Matching Items (6)

150472-Thumbnail Image.png

Academic success and well-being following OEF/OIF deployment

Description

As many as one-third of OEF/OIF soldiers and combat veterans may be struggling with less visible psychological injuries. Military/veteran students may face heightened difficulties as they are not only adjusting

As many as one-third of OEF/OIF soldiers and combat veterans may be struggling with less visible psychological injuries. Military/veteran students may face heightened difficulties as they are not only adjusting to civilian life but also transitioning to college life. University administrators and staff have been charged to address their transitional needs and to promote their academic success. Despite significant influx in enrollment with the passing of the Post-9/11 GI Bill, research on OEF/OIF service members and veterans in higher education remains limited. Utilizing self-report measures, the current study examined the psychosocial functioning of 323 military/veteran students enrolled at Arizona State University who served at least one combat deployment as part of OEF/OIF. The study further investigated whether enlisting for educational benefits and utilizing campus programs/services were associated with more positive academic persistence decisions. Participants were also asked to rate ASU's programming for military/veteran students as well as suggest campus programs/services to promote their academic success. More PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and anger/aggression were found to be associated with less cultural congruity and lower perceived social support. Cultural congruity and social support were significant predictors of academic persistence decisions. Participants who reported utilizing more campus programs/services also tended to endorse more positive persistence decisions. No significant differences in persistence decisions were found between participants who enlisted in the military for education benefits and those who enlisted for non-educational reasons. Approximately two-thirds reported utilizing academic advising services and Veteran Benefits and Certifications. Library services, financial aid services, and ASU sporting events were the next most frequently utilized. More than 91% rated ASU's programming satisfactory or better. Over 71% of participants indicated that increasing recognition of their military experience would facilitate their academic success. Nearly 40% recommended a military/veteran student lounge and improvements to VA education benefits counseling. Another 30% recommended that ASU provide professional development for faculty/staff on military/veteran readjustment issues, improve the re-enrollment process following deployment/training, offer a veteran-specific orientation, and establish a department or center for military/veteran programming. Findings are discussed in light of Tinto's interactionist model of college student attrition, and implications for university mental health providers are presented.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

152467-Thumbnail Image.png

Voices of Mexican immigrants fostering the academic success of their children

Description

ABSTRACT Students who drop out of high school experience lower incomes and greater unemployment and are at higher risk of becoming part of the adult corrections system and of needing

ABSTRACT Students who drop out of high school experience lower incomes and greater unemployment and are at higher risk of becoming part of the adult corrections system and of needing public assistance. Historically, Latino/a youth, particularly Mexican American youth, have been at particularly high risk for underachievement and dropping out of high school. Because Latino/as are the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States, their struggle in education means a larger, undereducated work force. In spite of demographic factors such as poverty, language barriers, and discrimination that potentially can adversely impact the success of the children of Mexican immigrant parents, some of these parents are taking steps to help their children succeed in high school and to enter college. While parental involvement has been generally linked to improving students' outcomes and attitudes toward school, few studies have focused on minority parents, particularly Latino/as. Even fewer have conducted qualitative studies to develop a deeper understanding of parents' beliefs, values, and actions taken to help their children. Through semi-structured interviews and grounded theory analysis, this qualitative study investigated how and why Mexican immigrant parents help their children succeed in school. Six themes emerged from the data: 1) parents' motivations stem from childhood adversity, the belief that there are opportunities in the U.S. for people who succeed academically, and unrealized dreams to pursue their own education; 2) parents' actions primarily included behaviors at home; 3) the influence of "La Familia" (the protective force of the family); 4) the influence of discipline; 5) the influence of teachers and principals who recognized and supported their children's academic success; and 6) the influence of the children themselves. Despite variations in educational attainment and income levels, the parents' values, beliefs, and actions were similar to each other and reflect their Mexican cultural upbringing. By developing a deeper understanding of the parents' beliefs, values, and actions, more culturally informed and strength-based, parent-involvement approaches can be developed for similar Mexican immigrant parents. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are explored.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

152028-Thumbnail Image.png

Posttraumatic stress and the emotional experiences of anger and happiness

Description

Previous research indicates that difficulties in emotion regulation and greater dissociation from one's emotions are often observed among trauma survivors. Further, trauma survivors often show greater negative emotions such as

Previous research indicates that difficulties in emotion regulation and greater dissociation from one's emotions are often observed among trauma survivors. Further, trauma survivors often show greater negative emotions such as anger, and diminished positive emotions such as happiness. Relatively less is known about the relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms, dissociation, emotion regulation difficulties, and non-trauma related emotional experiences in daily life. This study examined whether greater reports of posttraumatic stress symptoms, difficulties in emotion regulation, and dissociative tendencies were associated with greater intensity of anger and lower intensity of happiness during a relived emotions task (i.e., recalling and describing autobiographical memories evoking specific emotions). Participants were 50 individuals who had experienced a traumatic event and reported a range of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Participants rated how they felt while recalling specific emotional memories, as well as how they remembered feeling at the time of the event. Results showed that dissociative tendencies was the best predictor of greater intensity of anger and, contrary to the hypothesis, dissociative tendencies was predictive of greater happiness intensity as well. These findings are consistent with previous research indicating a paradoxical effect of heightened anger reactivity among individuals with dissociative tendencies. In addition, researchers have argued that individuals with a history of traumatization do not report lower positive emotional experiences. The present findings may suggest the use of dissociation as a mechanism to avoid certain trauma related emotions (e.g, fear and anxiety), in turn creating heightened experiences of other emotions such as anger and happiness.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

