Matching Items (56)

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Video Traffic Characteristics of Modern Encoding Standards: H.264/AVC With SVC and MVC Extensions and H.265/HEVC

Description

Video encoding for multimedia services over communication networks has significantly advanced in recent years with the development of the highly efficient and flexible H.264/AVC video coding standard and its SVC extension. The emerging H.265/HEVC video coding standard as well as

Video encoding for multimedia services over communication networks has significantly advanced in recent years with the development of the highly efficient and flexible H.264/AVC video coding standard and its SVC extension. The emerging H.265/HEVC video coding standard as well as 3D video coding further advance video coding for multimedia communications. This paper first gives an overview of these new video coding standards and then examines their implications for multimedia communications by studying the traffic characteristics of long videos encoded with the new coding standards. We review video coding advances from MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 Part 2 to H.264/AVC and its SVC and MVC extensions as well as H.265/HEVC. For single-layer (nonscalable) video, we compare H.265/HEVC and H.264/AVC in terms of video traffic and statistical multiplexing characteristics. Our study is the first to examine the H.265/HEVC traffic variability for long videos. We also illustrate the video traffic characteristics and statistical multiplexing of scalable video encoded with the SVC extension of H.264/AVC as well as 3D video encoded with the MVC extension of H.264/AVC.

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Date Created
2014-02-20

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Investigating the Impact of Pedagogical Agent Gender Matching and Learner Choice on Learning Outcomes and Perceptions

Description

The similarity attraction hypothesis posits that humans are drawn toward others who behave and appear similar to themselves. Two experiments examined this hypothesis with middle-school students learning electrical circuit analysis in a computer-based environment with an Animated Pedagogical Agent (APA).

The similarity attraction hypothesis posits that humans are drawn toward others who behave and appear similar to themselves. Two experiments examined this hypothesis with middle-school students learning electrical circuit analysis in a computer-based environment with an Animated Pedagogical Agent (APA). Experiment 1 was designed to determine whether matching the gender of the APA to the student has a positive impact on learning outcomes or student perceptions. One hundred ninety-seven middle-school students learned with the computer-based environment using an APA that matched their gender or one which was opposite in gender. Female students reported higher program ratings when the APA matched their gender. Male students, on the other hand, reported higher program ratings than females when the APA did not match their gender. Experiment 2 systematically tested the impact of providing learners the choice among four APAs on learning outcomes and student perceptions. Three hundred thirty-four middle-school students received either a pre-assigned random APA or were free to choose from four APA options: young male agent, older male agent, young female agent, or older female agent. Learners had higher far transfer scores when provided a choice of animated agent, but student perceptions were not impacted by having the ability to make this choice. We suggest that offering students learner control positively impacts student motivation and learning by increasing student perceptions of autonomy, responsibility for the success of the instructional materials, and global satisfaction with the design of materials.

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Created

Date Created
2013-09-12

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Cost-Effective Proximity Object Sensing

Description

The increasing presence and affordability of sensors provides the opportunity to make novel and creative designs for underserved markets like the legally blind. Here we explore how mathematical methods and device coordination can be utilized to improve the functionality of

The increasing presence and affordability of sensors provides the opportunity to make novel and creative designs for underserved markets like the legally blind. Here we explore how mathematical methods and device coordination can be utilized to improve the functionality of inexpensive proximity sensing electronics in order to create designs that are versatile, durable, low cost, and simple. Devices utilizing various acoustic and electromagnetic wave frequencies like ultrasonic rangefinders, radars, Lidar rangefinders, webcams, and infrared rangefinders and the concepts of Sensor Fusion, Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave radar, and Phased Arrays were explored. The effects of various factors on the propagation of different wave signals was also investigated. The devices selected to be incorporated into designs were the HB100 DRO Radar Doppler Sensor (as an FMCW radar), HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensor, and Maxbotix Ultrasonic Rangefinder \u2014 EZ3. Three designs were ultimately developed and dubbed the "Rad-Son Fusion", the "Tri-Beam Scanner", and the "Dual-Receiver Ranger". The "Rad-Son Fusion" employs the Sensor Fusion of an FMCW radar and Ultrasonic sensor through a weighted average of the distance reading from the two sensors. The "Tri-Beam Scanner" utilizes a beam-forming Digital Phased Array of ultrasonic sensors to scan its surroundings. The "Dual-Receiver Ranger" uses the convolved result from to two modified HC-SR04 sensors to determine the time of flight and ultimately an object's distance. After conducting hardware experiments to determine the feasibility of each design, the "Dual-Receiver Ranger" was prototyped and tested to demonstrate the potential of the concept. The designs were later compared based on proposed requirements and possible improvements and challenges associated with the designs are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
2016-05

