Matching Items (50)

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Video Traffic Characteristics of Modern Encoding Standards: H.264/AVC with SVC and MVC Extensions and H.265/HEVC

Description

Video encoding for multimedia services over communication networks has significantly advanced in recent years with the development of the highly efficient and flexible H.264/AVC video coding standard and its SVC

Video encoding for multimedia services over communication networks has significantly advanced in recent years with the development of the highly efficient and flexible H.264/AVC video coding standard and its SVC extension. The emerging H.265/HEVC video coding standard as well as 3D video coding further advance video coding for multimedia communications. This paper first gives an overview of these new video coding standards and then examines their implications for multimedia communications by studying the traffic characteristics of long videos encoded with the new coding standards. We review video coding advances from MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 Part 2 to H.264/AVC and its SVC and MVC extensions as well as H.265/HEVC. For single-layer (nonscalable) video, we compare H.265/HEVC and H.264/AVC in terms of video traffic and statistical multiplexing characteristics. Our study is the first to examine the H.265/HEVC traffic variability for long videos. We also illustrate the video traffic characteristics and statistical multiplexing of scalable video encoded with the SVC extension of H.264/AVC as well as 3D video encoded with the MVC extension of H.264/AVC.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-02-20

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Cost-Effective Proximity Object Sensing

Description

The increasing presence and affordability of sensors provides the opportunity to make novel and creative designs for underserved markets like the legally blind. Here we explore how mathematical methods and

The increasing presence and affordability of sensors provides the opportunity to make novel and creative designs for underserved markets like the legally blind. Here we explore how mathematical methods and device coordination can be utilized to improve the functionality of inexpensive proximity sensing electronics in order to create designs that are versatile, durable, low cost, and simple. Devices utilizing various acoustic and electromagnetic wave frequencies like ultrasonic rangefinders, radars, Lidar rangefinders, webcams, and infrared rangefinders and the concepts of Sensor Fusion, Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave radar, and Phased Arrays were explored. The effects of various factors on the propagation of different wave signals was also investigated. The devices selected to be incorporated into designs were the HB100 DRO Radar Doppler Sensor (as an FMCW radar), HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensor, and Maxbotix Ultrasonic Rangefinder \u2014 EZ3. Three designs were ultimately developed and dubbed the "Rad-Son Fusion", the "Tri-Beam Scanner", and the "Dual-Receiver Ranger". The "Rad-Son Fusion" employs the Sensor Fusion of an FMCW radar and Ultrasonic sensor through a weighted average of the distance reading from the two sensors. The "Tri-Beam Scanner" utilizes a beam-forming Digital Phased Array of ultrasonic sensors to scan its surroundings. The "Dual-Receiver Ranger" uses the convolved result from to two modified HC-SR04 sensors to determine the time of flight and ultimately an object's distance. After conducting hardware experiments to determine the feasibility of each design, the "Dual-Receiver Ranger" was prototyped and tested to demonstrate the potential of the concept. The designs were later compared based on proposed requirements and possible improvements and challenges associated with the designs are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Transitional feedback schedules during computer-based problem-solving practice

Description

Feedback has a strong influence on effective learning from computer-based instruction. Prior research on feedback in computer-based instruction has mainly focused on static feedback schedules that employ the same feedback

Feedback has a strong influence on effective learning from computer-based instruction. Prior research on feedback in computer-based instruction has mainly focused on static feedback schedules that employ the same feedback schedule throughout an instructional session. This study examined transitional feedback schedules in computer-based multimedia instruction on procedural problem-solving in electrical circuit analysis. Specifically, we compared two transitional feedback schedules: the TFS-P schedule switched from initial feedback after each problem step to feedback after a complete problem at later learning states; the TFP-S schedule transitioned from feedback after a complete problem to feedback after each problem step. As control conditions, we also considered two static feedback schedules, namely providing feedback after each practice problem-solving step (SFS) or providing feedback after attempting a complete multi-step practice problem (SFP). Results indicate that the static stepwise (SFS) and transitional stepwise to problem (TFS-P) feedback produce higher problem solving near-transfer post-test performance than static problem (SFP) and transitional problem to step (TFP-S) feedback. Also, TFS-P resulted in higher ratings of program liking and feedback helpfulness than TFP-S. Overall, the study results indicate benefits of maintaining high feedback frequency (SFS) and reducing feedback frequency (TFS-P) compared to low feedback frequency (SFP) or increasing feedback frequency (TFP-S) as novice learners acquire engineering problem solving skills.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-02-01

