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The atypical college experience for students with chronic illnesses

Description

With the advancement of modern technology, antibiotics and vaccinations have allowed humans to live longer. Deadly infections like strep throat and measles are now considered an inconvenience. The main reason

With the advancement of modern technology, antibiotics and vaccinations have allowed humans to live longer. Deadly infections like strep throat and measles are now considered an inconvenience. The main reason for this phenomenon is the medical revolution of the 20th century. Although Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1929, the full potential of antibiotics was not recognized until the 1940’s. This decade marked the commercialization of penicillin and opened possibilities for new classes of medications like corticosteroids. By the 21st century, pharmaceutical companies perfected the craft of antibiotics and designed them to treat specific infections. Consequently, as humans live longer, chronic illness has become more prevalent in contemporary society. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), chronic diseases are the “leading cause of mortality in the world representing 60% of all deaths”. Contrary to popular opinion, chronic diseases are more prevalent in developed nations such as Europe and America. By 2025, it is estimated that nearly half of the American population (49%) “will be affected by a chronic disease”.
My personal experience with chronic illness served as inspiration for my thesis. At the age of five, I was diagnosed with severe asthma. The following year, I was hospitalized with pneumonia for nearly a month. Despite my health issues, I had a supportive family and grew up relatively well. During my freshman year of college, I hardly experienced any respiratory or allergy problems. Unfortunately, this time period was very short-lived. Due to rapid expansion, the natural flora and fauna of the desert has changed significantly within the last decade. Throughout the remainder of my undergraduate experience, I had a series of respiratory relapses that resulted in numerous medical withdrawals. In addition to health problems, I discovered the college environment poses unique challenges for students with chronic illnesses. Ultimately, this led me to delve deeper into this topic for my thesis.

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  • 2019-05

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The Evolution of the Insanity Defense and Proposals for Reform

Description

This thesis explores the evolution of the insanity defense throughout legal history beginning with ancient Greek and Roman times. Ideas about treating the insane separate from the sane in a

This thesis explores the evolution of the insanity defense throughout legal history beginning with ancient Greek and Roman times. Ideas about treating the insane separate from the sane in a criminal proceeding were first expressed by famous philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle. The insanity defense was codified into the Justinian Code under Roman Law, but there was no criteria to distinguish who was insane and who was not. From the 14th to 19th centuries, a number of insanity tests were developed in English common law, resulting in the milestone M’Naghten rules, which became the basis for the insanity defense as it exists in the United States today. This paper explores how M’Naghten can be interpreted, what it does well, and its criticism. The thesis then explores how a number of other insanity defense standards rose in the United States, including the Irresistible Impulse Test, the New Hampshire test, the Durham test, the Model Penal Code, the Insanity Defense Reform Act, Guilty but Mentally Ill, and abolishing the insanity defense all together. The thesis asserts why all of these standards fall short of providing adequate protections for the insane in the criminal justice system and do not accurately define legal insanity. There is an analysis of both the theoretical and practical implications of trending alternate proposals for the insanity defense, including the Mental Illness Contribution Defense and Not Criminally Responsible By Reason of Recognized Medical Condition. Then, an argument is presented for the proposal for a new standard for insanity incorporating the ideas of philosopher Herbert Fingarette.

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  • 2020-05

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Lawmaking by Decree?: Executive Orders and the Growth of Legislative Power in Modern Presidential Administrations

Description

Executive orders are legally-binding proclamations issued by Presidents in their own independent capacity as executor of the nation's laws. Despite there being no mention of these orders in the Constitution,

Executive orders are legally-binding proclamations issued by Presidents in their own independent capacity as executor of the nation's laws. Despite there being no mention of these orders in the Constitution, they have been implemented since Washington's presidency, with some Presidents issuing over a thousand. Many contemporary legal scholars fear that this practice has gotten out of control over the past 80 years or so, resulting in an inappropriate usurping of Congress' legislative power by the executive branch. In this essay, I will use a chronology of executive orders from across the relevant time period to assess the historical validity of this claim. Additionally, I will use federal court decisions that have overturned executive orders to examine whether anything unconstitutional or otherwise legally improper has taken place over the time period in question. Ultimately, I will conclude that while the legislative authority wielded by the executive branch has grown, this expansion has adequate legal justification and political safeguards until such time that the judiciary provides more robust guidelines.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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The Arizona Legal Center and Student Health Outreach for Wellness Clinic Medical Legal Partnership: An Interprofessional Model of Health Care