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Performance of single layer H.264 SVC video over error prone networks

Description

With tremendous increase in the popularity of networked multimedia applications, video data is expected to account for a large portion of the traffic on the Internet and more importantly next-generation wireless systems. To be able to satisfy a broad range

With tremendous increase in the popularity of networked multimedia applications, video data is expected to account for a large portion of the traffic on the Internet and more importantly next-generation wireless systems. To be able to satisfy a broad range of customers requirements, two major problems need to be solved. The first problem is the need for a scalable representation of the input video. The recently developed scalable extension of the state-of-the art H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video coding standard, also known as H.264/SVC (Scalable Video Coding) provides a solution to this problem. The second problem is that wireless transmission medium typically introduce errors in the bit stream due to noise, congestion and fading on the channel. Protection against these channel impairments can be realized by the use of forward error correcting (FEC) codes. In this research study, the performance of scalable video coding in the presence of bit errors is studied. The encoded video is channel coded using Reed Solomon codes to provide acceptable performance in the presence of channel impairments. In the scalable bit stream, some parts of the bit stream are more important than other parts. Parity bytes are assigned to the video packets based on their importance in unequal error protection scheme. In equal error protection scheme, parity bytes are assigned based on the length of the message. A quantitative comparison of the two schemes, along with the case where no channel coding is employed is performed. H.264 SVC single layer video streams for long video sequences of different genres is considered in this study which serves as a means of effective video characterization. JSVM reference software, in its current version, does not support decoding of erroneous bit streams. A framework to obtain H.264 SVC compatible bit stream is modeled in this study. It is concluded that assigning of parity bytes based on the distribution of data for different types of frames provides optimum performance. Application of error protection to the bit stream enhances the quality of the decoded video with minimal overhead added to the bit stream.

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Created

Date Created
2011

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On efficient and scalable attribute based security systems

Description

This dissertation is focused on building scalable Attribute Based Security Systems (ABSS), including efficient and privacy-preserving attribute based encryption schemes and applications to group communications and cloud computing. First of all, a Constant Ciphertext Policy Attribute Based Encryption (CCP-ABE) is

This dissertation is focused on building scalable Attribute Based Security Systems (ABSS), including efficient and privacy-preserving attribute based encryption schemes and applications to group communications and cloud computing. First of all, a Constant Ciphertext Policy Attribute Based Encryption (CCP-ABE) is proposed. Existing Attribute Based Encryption (ABE) schemes usually incur large, linearly increasing ciphertext. The proposed CCP-ABE dramatically reduces the ciphertext to small, constant size. This is the first existing ABE scheme that achieves constant ciphertext size. Also, the proposed CCP-ABE scheme is fully collusion-resistant such that users can not combine their attributes to elevate their decryption capacity. Next step, efficient ABE schemes are applied to construct optimal group communication schemes and broadcast encryption schemes. An attribute based Optimal Group Key (OGK) management scheme that attains communication-storage optimality without collusion vulnerability is presented. Then, a novel broadcast encryption model: Attribute Based Broadcast Encryption (ABBE) is introduced, which exploits the many-to-many nature of attributes to dramatically reduce the storage complexity from linear to logarithm and enable expressive attribute based access policies. The privacy issues are also considered and addressed in ABSS. Firstly, a hidden policy based ABE schemes is proposed to protect receivers' privacy by hiding the access policy. Secondly,a new concept: Gradual Identity Exposure (GIE) is introduced to address the restrictions of hidden policy based ABE schemes. GIE's approach is to reveal the receivers' information gradually by allowing ciphertext recipients to decrypt the message using their possessed attributes one-by-one. If the receiver does not possess one attribute in this procedure, the rest of attributes are still hidden. Compared to hidden-policy based solutions, GIE provides significant performance improvement in terms of reducing both computation and communication overhead. Last but not least, ABSS are incorporated into the mobile cloud computing scenarios. In the proposed secure mobile cloud data management framework, the light weight mobile devices can securely outsource expensive ABE operations and data storage to untrusted cloud service providers. The reported scheme includes two components: (1) a Cloud-Assisted Attribute-Based Encryption/Decryption (CA-ABE) scheme and (2) An Attribute-Based Data Storage (ABDS) scheme that achieves information theoretical optimality.