156584-Thumbnail Image.png

Redefining Situation Schema Under Chronic Stress: A Mixed Methods Construct Validation of Positive Cognitive Shift

Description

Cognitive reappraisal, or redefining the meaning of a stressful circumstance, is useful in regulating emotional responses to acute stressors and may be mobilized to up- or down- regulate the stressors’

Cognitive reappraisal, or redefining the meaning of a stressful circumstance, is useful in regulating emotional responses to acute stressors and may be mobilized to up- or down- regulate the stressors’ emotional salience. A conceptually-related but more targeted emotion regulation strategy to that offered by cognitive reappraisal, termed positive cognitive shift, was examined in the current study. Positive cognitive shift (“PCS”) is defined as a point of cognitive transformation during a chronic, stressful situation that alters the meaning and emotional salience of the situation for the individual. Key aspects of the PCS that differentiate it from the broader reappraisal construct are that it 1) is relevant to responses to chronic (versus acute) aversive events, 2) is deployed when there is a mismatch between coping and stressors, and 3) involves insight together with redefinition in meaning of the situation generating stress. The current study used qualitative and quantitative analyses to 1) examine whether PCS is an observable, reliable, and valid experience in response to a stressful event that occurred in the past year, and 2) test whether PCS moderates the relations between the number of past-year stressful life circumstances and subsequent emotional well-being and functional health. A community sample of 175 middle-aged individuals were interviewed regarded a past chronic stressor and completed questionnaires regarding number of past year stressors and health outcomes. Theory-based coding of interviews was conducted to derive reliable scores for PCS, and findings indicated that PCS was evident in 37.7 % of participant responses. Furthermore, PCS scores were related positively to openness, personal growth from one’s most difficult lifetime event, and affect intensity-calm, in line with predictions. Also in line with prediction, PCS moderated the relations between number of past-year life events and health outcomes, such that the deleterious relations between past year stressful events and cognitive functioning, wellbeing, positive affect, and negative affect were weaker among individuals higher versus lower in PCS. Of note, PCS moderation effects diminished as the number of stressful events increased.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

152065-Thumbnail Image.png

The unique experiences of body dissatisfaction in males: accurate assessment and outcomes

Description

The relations among internalization of the U.S. sociocultural standard of the ideal male body image, male body dissatisfaction, and behavioral and psychological outcomes of male body dissatisfaction were examined in

The relations among internalization of the U.S. sociocultural standard of the ideal male body image, male body dissatisfaction, and behavioral and psychological outcomes of male body dissatisfaction were examined in a sample of 215 ethnically diverse male college students. Concerns regarding accurate assessment of male body dissatisfaction were addressed. Structural equation modeling was utilized to identify the relations among the internalization of the sociocultural ideal male body image, male body dissatisfaction (as measured by the Male Body Attitudes Scale, MBAS; Tylka, Bergeron, & Schwartz, 2005), and behavioral and psychological outcomes. Results demonstrated that internalization of specific aspects of the ideal male body (lean and muscular) predicted corresponding components of male body dissatisfaction (lean and muscular). Further, each component of male body dissatisfaction was related to distinct behavioral and psychological outcomes. Implications for clinical practice and research were discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

149537-Thumbnail Image.png

At-risk adolescent girls: protective factors and effects of a positive youth development intervention

Description

Adolescence is a tumultuous time, and for those with risk factors, it can be even more difficult. This study examined the relationships among intrinsic and extrinsic protective factors such as

Adolescence is a tumultuous time, and for those with risk factors, it can be even more difficult. This study examined the relationships among intrinsic and extrinsic protective factors such as high self-esteem, high self-efficacy, mattering to others, positive sense of identity, and healthy peer relationships in female adolescents. Additionally, the current study assessed the impact of a positive youth development intervention designed for this particular population. The potential sample consisted of adolescent girls who were students at an alternative high school in the Southwestern region of the United States. Of the 25 girls at the school, 12 participated in the study and completed pre-test instruments measuring self-esteem, self-efficacy, mattering to friends and parents, identity distress, and relational aggression. The instruments were administered before and after a positive youth development intervention of which 10 of the 12 participants attended. The intervention, Girls Circle, consisted of activities designed to foster self-acceptance, identity formation, healthy friendships, and goal setting in adolescent girls. While the study's intervention did not result in significant changes over time, several important findings emerged. Self-esteem was positively related to both mattering to friends and mattering to parents. Likewise, a negative correlation was found between relational aggression and mattering to parents. Girls who felt they were more important to friends and family had higher self esteem and were less likely to engage in covert aggression tactics such as spreading rumors and maliciously excluding peers from their social groups. These results support the literature and highlight the important interconnection of social relationships and subjective well-being. Teachers, counselors, social workers, and other helping professionals who work with adolescents need to understand these relationships and use this understanding to design and implement interventions that will best serve at-risk girls, such as those in this study.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010