Description

This project discusses a Medical-Legal Partnership (MLP) between the Arizona Legal Center (ALC) and the Student Health Outreach for Wellness (SHOW) clinic. The ALC is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) legal aid

This project discusses a Medical-Legal Partnership (MLP) between the Arizona Legal Center (ALC) and the Student Health Outreach for Wellness (SHOW) clinic. The ALC is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) legal aid clinic located in at the Beus Center for Law and Society alongside the Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law at Arizona State University. They are a community- based legal aid service that helps low income and underserved populations find answers and solutions to their legal questions through free of charge consultations. The ALC is primarily operated by student volunteers and volunteer attorneys. The SHOW clinic is a tri-university, student-led community-based project that works to provide whole person health care for poor, low income, or underserved individuals in Phoenix, Arizona. I was given the opportunity to join in this effort through my role as an undergraduate student volunteer at the ALC during the summer of 2017. Planning and coordination between these two entities has been ongoing, and after several months of work, the partnership has reached a more formative state. Our team estimates our partnership will be implemented into clinical facilities and operational by the Fall of 2018. By the summer of 2018, the SHOW clinic will be providing medical services at three locations: the Human Services Campus clinic, Crossroads Flower clinic, and Crossroads Mesa clinic. These clinical sites are where the MLP between the ALC and SHOW will operate. The ALC will provide legal consultations at each facility once a month, every month during the fall semester of 2018. They will also conduct educational workshops for facility patients once a month, every month. The following paper discusses: 1) a brief history of healthcare delivery and healthcare trends in the United States, 2) discusses what Medical-Legal Partnerships are and why they should be used, 3) specific health needs in the state of Arizona, 4) the developmental process of this specific partnership, 4) the challenge of medical and legal confidentiality, 5) and a proposed timeline of how we intend to successfully implement our partnership at clinical sites.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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A case for the Rehabilitation of Private Prisons within Arizona

Description

The privatization of prisons within Arizona has been a hot button issue and needs to be further analyzed to determine their benefits and expenses. To begin this investigation into the

The privatization of prisons within Arizona has been a hot button issue and needs to be further analyzed to determine their benefits and expenses. To begin this investigation into the effectiveness of private prisons within Arizona and possible steps that need to be taken for its rehabilitation certain definitions and prior research need to be understood. Following this explanation, areas such as costs analysis across different types of prisons, liability rates across differing types of prison guards, and the differing psychology of different types of prisons can be examined to gain an overall assessment of the current performance of privatized prisons within Arizona. After this in-depth analysis of the current private prison system within Arizona, the flaws of the system will become abundantly clear and the solutions that should be implemented to alleviate these problems will be discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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The Making of a COVID Testing Laboratory: The FDA Emergency Use Authorization Pathway’s Impact on the ABCTL

Description

In the United States, clinical testing is monitored by the federal and state governments, held to standards to ensure the safety and efficacy of these tests, as well as maintaining

In the United States, clinical testing is monitored by the federal and state governments, held to standards to ensure the safety and efficacy of these tests, as well as maintaining privacy for patients receiving a test. In order for the ABCTL to lawfully operate in the state of Arizona, it had to meet various legal criteria. These major legal considerations, in no particular order, are: Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments compliance; FDA Emergency Use Authorization (EUA); Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliance; state licensure; patient, state, and federal result reporting; and liability. <br/>In this paper, the EUA pathway will be examined and contextualized in relation to the ABCTL. This will include an examination of the FDA regulations and policies that affect the laboratory during its operations, as well as a look at the different authorization pathways for diagnostic tests present during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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  • 2021-05

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The Importance of Diversity Within the Cannabis Industry and Expanding Minority-Owned Businesses as a Social Justice Imperative

Description

Change within the cannabis industry could lead to drastic improvements in social justice. Ever since marijuana was first regulated in the United States in the early 1900s, it has been

Change within the cannabis industry could lead to drastic improvements in social justice. Ever since marijuana was first regulated in the United States in the early 1900s, it has been used as the justification for the excessive incarceration and disenfranchisement of targeted groups, specifically, Black and Latino populations. Now, the growing popularity of marijuana, from both the recreational and entrepreneurial perspective, has led to the legalization of recreational cannabis in 15 states. <br/>Although this enterprise is highly profitable and alluring for consumers and business owners, the problem of underrepresentation of minority owned businesses within the industry still remains. This underrepresentation symbolizes the unjust ability for this enterprise to capitalize on those victimized by past drug regulations and on a larger scale, how it perpetuates institutionalized racism. The criminalization of marijuana not only allows for certain groups to remain successful in this booming billion-dollar operation, but also ensures that others remain unseen and left behind. <br/>This thesis aims to show the ways in which the legal cannabis industry can expand and encourage minority-owned businesses to venture into the sector. In this paper, I will attempt to outline the history of cannabis regulation and anti-drug campaigns, and illustrate the lack of diversity within the cannabis industry. I will also touch upon the remedies and reparations for racial inequality and how public policy can address entrepreneur’s demands in future policy considerations and industry practices.