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Created

Date Created
2011

New multi-nodal wireless communication system method

Description

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new method of dividing wireless communication (such as the 802.11a/b/g
and cellular UMTS MAC protocols) across multiple unreliable communication links (such as Ethernet). The purpose is to introduce the appropriate

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new method of dividing wireless communication (such as the 802.11a/b/g
and cellular UMTS MAC protocols) across multiple unreliable communication links (such as Ethernet). The purpose is to introduce the appropriate hardware, software, and system architecture required to provide the basis for a wireless system (using a 802.11a/b/g
and cellular protocols as a model) that can scale to support thousands of users simultaneously (say in a large office building, super chain store, etc.) or in a small, but very dense communication RF region. Elements of communication between a base station and a Mobile Station will be analyzed statistically to demonstrate higher throughput, fewer collisions and lower bit error rates (BER) with the given bandwidth defined by the 802.11n wireless specification (use of MIMO channels will be evaluated). A new network nodal paradigm will be presented. Alternative link layer communication techniques will be recommended and analyzed for the affect on mobile devices. The analysis will describe how the algorithms used by state machines implemented on Mobile Stations and Wi-Fi client devices will be influenced by new base station transmission behavior. New hardware design techniques that can be used to optimize this architecture as well as hardware design principles in regard to the minimal hardware functional blocks required to support such a system design will be described. Hardware design and verification simulation techniques to prove the hardware design will accommodate an acceptable level of performance to meet the strict timing as it relates to this new system architecture.

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Created

Date Created
2014

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Design of a low power and delay multi-protocol switching system for I/O and network virtualization

Description

Data centers connect a larger number of servers requiring IO and switches with low power and delay. Virtualization of IO and network is crucial for these servers, which run virtual processes for computing, storage, and apps. We propose using the

Data centers connect a larger number of servers requiring IO and switches with low power and delay. Virtualization of IO and network is crucial for these servers, which run virtual processes for computing, storage, and apps. We propose using the PCI Express (PCIe) protocol and a new PCIe switch fabric for IO and switch virtualization. The switch fabric has little data buffering, allowing up to 512 physical 10 Gb/s PCIe2.0 lanes to be connected via a switch fabric. The switch is scalable with adapters running multiple adaptation protocols, such as Ethernet over PCIe, PCIe over Internet, or FibreChannel over Ethernet. Such adaptation protocols allow integration of IO often required for disjoint datacenter applications such as storage and networking. The novel switch fabric based on space-time carrier sensing facilitates high bandwidth, low power, and low delay multi-protocol switching. To achieve Terabit switching, both time (high transmission speed) and space (multi-stage interconnection network) technologies are required. In this paper, we present the design of an up to 256 lanes Clos-network of multistage crossbar switch fabric for PCIe system. The switch core consists of 48 16x16 crossbar sub-switches. We also propose a new output contention resolution algorithm utilizing an out-of-band protocol of Request-To-Send (RTS), Clear-To-Send (CTS) before sending PCIe packets through the switch fabric. Preliminary power and delay estimates are provided.

