Matching Items (30)

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The effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiac autonomic response to laboratory stressors

Description

The objective of this study was to examine the potential effects of long term hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular autonomic nervous system responses to laboratory social stressors. The participants were

The objective of this study was to examine the potential effects of long term hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular autonomic nervous system responses to laboratory social stressors. The participants were 38 postmenopausal women, 18 using estrogen and progesterone hormone replacement therapy for at least 2 years and 20 control participants without hormone replacement therapy. All women completed orthostasis (standing and sitting), then speech and math tasks (speech and math were counterbalanced). Cardiovascular measures of sympathetic nervous system (pre-ejection period, PEP) and parasympathetic nervous system (respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) along with heart rate were collected throughout all periods (baseline, orthostasis, and stressors). For orthostasis, results of mixed analyses of variance (ANOVAs) showed expected period effects for heart rate, RSA and PEP, but no group or group by period interaction was significant. For the psychological stressors, period main effects were significant for all three variables, suggesting that the tasks were effective at inducing stress. Also, there was a significant interaction between group and period for RSA, demonstrated by greater decrease during the psychological stressor period in the group using HRT. The interactions between group and period for heart rate and PEP were non-significant. These findings support the notion that HRT may slow age-related decreases in parasympathetic responsiveness. Furthermore, changes in vagal reactivity in relation to use of HRT appear to occur within mechanisms involving response and coping with psychological stressors, rather than mechanisms that accommodate basic physiological task such as orthostasis.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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The Effects of Chronic Physical Pain on Empathy

Description

Physical pain and social pain are two types of pain humans experience. Physical pain is defined as any pain experienced upon bodily injury, whereas social pain is defined as

Physical pain and social pain are two types of pain humans experience. Physical pain is defined as any pain experienced upon bodily injury, whereas social pain is defined as the pain experienced upon social injury when social relationships are threatened, damaged or lost (Eisenberger & Lieberman, 2004). Both physical and social pain can be experienced as acute or chronic, acute lasting for up to three months, and chronic lasting for more than three to six months. Studies on acute and chronic social pain have shown that social pain leads to less empathy. The Pain Overlap Theory suggests that social pain and physical pain share similar neural networks and underlying processes. If social pain and physical pain overlap in the brain, then it would be expected to see a similar reduction in empathy when experiencing acute and chronic physical pain. Therefore, it was hypothesized that those who suffer from chronic physical pain will be less empathetic overall, and they will be less empathetic to others in physical pain and social pain.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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The Exploration of Adjustment during the Retirement Transition from Collegiate Athletics: A Qualitative Study

Description

The challenges that face student-athletes when they retire from formal sport participation coincides with their loss of their athletic identity (how much they identify with their athlete role), often geographic

The challenges that face student-athletes when they retire from formal sport participation coincides with their loss of their athletic identity (how much they identify with their athlete role), often geographic upheaval, uncertainty of the future regarding alternate roles, and change in social support systems, which make this period more difficult to adjust to. This study explored the experiences of the retirement transition of graduating student-athletes. The current study aims to examine this unique experience through qualitative investigation into the collective experiences of student-athletes to identify overarching relevant themes common throughout this experience. The participants were 13 student-athletes who graduated in the Spring Semester of 2017 (May- June 2017), played their sport at a National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) Institution at the Varsity level, and were not continuing to play their sport at the elite level. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants between five and eight months post-graduation. Thematic analysis was used to categorize participants’ responses and allow for an in-depth investigation of different factors affecting personal adjustment throughout this period. The five overarching themes identified were: the need for social connection, the impact of a goal-oriented mindset, preparedness for the transition, translatable skills from being a student-athlete, and the perspective of their own identity and purpose. The ability to shift perspective to retrospectively appreciate the student-athlete experience, while incorporating it as one part of their overall life journey, is discussed as a protective factor for positive transition outcomes. As the large majority of collegiate athletes do not continue to play their sport professionally, this population is in high need of continued guidance. The present work can inform interventions to aid student-athletes in this difficult transitional period. Mentorship from previously graduated student-athletes, coaches, or administrative programs are suggested as a tangible positive intervention strategy based off of the results.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Social Anxiety and Emotion Regulation Processes in Romantic Relationships

Description

Intimate relationship functioning and mental well-being are inherently linked; thus, for those with mental illness, such as social anxiety, intimate relationship functioning may be impaired. Research on the intimate relationships

Intimate relationship functioning and mental well-being are inherently linked; thus, for those with mental illness, such as social anxiety, intimate relationship functioning may be impaired. Research on the intimate relationships of those with social anxiety has often focused on emotion regulation, as emotions play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships and are a clear area of deficit among those with social anxiety. The current thesis had three primary aims: 1a) to examine individual emotion expressivity and 1b) interpersonal emotion regulation processes among individuals with varying levels of social anxiety; 2) to examine individual and interpersonal emotion regulation within romantic relationships; and, 3) to examine how individual emotion expressivity and interpersonal emotion regulation influence relationship health and intimacy among those with varying levels of social anxiety. For Aim 1, differences in individual emotion expressivity and interpersonal emotion regulation were analyzed using regression analyses with social anxiety as a continuous predictor. Analyses were also conducted using a dichotomous grouping (i.e., non-socially anxious and socially anxious) and conducting a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA).

