Matching Items (31)

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A Business Perspective and Solutions to the Kidney Transplant Shortage

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This research was aimed at identifying the problems of the kidney transplant market and then proposing business-minded solutions. The methodology that was used to compile research was an industry analysis,

This research was aimed at identifying the problems of the kidney transplant market and then proposing business-minded solutions. The methodology that was used to compile research was an industry analysis, a business model canvas, the lean startup methodology, academic papers, popular culture references, previous and present marketing campaigns, an internship at a local hospital, and organ transplant databases. The problems I identified was that kidney transplant industry was favorable but had few competitors, a mounting demand with a lack of supply, a lack of public awareness, negative public perception, and incorrectly focused marketing campaigns. The solutions that I constructed were the endorsement of grocery retail clinics as a step to prevent a future increase in demand for kidneys, a hybridized opt-in system that would increase the supply of transplantable kidneys, a public awareness campaign that would increase the public's awareness and shift it into a positive light, and a refocused marketing campaign that centered on why people become donors. The implementation of these solutions should be solution1, then solution 3 and 4, and then after the public has enough time to ruminate, employ solution 2.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Research, Medicine, and Patients

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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder that is becoming increasingly common. Autism does not yet have a known etiology, nor a definitive diagnostic test, thus making diagnosis

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder that is becoming increasingly common. Autism does not yet have a known etiology, nor a definitive diagnostic test, thus making diagnosis a difficult and rarely uniform task. Currently, ASD is behaviorally diagnosed based on criteria defined by the American Psychiatric Association in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Recently, a change was made in the criteria from more lenient criteria in DSM-IV-TR, to more narrow criteria laid out by the DSM-V, which supersedes the DSM-IV-TR. This drastic change raised many questions and debates about which set of criteria are better. The more lenient criteria offers a more inclusive diagnosis giving greater access to therapies; while the narrow diagnostic criteria excludes some individuals, creating a more uniform diagnosis that's easier to use in research. This thesis analyzes the change in diagnostic criteria from the DSM-IV-TR to the DSM-V and the effects of these changes on the practices of diagnosis. In addition, it explores the implications of this change for the families of children with autism and for those involved in autism research, examining their respective opinions and interests pertaining to narrow verses broad diagnostic criteria. Building on this analysis, the thesis offers recommendations about diagnostic criteria should be set. It argues that the wellbeing of patients takes priority over the interests of researchers, and thus diagnosis should be done in a way that offers the best prognosis for all children who suffer from autistic symptoms.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The Impact of Cochlear Implants on the Quality of Life and Personhood of Cochlear Implant Users as Expressed In Patient Narratives

Description

Cochlear implants are electronic medical devices that create hearing capabilities in those with inner ear damage that results in total or partial hearing loss. The decision to get a cochlear

Cochlear implants are electronic medical devices that create hearing capabilities in those with inner ear damage that results in total or partial hearing loss. The decision to get a cochlear implant can be difficult and controversial. Cochlear implants have many physical and social impacts on cochlear implant users. The aim of this study was to evaluate how patient narratives written by people with cochlear implants (or their caregivers) express issues of quality of life and personhood related to the use of this medical device. The methodology used to answer this question was a content analysis of patient narratives. The content analysis was done using grounded theory and the constant comparative method. Two sensitizing concepts, quality of life and personhood, were used and became the large umbrella themes found in the narratives. Under the major theme of quality of life, the sub-themes that emerged were improved hearing, improved communication skills, and assimilation into the hearing world. Under the major theme of personhood, the sub-themes that emerged were confidence, self-image, and technology and the body. Another major theme, importance of education, also emerged. In general, cochlear implant users and their caregivers expressed in their narratives that cochlear implants have positive effects on the quality of life of cochlear implant users. This is because almost all of the narrative writers reported improved hearing, improved communication skills, and better assimilation into the hearing world. In addition, it was found that cochlear implants do not have a significant affect on the actual personal identity of cochlear implant users, though they do make them more confident. The majority of cochlear implant users expressed that they view the cochlear implant device as an assistive tool they use as opposed to a part of themselves. Lastly, there is a need for more awareness of or access to education and therapy for cochlear implant users.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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An Exploration of Organ Donation Through Jewish Law

