The Science of Qur'an Recitation with Tajweed and Tarteel, Including a Historical Background of the pre-Islamic Era and the Compilation of the Qur'an.
“Recite (read)! In the name of your lord who has created all that exists” (1:96 Qur‟an). “Iqra” was the first word revealed to the Prophet of Islam (PBUH). The word “iqra” is an imperative verb in Arabic, and in the context of the verse it is commanding the Prophet (PBUH) to recite. This fact carries great significance as it was the first command given to the Muslims (Ibn Kathir). Muslims believe the Qur'an is in its original form and language, Arabic. Arabic is considered to be in inexhaustible language due to its vast vocabulary and root-based origin (Humza Yusuf). Each root is typically based on three letters, which are conjugated in different ways to creating individual words. Any word in the Qur'an can be traced back to a root word, thus enhancing the meaning of each carefully chosen phrase (Ibn Kathir). The word “al-Qur'an”, means, the book that is recited, therefore, it is fitting that the first verse revealed pertains to its recital. According to history the majority of civilizations were built off scripture or books. The Greeks had Homer, the Egyptians had hieroglyphics, the Christians had the Bible, and the Hebrews had the Torah. Interestingly enough, the Pre-Islamic Arabs were an ancient civilization with no book; the Qur'an was the first book in Arabic history. This was earthshattering for the Arabs of the time, as it was something new and went against the tradition, however, the revelation of the Qur'an proved to be the most influential occurrence in the Arab history. The Qur'an is a literary masterpiece, flaunting its superior style forming moving and powerful verses. The layout of the Qur'an is quite simple, as it contains thirty parts, called ajzaa (juz singular), which altogether make up 114 chapters, called surahs (Humza Yusuf). The beginning surahs are longer, and the verses are lengthy, while the latter surahs are much shorter and the verses are succinct and direct (Qur'an al Kareem). Each verse is known as an “ayah, ayaat (pl)” directly translated to mean a “sign” or a “miracle” in the Arabic language. There are over 6,600 ayaat in the Qur'an, ranging from some just one or two words, while others are hundreds of words. Each surah, has a general theme, and each surah is given at least one title, while a few surahs have more than one title (Humza Yusuf).