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Investigating the impact of pedagogical agent gender matching and learner choice on learning outcomes and perceptions

Description

The similarity attraction hypothesis posits that humans are drawn toward others who behave and appear similar to themselves. Two experiments examined this hypothesis with middle-school students learning electrical circuit analysis

The similarity attraction hypothesis posits that humans are drawn toward others who behave and appear similar to themselves. Two experiments examined this hypothesis with middle-school students learning electrical circuit analysis in a computer-based environment with an Animated Pedagogical Agent (APA). Experiment 1 was designed to determine whether matching the gender of the APA to the student has a positive impact on learning outcomes or student perceptions. One hundred ninety-seven middle-school students learned with the computer-based environment using an APA that matched their gender or one which was opposite in gender. Female students reported higher program ratings when the APA matched their gender. Male students, on the other hand, reported higher program ratings than females when the APA did not match their gender. Experiment 2 systematically tested the impact of providing learners the choice among four APAs on learning outcomes and student perceptions. Three hundred thirty-four middle-school students received either a pre-assigned random APA or were free to choose from four APA options: young male agent, older male agent, young female agent, or older female agent. Learners had higher far transfer scores when provided a choice of animated agent, but student perceptions were not impacted by having the ability to make this choice. We suggest that offering students learner control positively impacts student motivation and learning by increasing student perceptions of autonomy, responsibility for the success of the instructional materials, and global satisfaction with the design of materials.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-09-12

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Understanding children's engineering-related achievement beliefs: An examination of gender and age differences

Description

The goal of this study was to understand elementary school children’s perceptions of engineering. A total of 949 elementary school students were surveyed, individually or as a whole group, to

The goal of this study was to understand elementary school children’s perceptions of engineering. A total of 949 elementary school students were surveyed, individually or as a whole group, to examine gender and age differences in achievement-related beliefs (i.e., competency, interest, and importance) pertaining to engineering-related skills and activities. The results of this study found that specific skills and activities showed significant gender and age differences for each of the three measures. Significant findings showed that younger students (kindergarten through second grade) found many of the engineering-related skills and activities more interesting than the older students (third through fifth grade); however, the older students rated more of the skills and activities as being important. Gender differences showed that girls typically rated themselves as being more competent, more interested in, and valuing the skills and activities that pertained more to mindset ideas, such as learning from your mistakes and failures or not giving up, whereas boys rated themselves higher in more of the hands-on activities, such as building with things like legos, blocks, and k’nex.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Video deinterlacing using control grid interpolation frameworks

Description

Video deinterlacing is a key technique in digital video processing, particularly with the widespread usage of LCD and plasma TVs. This thesis proposes a novel spatio-temporal, non-linear video deinterlacing technique

Video deinterlacing is a key technique in digital video processing, particularly with the widespread usage of LCD and plasma TVs. This thesis proposes a novel spatio-temporal, non-linear video deinterlacing technique that adaptively chooses between the results from one dimensional control grid interpolation (1DCGI), vertical temporal filter (VTF) and temporal line averaging (LA). The proposed method performs better than several popular benchmarking methods in terms of both visual quality and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR). The algorithm performs better than existing approaches like edge-based line averaging (ELA) and spatio-temporal edge-based median filtering (STELA) on fine moving edges and semi-static regions of videos, which are recognized as particularly challenging deinterlacing cases. The proposed approach also performs better than the state-of-the-art content adaptive vertical temporal filtering (CAVTF) approach. Along with the main approach several spin-off approaches are also proposed each with its own characteristics.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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PCI express-based ethernet switch

Description

A new type of Ethernet switch based on the PCI Express switching fabric is being presented. The switch leverages PCI Express peer-to-peer communication protocol to implement high performance Ethernet packet

