Matching Items (10)

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The effects of low self-control, unstructured socializing, and risky behavior on victimization

Description

Prior research has looked at the effects of low self-control, unstructured socializing, and risky behaviors on victimization. In previous studies, however, the differences between routine activity and lifestyle theory have

Prior research has looked at the effects of low self-control, unstructured socializing, and risky behaviors on victimization. In previous studies, however, the differences between routine activity and lifestyle theory have been overlooked. The aim of this study is to test the unique characteristics of both theories independently. Specifically, this study addresses: (1) the mediating effects of unstructured socializing on low self-control and victimization and (2) the mediating effects of risky behaviors on low self-control and victimization. Data were collected using a self-administered survey of undergraduate students enrolled in introductory criminal justice and criminology classes (N = 554). Negative binomial regression models show risky behaviors mediate much of the effect low self-control has on victimization. Unstructured socializing, in contrast, does not mediate the impact of low self-control on victimization.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Sanctioning and Punishment in Prisons: An Examination of the Institutional Disciplinary Response to Formal Inmate Misconduct

Description

Inmate misconduct, and the formal disciplinary proceeding that follow official misconduct, is a common occurrence within correctional institutions. Decisions regarding punishment sanction post-disciplinary proceeding are important because they have direct

Inmate misconduct, and the formal disciplinary proceeding that follow official misconduct, is a common occurrence within correctional institutions. Decisions regarding punishment sanction post-disciplinary proceeding are important because they have direct implications for inmate freedom of movement within the institutional setting, yet this decision point has rarely been the subject of empirical research. Research that does look at this decision point commonly focuses on the presence or absence of a single category of disciplinary punishment – that being solitary confinement or disciplinary segregation. As such, prior research fails to observe the full range of post-disciplinary punishment options.

Addressing this gap in the literature, this study provides the first rigorous empirical examination of the inmate-level characteristics that influence punishment outcome following guilty institutional misconduct proceedings. Guided by criminal sentencing literature, the inmate- level characteristics are divided into groups of legal factors, quasi-legal factors, and extra-legal factors. Representing a significant advancement beyond prior research, this study operationalizes punishment outcome in two ways – as an interval-level ordered sanction severity scale and as individual punishment categories. A series of multivariate models with sample selection corrections are estimated to model the direct and interactive effects of the legal, quasi-legal, and extra-legal inmate characteristics on punishment outcome.

Results of the fully-saturated direct effects models reveal a consistent pattern across both operationalizations of the punishment outcome. The legal factor of misconduct offense and the prosocial behavior quasi-legal factors of working a prison job and program involvement are significantly related to punishment outcomes. The quasi-legal factor representing criminogenic risk and the extra-legal factors of inmate gender and race/ethnicity are not significantly related to punishment outcomes. When the direct effects models re-estimated on samples split by inmate gender and race/ethnicity, however, the extra-legal factors of gender and race/ethnicity condition the effects of some of the legal and quasi-legal factors on punishment outcome. Results of this study suggest that, holding constant the effect of legal misconduct-related factors, disparities exist in post-disciplinary sanctioning based on inmate race/ethnicity and gender.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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The effects of procedural justice and police performance on citizens' satisfaction with police

Description

It is hypothesized that procedural justice influences citizens' satisfaction with the police. An alternative argument holds that police performance measures, such as perceptions of crime and safety, are more salient.

It is hypothesized that procedural justice influences citizens' satisfaction with the police. An alternative argument holds that police performance measures, such as perceptions of crime and safety, are more salient. This study empirically investigates the predictive validity of both theoretical arguments. Using mail survey data from 563 adult residents from Monroe County, Michigan, a series of linear regression equations were estimated. The results suggest that procedural justice is a robust predictor of satisfaction with police. In contrast, several police performance measures failed to predict satisfaction with police. Overall, these findings support Tyler and Huo's (2002) contention that judgments regarding whether police exercise their authority in a procedurally-just fashion influence citizens' satisfaction with police more than fear of crime, perceptions of disorder, and the like.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Self-control and the consequences of maladaptive coping: specifying a new pathway between victimization and offending

Description

The link between victimization and offending is well established in the literature, yet an unexplored causal pathway within this relationship is concerned with why some individuals engage in maladaptive coping

The link between victimization and offending is well established in the literature, yet an unexplored causal pathway within this relationship is concerned with why some individuals engage in maladaptive coping in response to victimization. In particular, those with low self-control may be attracted to problematic yet immediately gratifying forms of coping post-victimization (e.g., substance use), which may increase their likelihood of violent offending in the future. Using three waves of adolescent panel data from the Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT) program, this research examines: (1) whether individuals with low-self control are more likely to engage in substance use coping following violent victimization, and (2) whether victims with low self-control who engage in substance use coping are more likely to commit violent offenses in the future. The results from negative binomial regressions support these hypotheses, even after controlling for prior offending, peer influences, prior substance abuse, and other forms of offending. The implications for integrating general strain and self-control theories, as well as for our understanding of the victimization-offending overlap, are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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The Effect of Time Since Last Incarceration Spell in Situations of Trust: A Factorial Vignette Study