Description

In this paper I will be addressing whether Judaism accepts organ donation. A problem that faces society today is the lack of people who are registered as organ donors. This

In this paper I will be addressing whether Judaism accepts organ donation. A problem that faces society today is the lack of people who are registered as organ donors. This is not only a problem in the religious world, but also the secular world. A common issue for individuals is the belief that their religion is against organ donation and does not support it. Even people who don’t practice their religion strictly bring up this issue. While this might be the case for some religions and certain parts of a religion, the majority of religions are in favor of and support organ donation to save another life. This paper explores what the religion of Judaism has to say on the matter of organ donation. There are different types of ways that one can donate their organs and this paper seeks to understand what Judaism has to say about each type of organ donation. Each type of donation brings up issues of their own because of the importance that Judaism puts on life. Judaism believes that humans are put on Earth by God and will be taken off Earth by God. This brings up the issue of what defines death, especially in regard to people who have been pronounced brain dead. As a result, each situation should be dealt with on a case by case basis and one should consult with their local rabbi on whether it would be permissible to donate their organs.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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New Developments in Human Embryo Research: Reassessing the 14-day Guideline in the US

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In this paper, I aim to assess the ethical and policy issues at the forefront of developmental biology, mainly, the 14-day guideline dictating human embryo research. Ever since the invention

In this paper, I aim to assess the ethical and policy issues at the forefront of developmental biology, mainly, the 14-day guideline dictating human embryo research. Ever since the invention of in vitro fertilization in the 1970s, the research landscape of human embryo research has been well explored. Now, there are new embryonic technologies and human embryonic stem cell based models that many believe do not fit into current guidelines. This paper analyzes four of these new technologies-- stem cell derived gametes, embryoids, 3D printed embryos and synthetic embryos-- in order to explore the impetus for reopening the debate on the 14-day guideline. The paper then explores current research and research projects while comparing and contrasting science as well as the potential for moral status and how that impacts regulation. Current United States policies and regulations as well as current professional society guidelines are broken down to fully grasp the political landscape surrounding human embryo research. Notably, current policies include the complete lack of a federal definition of an embryo as well as the Dickey-Wicker Amendment which restrict funding for human embryo research. It is thus advised that these, along with the 14 day guideline, are updated in order to encapsulate the early human developmental research landscape and promote research. This paper ends with an in depth policy recommendation including (but not limited to) bill language, suggested definitions and potential strategies.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The Past, Present, and Future Role of the Humanities in American Medical Education

Description

There is growing concern among physicians, scholars, medical educators, and most importantly among patients, that science and technology have begun to eclipse fundamental attributes, such as empathy in the doctor-patient

There is growing concern among physicians, scholars, medical educators, and most importantly among patients, that science and technology have begun to eclipse fundamental attributes, such as empathy in the doctor-patient relationship. As a result, “humanism” in medicine has been a widely debated topic—how to define it, how to promote it, whether it can be taught, and how to qualify (much less quantify) its value in the practice of medicine. Through this research project I sought to better understand the role of humanities coursework in American medical school curricula, and determine whether there was a relationship between the integration of humanities coursework and the maintenance or enhancement of empathy levels in medical students. I reviewed literature with three objectives. (1) To better understand the influential social and political factors of pervasive reforms in US medical school curricula at the beginning of the 20th century, which led to science exclusive pedagogy in physician training (2) To become familiar with the works of iconic personalities in the history of American medical school pedagogy, paying special attention to attitudes and claims describing the role of humanities coursework, and the concept of humanism in the practice of medicine. (3) To observe the discourse underway across a variety of disciplines with regard to the current role of humanities coursework in medical curricula. My research shows that empathy is an essential attribute in the healing relationship, which benefits patients, physicians and improves health outcomes. Despite the importance of empathy, current physician training is documented as eroding empathy levels in medical students. Though the definition of ‘humanities’ in the context of medical school curricula remains vague and even contradictory, support for integration of humanities coursework is growing as an effective intervention for maintaining or enhancing levels of empathy.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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What Kind of Problem is the Problem of Obesity?