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Created

Date Created
2013

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Transitional Feedback Schedules During Computer-Based Problem-Solving Practice

Description

Feedback has a strong influence on effective learning from computer-based instruction. Prior research on feedback in computer-based instruction has mainly focused on static feedback schedules that employ the same feedback schedule throughout an instructional session. This study examined transitional feedback

Feedback has a strong influence on effective learning from computer-based instruction. Prior research on feedback in computer-based instruction has mainly focused on static feedback schedules that employ the same feedback schedule throughout an instructional session. This study examined transitional feedback schedules in computer-based multimedia instruction on procedural problem-solving in electrical circuit analysis. Specifically, we compared two transitional feedback schedules: the TFS-P schedule switched from initial feedback after each problem step to feedback after a complete problem at later learning states; the TFP-S schedule transitioned from feedback after a complete problem to feedback after each problem step. As control conditions, we also considered two static feedback schedules, namely providing feedback after each practice problem-solving step (SFS) or providing feedback after attempting a complete multi-step practice problem (SFP). Results indicate that the static stepwise (SFS) and transitional stepwise to problem (TFS-P) feedback produce higher problem solving near-transfer post-test performance than static problem (SFP) and transitional problem to step (TFP-S) feedback. Also, TFS-P resulted in higher ratings of program liking and feedback helpfulness than TFP-S. Overall, the study results indicate benefits of maintaining high feedback frequency (SFS) and reducing feedback frequency (TFS-P) compared to low feedback frequency (SFP) or increasing feedback frequency (TFP-S) as novice learners acquire engineering problem solving skills.

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Created

Date Created
2015-02-01

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Understanding children's engineering-related achievement beliefs: An examination of gender and age differences

Description

The goal of this study was to understand elementary school children’s perceptions of engineering. A total of 949 elementary school students were surveyed, individually or as a whole group, to examine gender and age differences in achievement-related beliefs (i.e., competency,

The goal of this study was to understand elementary school children’s perceptions of engineering. A total of 949 elementary school students were surveyed, individually or as a whole group, to examine gender and age differences in achievement-related beliefs (i.e., competency, interest, and importance) pertaining to engineering-related skills and activities. The results of this study found that specific skills and activities showed significant gender and age differences for each of the three measures. Significant findings showed that younger students (kindergarten through second grade) found many of the engineering-related skills and activities more interesting than the older students (third through fifth grade); however, the older students rated more of the skills and activities as being important. Gender differences showed that girls typically rated themselves as being more competent, more interested in, and valuing the skills and activities that pertained more to mindset ideas, such as learning from your mistakes and failures or not giving up, whereas boys rated themselves higher in more of the hands-on activities, such as building with things like legos, blocks, and k’nex.

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Created

Date Created
2019-05

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On code design for interference channels

Description

There has been a lot of work on the characterization of capacity and achievable rate regions, and rate region outer-bounds for various multi-user channels of interest. Parallel to the developed information theoretic results, practical codes have also been designed for

There has been a lot of work on the characterization of capacity and achievable rate regions, and rate region outer-bounds for various multi-user channels of interest. Parallel to the developed information theoretic results, practical codes have also been designed for some multi-user channels such as multiple access channels, broadcast channels and relay channels; however, interference channels have not received much attention and only a limited amount of work has been conducted on them. With this motivation, in this dissertation, design of practical and implementable channel codes is studied focusing on multi-user channels with special emphasis on interference channels; in particular, irregular low-density-parity-check codes are exploited for a variety of cases and trellis based codes for short block length designs are performed.

Novel code design approaches are first studied for the two-user Gaussian multiple access channel. Exploiting Gaussian mixture approximation, new methods are proposed wherein the optimized codes are shown to improve upon the available designs and off-the-shelf point-to-point codes applied to the multiple access channel scenario. The code design is then examined for the two-user Gaussian interference channel implementing the Han-Kobayashi encoding and decoding strategy. Compared with the point-to-point codes, the newly designed codes consistently offer better performance. Parallel to this work, code design is explored for the discrete memoryless interference channels wherein the channel inputs and outputs are taken from a finite alphabet and it is demonstrated that the designed codes are superior to the single user codes used with time sharing. Finally, the code design principles are also investigated for the two-user Gaussian interference channel employing trellis-based codes with short block lengths for the case of strong and mixed interference levels.

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Created

Date Created
2015