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  • 2021-05

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Mental Health and The Criminal Justice System: An Investigation into the Efficacy of Mental Health Courts

Description

In an attempt to fix the problem of an abundance of individuals with mental health issues in the criminal justice system, mental health courts have begun to develop as the

In an attempt to fix the problem of an abundance of individuals with mental health issues in the criminal justice system, mental health courts have begun to develop as the newest form of problem-solving court. These courts aim to keep individuals with easily treatable mental health issues out of prison and connect them with the treatment that they need. This paper is a literature review examining the development and implementation of mental health courts across the United States. The paper first explains the essential elements to a mental health court and how they function. The main claim addressed is that: through the institution of statewide standards as well as the blanket adoption and regular measurement of national performance measures in each accredited mental health court, the large-scale and longitudinal study of mental health courts will become more practical. When these types of studies become more prevalent, the most effective practices of mental health courts will be identified and innovation will follow. The paper develops this claim by explaining the state and national regulations currently in place and the importance of standardization. It then moves into the national performance measures that should then be examined by courts once state standards are in place. The paper then explains the importance of longitudinal study to the proper collection of the significant data needed to solidify the institution of successful mental health courts. By identifying the most effective practices in mental health courts and standardizing them, this system will be able to: better help the individuals involved get appropriate treatment, promote public safety, and more effectively use taxpayer money.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Incarceration and Its Effect on Political Beliefs

Description

This paper investigates whether incarceration has an effect on political orientation, addressing the hypothesis that the experience of incarceration also shapes the political behavior and attitudes of those who have

This paper investigates whether incarceration has an effect on political orientation, addressing the hypothesis that the experience of incarceration also shapes the political behavior and attitudes of those who have been confined (Manza, Uggen 2006; Clear 2007; Travis 2005). The primary aim of the research is to identify what role, if at all, the penal system plays in how incarcerated individuals think about politics. The data relied on to reach conclusions about the incarcerated population derives from voluntary responses to a survey implemented within a company that hires formerly and currently incarcerated persons. I find that the majority of the sample I surveyed became more politically liberal as a result of incarceration and a vast majority want to participate in the political process. These findings corroborate my hypotheses regarding the effects of incarceration on political beliefs, but contradict my assumption regarding the effect of social capital on their desire to participate in politics.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Everybody Commits Crimes (Analysis of Legal Culpability and Human Behavior)

Description

Realistically, everyone should either be in jail or in court for crimes that everybody
commits. Outside of the house, there are people speeding, jaywalking, littering, sharing
medication, and driving without

Realistically, everyone should either be in jail or in court for crimes that everybody
commits. Outside of the house, there are people speeding, jaywalking, littering, sharing
medication, and driving without seat belts. Inside the house, people are downloading
music/movies, drinking while underage, using (and abusing) social media while under the age of
18, and reading another person’s mail. With so much of a focus on serious crimes, or felonies,
people tend to forget about the everyday actions in America that are also illegal. For example, a
police officer may not do anything if several cars are going well over the speed limit on the
highway, because it is normalized. This paper explores two sides of this issue: the psychological
side and the legal side. The goal is to find out how culpable people really are for their actions
when they do not have the mental intent that the they are determined to have in court. All human
behavior will be divided into two sections (people with non-extreme mental disorders and people
who have total control over their behavior). First, I dive into the complexity of anxiety,
depression, and ADHD, and explain how these disorders will subtly change someone’s behavior.
Next, I examine how actions like speeding and jaywalking and explain how certain illegal
actions have become so normalized that people may not be very guilty, even when they are
knowingly committing these crimes. I use different misdemeanors as examples for each of these
types of behaviors to argue why people should be more culpable (aggravating factors) or less
culpable (mitigating factors) because of their respective predispositions. Finally, I discuss issues
of fixing the criminal justice system such as: how to make all punishments fair/accurate, how to
fix the public’s distrust towards the law, and how to stop these normalized illegal behaviors for
all people, regardless of mental health or intent.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05