A new type of Ethernet switch based on the PCI Express switching fabric is being presented. The switch leverages PCI Express peer-to-peer communication protocol to implement high performance Ethernet packet switching. The advantages and challenges of using the PCI Express as the switching fabric are addressed. The PCI Express is a high-speed short-distance communication protocol largely used in motherboard-level interconnects. The total bandwidth of a PCI Express 3.0 link can reach as high as 256 gigabit per second (Gb/s) per 16 lanes. Concerns for PCI Express such as buffer speed, address mapping, Quality of Service and power consumption need to be considered. An overview of the proposed Ethernet switch architecture is presented. The switch consists of a PCI Express switching fabric and multiple adaptor cards. The thesis reviews the peer-to-peer (P2P) communication protocol used in the switching fabric. The thesis also discusses the packet routing procedure in P2P protocol in detail. The Ethernet switch utilizes a portion of the Quality of Service provided with PCI Express to ensure guaranteed transmission. The thesis presents a method of adapting Ethernet packets over the PCI Express transaction layer packets. The adaptor card is divided into the following two parts: receive path and transmit path. The commercial off-the-shelf Media Access Control (MAC) core and PCI Express endpoint core are used in the adaptor. The output address lookup logic block is responsible for converting Ethernet MAC addresses to PCI Express port addresses. Different methods of providing Quality of Service in the adaptor card include classification, flow control, and error detection with the cooperation of the PCI Express switch are discussed. The adaptor logic is implemented in Verilog hardware description language. Functional simulation is conducted in ModelSim. The simulation results show that the Ethernet packets are able to be converted to the corresponding PCI Express transaction layer packets based on their destination MAC addresses. The transaction layer packets are then converted back to Ethernet packets. A functionally correct FPGA logic of the adaptor card is ready for implementation on real FPGA development board.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Traffic characterization and modeling of H.264 scalable & multi view encoded video

Description

Present day Internet Protocol (IP) based video transport and dissemination systems are heterogeneous in that they differ in network bandwidth, display resolutions and processing capabilities. One important objective in such

Present day Internet Protocol (IP) based video transport and dissemination systems are heterogeneous in that they differ in network bandwidth, display resolutions and processing capabilities. One important objective in such an environment is the flexible adaptation of once-encoded content and to achieve this, one popular method is the scalable video coding (SVC) technique. The SVC extension of the H.264/AVC standard has higher compression efficiency when compared to the previous scalable video standards. The network transport of 3D video, which is obtained by superimposing two views of a video scene, poses significant challenges due to the increased video data compared to conventional single-view video. Addressing these challenges requires a thorough understanding of the traffic and multiplexing characteristics of the different representation formats of 3D video. In this study, H.264 quality scalability and multiview representation formats are examined. As H.264/AVC, it's SVC and multiview extensions are expected to become widely adopted for the network transport of video, it is important to thoroughly study their network traffic characteristics, including the bit rate variability. Primarily the focus is on the SVC amendment of the H.264/AVC standard, with particular focus on Coarse-Grain Scalability (CGS) and Medium-Grain Scalability (MGS). In this study, we report on a large-scale study of the rate-distortion (RD) and rate variability-distortion (VD) characteristics of CGS and MGS. We also examine the RD and VD characteristics of three main multiview (3D) representation formats. Specifically, we compare multiview video (MV) representation and encoding, frame sequential (FS) representation, and side-by-side (SBS) representation; whereby conventional single-view encoding is employed for the FS and SBS representations. As a last step, we also examine Video traffic modeling which plays a major part in network traffic analysis. It is imperative to network design and simulation, providing Quality of Service (QoS) to network applications, besides providing insights into the coding process and structure of video sequences. We propose our models on top of the recent unified traffic model developed by Dai et al. [1], for modeling MPEG-4 and H.264 VBR video traffic. We exploit the hierarchical predication structure inherent in H.264 for intra-GoP (group of pictures) analysis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Performance characterization of communication channels through asymptotic and partial ordering analysis

Description

Asymptotic comparisons of ergodic channel capacity at high and low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are provided for several adaptive transmission schemes over fading channels with general distributions, including optimal power and

