously used scales were created for

There is limited research on bullying among college students and even less research on hazing behaviors among students who are in a campus organization. Previously used scales were created for use with children and were not behavior specific, leaving out adult experiences college students may encounter and asking about bullying in general which leaves the definition up to the responder. This study aimed to create an instrument that examines behavior specific experiences with college students and their peers, in the general college setting and specific to a campus organization they belong to. Five hundred and two undergraduate students completed surveys of college experiences, affect, and well-being. Results indicate one factor for college bullying and one factor for hazing in college organizations. Bullying and hazing were found to be similar but different, with students having more experiences with bullying and the two experiences having different relations to affect and well-being. This study lends to the growing literature on bullying experiences of adults and begins the necessary evaluation of hazing in college organizations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016