For Aim 2, the impact of individual and interpersonal emotion regulation processes on relationship health was examined using a series of regression analyses. Finally, Aim 3 was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results suggest those with social anxiety show specific, but not general, deficits in individual emotion expressivity and interpersonal emotion regulation, and both individual and interpersonal emotion regulation had positive effects on relationship health. Regarding the primary analyses, interpersonal emotion regulation fully mediated the association between individual emotion expressivity and relationship health. Further, although the strength of these paths varied between groups, the valence and general pattern of these findings were similar for both those with social anxiety and those without. The study provided novel insights into the role of interpersonal emotion regulation in relationship health, and extended previous findings on emotion regulation and relationship health among those with social anxiety.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Inhibitory control, negative emotionality, and threat appraisals as predictors of children's status in the context of bullying

Description

A model of the effects of early adolescents' temperament (negative emotionality and inhibitory control) and threat appraisals on resulting status in the bullying dynamic was examined. Specifically, I examined the

A model of the effects of early adolescents' temperament (negative emotionality and inhibitory control) and threat appraisals on resulting status in the bullying dynamic was examined. Specifically, I examined the hypothesis that negative emotionality and passive victim versus bully-victim status would be mediated by threat appraisals, and that mediated effect would be moderated by levels of inhibitory control. The study used a sample of 56 early adolescents ages 7–16. Temperament characteristics were measured using the EATQ–R (Capaldi & Rothbart, 1992). Threat appraisals were assessed using items from Hunter, Boyle, and Warden (2004). Bullying and victimization were measured using items created for this study and additional cyber bullying items (Smith, Mahdavi, Carvalho, & Tippett, 2006). A multinomial logistic regression and test of moderated mediation were analyzed to examine the model (Hayes, 2012). Higher levels of negative emotionality were correlated with being a victim of bullying. The moderated mediation model was not statistically significant, however the direction of the patterns fit the hypotheses. Future directions and limitations are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Impulsivity and the experience of childhood trauma on the effect of psychological maladjustment

Description

Research in the area of childhood trauma has shown a substantial amount of psychological maladjustment following the experience of traumatic events in childhood. Trauma survivors are at risk for developing

Research in the area of childhood trauma has shown a substantial amount of psychological maladjustment following the experience of traumatic events in childhood. Trauma survivors are at risk for developing a multitude of adverse psychological outcomes as well as unsafe behaviors following the event of trauma. One unifying theme within these psychological sequelae is the nature of impulsive behaviors. Delay-discounting refers to the subjective decrease in value of a reward when its presentation is delayed. Delay-discounting is often used as an index of impulsive behavior. This study poses two primary questions: 1) Can childhood trauma predict rates of delay-discounting? 2) Could delay-discounting predict psychological maladjustment for individuals who have experienced childhood trauma? This study will seek to answer these questions using an online version of the Kirby et al., 1999 hypothetical delay-discounting method, as well as the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), to measure trait impulsivity. Measures of depression (BDI-II), life events (LEC), post-traumatic stress (PCL-C), and drug and alcohol abuse (DAST-20) will also be included. Participants included a sample of university students ages 18-52 (n=521, females = 386, males = 135) with a mean age of 25.19 years. Results indicated that childhood trauma was not a significant predictor of delay-discounting rate, nor was delay-discounting rate a significant predictor of psychological maladjustment. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Neuropsychological predictors of alexithymia in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and epilepsy

Description

Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by a diminished ability to identify and describe feelings, as well as an inability to distinguish physical symptoms associated with emotional arousal. Alexithymia is

Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by a diminished ability to identify and describe feelings, as well as an inability to distinguish physical symptoms associated with emotional arousal. Alexithymia is elevated in both patients with epilepsy (a neurologically-based seizure disorder) and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES; a psychological condition mimicking epilepsy); however, different neuropsychological processes may underlie this deficit in the two groups. To expand on previous research considering factors contributing to alexithymia in these populations, we examined the extent to which scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) were predicted by performance on measures of executive and language functioning. We studied 138 PNES and 150 epilepsy patients with video-EEG confirmed diagnoses. Neuropsychological tests were administered to assess executive functioning (interference scores of the Stroop Color-Word Test and Part B of the Trail Making Test) and language functioning (Animals, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Boston Naming Test). Hierarchical linear regressions revealed that the relationships between disparate neuropsychological domains and alexithymia were not moderated by diagnosis of PNES or epilepsy. Multiple regression analyses within each group demonstrated that phonemic verbal fluency and response inhibition were significant predictors of alexithymia in epilepsy. Thus, alexithymia may reflect impairments in language and aspects of executive functioning in both PNES and epilepsy.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Social Affect Regulation and Physical Affection Between Married Partners: An Experimental Examination of the Stress-Buffering Effect of Spousal Touch and the Role of Adult Attachment