Asymptotic comparisons of ergodic channel capacity at high and low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are provided for several adaptive transmission schemes over fading channels with general distributions, including optimal power and rate adaptation, rate adaptation only, channel inversion and its variants. Analysis of the high-SNR pre-log constants of the ergodic capacity reveals the existence of constant capacity difference gaps among the schemes with a pre-log constant of 1. Closed-form expressions for these high-SNR capacity difference gaps are derived, which are proportional to the SNR loss between these schemes in dB scale. The largest one of these gaps is found to be between the optimal power and rate adaptation scheme and the channel inversion scheme. Based on these expressions it is shown that the presence of space diversity or multi-user diversity makes channel inversion arbitrarily close to achieving optimal capacity at high SNR with sufficiently large number of antennas or users. A low-SNR analysis also reveals that the presence of fading provably always improves capacity at sufficiently low SNR, compared to the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) case. Numerical results are shown to corroborate our analytical results. This dissertation derives high-SNR asymptotic average error rates over fading channels by relating them to the outage probability, under mild assumptions. The analysis is based on the Tauberian theorem for Laplace-Stieltjes transforms which is grounded on the notion of regular variation, and applies to a wider range of channel distributions than existing approaches. The theory of regular variation is argued to be the proper mathematical framework for finding sufficient and necessary conditions for outage events to dominate high-SNR error rate performance. It is proved that the diversity order being d and the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the channel power gain having variation exponent d at 0 imply each other, provided that the instantaneous error rate is upper-bounded by an exponential function of the instantaneous SNR. High-SNR asymptotic average error rates are derived for specific instantaneous error rates. Compared to existing approaches in the literature, the asymptotic expressions are related to the channel distribution in a much simpler manner herein, and related with outage more intuitively. The high-SNR asymptotic error rate is also characterized under diversity combining schemes with the channel power gain of each branch having a regularly varying CDF. Numerical results are shown to corroborate our theoretical analysis. This dissertation studies several problems concerning channel inclusion, which is a partial ordering between discrete memoryless channels (DMCs) proposed by Shannon. Specifically, majorization-based conditions are derived for channel inclusion between certain DMCs. Furthermore, under general conditions, channel equivalence defined through Shannon ordering is shown to be the same as permutation of input and output symbols. The determination of channel inclusion is considered as a convex optimization problem, and the sparsity of the weights related to the representation of the worse DMC in terms of the better one is revealed when channel inclusion holds between two DMCs. For the exploitation of this sparsity, an effective iterative algorithm is established based on modifying the orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm. The extension of channel inclusion to continuous channels and its application in ordering phase noises are briefly addressed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Ensuring safety of model-based generated code for pervasive health monitoring systems

Description

Wireless technologies for health monitoring systems have seen considerable interest in recent years owing to it's potential to achieve vision of pervasive healthcare, that is healthcare to anyone, anywhere and

Wireless technologies for health monitoring systems have seen considerable interest in recent years owing to it's potential to achieve vision of pervasive healthcare, that is healthcare to anyone, anywhere and anytime. Development of wearable wireless medical devices which have the capability to sense, compute, and send physiological information to a mobile gateway, forming a Body Sensor Network (BSN) is considered as a step towards achieving the vision of pervasive health monitoring systems (PHMS). PHMS consisting of wearable body sensors encourages unsupervised long-term monitoring, reducing frequent visit to hospital and nursing cost. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that operation of PHMS must be reliable, safe and have longer lifetime. A model-based automatic code generation provides a state-of-art code generation of sensor and smart phone code from high-level specification of a PHMS. Code generator intakes meta-model of PHMS specification, uses codebase containing code templates and algorithms, and generates platform specific code. Health-Dev, a framework for model-based development of PHMS, uses code generation to implement PHMS in sensor and smart phone. As a part of this thesis, model-based automatic code generation was evaluated and experimentally validated. The generated code was found to be safe in terms of ensuring no race condition, array, or pointer related errors in the generated code and more optimized as compared to hand-written BSN benchmark code in terms of lesser unreachable code.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013