Description

This project explores a variety of ways of framing the problem of obesity, beginning with a multidisciplinary assessment of genetic, environmental, cultural, nutritional, and socioeconomic factors involved in the structure

This project explores a variety of ways of framing the problem of obesity, beginning with a multidisciplinary assessment of genetic, environmental, cultural, nutritional, and socioeconomic factors involved in the structure and the consequences of each frame. How obesity is framed as a problem has a profound impact on the kinds of solutions that may be deemed scientifically appropriate. But frames are not entirely evidence-based, inasmuch as political and moral values infuse debates about the nature of obesity. Drawing on interdisciplinary resources from bioethics and the philosophy of science, I strive to offer strategic insight in to how to navigate the complexity of these issues.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Measuring the Double-Edged Sword: Does Scientifically Deterministic Evidence Protect or Punish Criminals?

Description

Scientists, lawyers, and bioethicists have pondered the impact of scientifically deterministic evidence on a judge or jury when deciding the sentence of a criminal. Though the impact may be one

Scientists, lawyers, and bioethicists have pondered the impact of scientifically deterministic evidence on a judge or jury when deciding the sentence of a criminal. Though the impact may be one that relieves the amount of personal guilt on the part of the criminal, this evidence may also be the very reason that a judge or jury punishes more strongly, suggesting that this type of evidence may be a double-edged sword. 118 participants were shown three films of fictional sentencing hearings. All three films introduced scientifically deterministic evidence, and participants were asked to recommend a prison sentence. Each hearing portrayed a different criminal with different neurological conditions, a different crime, and a different extent of argumentation during closing arguments about the scientifically deterministic evidence. Though the argumentation from the prosecution and the defense did not affect sentencing, the interaction of type of crime and neurological condition did.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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The Bioethics of Cell Free Fetal DNA Testing

Description

Noninvasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA (CffDNA) testing is a rapidly developing area in prenatal diagnosis. Fetal genetic testing can occur with a simple maternal blood sample, since CffDNA

Noninvasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA (CffDNA) testing is a rapidly developing area in prenatal diagnosis. Fetal genetic testing can occur with a simple maternal blood sample, since CffDNA can be found in maternal plasma. Thus, no harm is caused to mother or fetus to obtain this genetic information, providing significant benefits for those users. How the test should be integrated in existing prenatal programs has yet to be seen. CffDNA testing is an exciting technology and has attracted attention from many stakeholders, yet the lack of regulation and guidance has left legal, ethical, and social questions unanswered. This paper outlines a number of those issues expressed in the present literature on the matter.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Conflict of Interest and Medical Devices: Investigating the Relationship between Physicians and the Medical Device Industry

Description

In a world in which technologies proliferate at a rapid rate, it is no surprise that the medical device industry has grown in leaps and bounds. This surge in medical

In a world in which technologies proliferate at a rapid rate, it is no surprise that the medical device industry has grown in leaps and bounds. This surge in medical technology, especially implantable medical technology, has altered the modern operating room, transforming surgery from a technique-driven activity into a technology-driven profession. This reliance upon technologies has fostered close ties between physicians and the medical device industry and within this relationship, medical device representatives play an integral role. This paper will investigate the relationship that exists between physicians and the medical device industry along with the potential conflicts of interest that may result due to this relationship. I will focus in particular on orthopedic medical devices due to media attention as a result of a 2007 Department of Justice settlement involving the leading orthopedic companies. This case proved instrumental in highlighting previously unknown instances in which conflicts of interest were occurring in the medical device industry.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05