Description

Background: When studying how humans regulate their affect, it is important to recognize that affect regulation does not occur in a vacuum. As humans are an inherently social species, affect

Background: When studying how humans regulate their affect, it is important to recognize that affect regulation does not occur in a vacuum. As humans are an inherently social species, affect plays a crucial evolutionary role in social behavior, and social behavior likewise assumes an important role in affect and affect regulation. Emotion researchers are increasingly interested the specific ways people help to regulate and dysregulate one another’s affect, though experimental examinations of the extant models and theory are relatively few. This thesis presents a broad theoretical framework for social affect regulation between close others, considering the role of attachment theory and its developmental foundations for social affect regulation in adulthood. Affectionate and responsive touch is considered a major mechanism of regulatory benefit between people, both developmentally and in adulthood, and is the focus of the present investigation. Method: A total sample of 231 heterosexual married couples were recruited from the community. Participants were assigned to engage in affectionate touch or sit quietly, and/or engage in positive conversation prior to a stress task. Physiological data was collected continuously across the experiment. Hypotheses: Phasic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was used to index the degree of regulatory engagement during the stressor for those who did and did not touch. It was hypothesized that touch would reduce stress appraisal and thus the need for regulatory engagement. This effect was predicted to be greater for those more anxiously attached while increasing the need for regulatory engagement in those more avoidantly attached. Secondarily, partner effects of attachment on sympathetic activation via pre-ejection period (PEP) change were tested. It was predicted that both attachment dimensions would predict a decrease in partner PEP change in the touch condition, with avoidant attachment having the strongest effect. Results: Hierarchical linear modeling techniques were used to account for nonindependence in dyadic observations. The first set of hypotheses were not supported, while the second set were partially supported. Wives’ avoidance significantly predicted husbands’ PEP change, but in the positive direction. This effect also significantly increased in the touch condition. Theoretical considerations and limitations are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Latinas coping with intimate partner violence and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology

Description

Previous research indicates that survivors of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) are at a greater risk of developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. IPV survivors often use maladaptive coping strategies in

Previous research indicates that survivors of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) are at a greater risk of developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. IPV survivors often use maladaptive coping strategies in response to IPV that place them at a higher risk for PTSD. Cultural gender roles/beliefs have been known to influence coping methods. Marianismo, a Latino/a gender role belief, has not been investigated in relation to IPV, coping strategies, and PTSD among Latinas. This study examined whether physical, psychological, or sexual abuse by a romantic partner, coping strategies, and Marianismo were associated with PTSD symptomatology among 157 college-aged Latinas. The participants completed an on-line survey that assessed IPV frequency, disengaged and engaged coping, Marianismo, and PTSD symptomatology. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that, regardless of IPV type, more IPV and disengaged coping strategies were the best predictors of PTSD symptomatology. Marianismo did not significantly moderate the relation between coping and PTSD. However, the strong zero-order correlation between disengaged coping and Marianismo indicated they were highly correlated variables. The study findings are consistent with previous research that suggested that coping strategies are culturally dependent on beliefs and gender role expectations. Latinas may use more disengaged coping strategies because these methods may be deemed more culturally appropriate and reflect Marianismo beliefs. Psychologists working with Latina IPV survivors need to develop culturally sensitive approaches to psychoeducation on IPV and coping strategies that empower these women within their cultural belief systems and reduce their PTSD symptomatology.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Attitudes toward menopause

Description

Menopause is a complex biopsychosocial phenomenon that is influenced by women’s attitudes, the attitudes of their partners, families, and friends, and societal norms. Previous research has shown that attitudes can

Menopause is a complex biopsychosocial phenomenon that is influenced by women’s attitudes, the attitudes of their partners, families, and friends, and societal norms. Previous research has shown that attitudes can be influenced by many factors, such as age and menopausal status. This study examined men’s and women’s attitudes toward several facets of menopause, including fertility, attractiveness, personal growth, emotional stability, and sexuality, using an Amazon Mechanical Turk sample of 194 females and 151 males. Results revealed that women and men differed significantly in their attitudes toward fertility, attractiveness, personal growth, and sexuality, with women having more positive attitudes on every dimension except sexuality. For females, age was a significant positive predictor for fertility, personal growth, and emotional stability; knowledge was a significant positive predictor for personal growth; and education was a significant positive predictor for emotional stability. For males, age was a significant positive predictor for fertility, and knowledge was a significant negative predictor for fertility. These results indicate that men typically have more negative attitudes toward menopause than do women, and that more potential predictors of menopause attitudes should be explored in future work to provide insight into the reasons for this difference.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017