Description

Studies on what shapes public perceptions of ex-prisoners are abundant. One omission is the detailed investigation of how perceptions of former inmates might vary by the amount of time since

Studies on what shapes public perceptions of ex-prisoners are abundant. One omission is the detailed investigation of how perceptions of former inmates might vary by the amount of time since their last incarceration term. More specifically, it remains unknown whether increased length since an ex-prisoner’s last incarceration spell is positively linked to higher levels of trust. This study (N = 448) uses a factorial vignette design to test the perceived trustworthiness of former inmates across two hypothetical scenarios. Time since last incarceration spell is used as the independent variables in a series of ordered logistic regression models. The role of gender is also explored. Results show that trust perceptions of ex-prisoners minimally vary by time since last incarceration spell when personal victimization is at risk, but the magnitude is small and shows no clear pattern of declining risk over time. Less support is observed in situations where property victimization is at risk. These findings illustrate the complexity of how people perceive and feel about ex-inmates in situations of trust.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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The effect of procedural justice during police-citizen encounters: a factorial vignette-based study

Description

ABSTRACT

Many studies testing the effects of procedural justice judgments rely on cross-sectional data. The shortcomings of such a strategy are clear and alternative methodologies are needed. Using a factorial

ABSTRACT

Many studies testing the effects of procedural justice judgments rely on cross-sectional data. The shortcomings of such a strategy are clear and alternative methodologies are needed. Using a factorial vignette design, this study tests a variety of hypotheses derived from the process-based model of regulation, most of which involve the posited outcomes of procedural justice judgments during police-citizen encounters. This technique allows the researcher to manipulate police process during citizen encounters via hypothetical scenarios. Experimental stimuli are used as independent variables in the regression models. The results show that participants who were administered vignettes characterized by procedural injustice had lower levels of encounter satisfaction, decision acceptance, immediate compliance and greater expectations that police handle similar situations in the future differently relative to individuals who did not receive the negative stimulus. These effects are statistically significant across encounters involving traffic stops and noise complaints. As anticipated, the effect of procedural injustice often proved more salient regardless of whether participants were administered vignettes where they received a citation. Given the utility of the vignette design, future researchers are encouraged to apply the design to additional causal questions derived from the process-based model.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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The age-graded consequences of victimization

Description

A large body of research links victimization to various harms. Yet it remains unclear how the effects of victimization vary over the life course, or why some victims are more

A large body of research links victimization to various harms. Yet it remains unclear how the effects of victimization vary over the life course, or why some victims are more likely to experience negative outcomes than others. Accordingly, this study seeks to advance the literature and inform victim service interventions by examining the effects of violent victimization and social ties on multiple behavioral, psychological, and health-related outcomes across three distinct stages of the life course: adolescence, early adulthood, and adulthood. Specifically, I ask two primary questions: 1) are the consequences of victimization age-graded? And 2) are the effects of social ties in mitigating the consequences of victimization age-graded?

Existing data from Waves I (1994-1995), III (2001-2002), and IV (2008-2009) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) are used. The Add Health is a nationally-representative sample of over 20,000 American adolescents enrolled in middle and high school during the 1994-1995 school year. On average, respondents are 15 years of age at Wave I (11-18 years), 22 years of age at Wave III (ranging from 18 to 26 years), and 29 years of age at Wave IV (ranging from 24 to 32 years). Multivariate regression models (e.g., ordinary least-squares, logistic, and negative binomial models) are used to assess the effects of violent victimization on the various behavioral, social, psychological, and health-related outcomes at each wave of data. Two-stage sample selection models are estimated to examine whether social ties explain variation in these outcomes among a subsample of victims at each stage of the life course.

The results indicate that the negative consequences of victimization vary considerably across different stages of the life course, and that the spectrum of negative outcomes linked to victimization narrows into adulthood. The effects of social ties appear to be age-graded as well, where ties are more protective for victims of violence in adolescence and adulthood than they are in early adulthood. These patterns of findings are discussed in light of their implications for continued theoretical development, future empirical research, and the creation of public policy concerning victimization.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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The impact of procedural injustice during police-citizen encounters: the role of officer gender

Description

This study examined the effects of procedural injustice during hypothetical police-citizen encounters. Specifically, the main effects of procedural injustice on emotional responses to police treatment, components of police legitimacy, and

This study examined the effects of procedural injustice during hypothetical police-citizen encounters. Specifically, the main effects of procedural injustice on emotional responses to police treatment, components of police legitimacy, and willingness to cooperate with the police were assessed. Importantly, this study also tested whether the effect of procedural injustice was invariant across officer gender. A factorial vignette survey that consisted of two different police encounter scenarios (i.e., potential stalking incident and traffic accident) was administered to a university-based sample (N = 525). Results showed that the effect of procedural injustice during such encounters had a powerful and significant influence on participants’ emotional responses (e.g., anger), legitimacy perceptions, and the willingness to cooperate. These effects appeared to be consistent regardless of whether the treatment was doled out by a male or female police officer. Implications of the findings in terms of theory and future research are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Physical Health, Social Support, and Reentry: A Longitudinal Examination of Formerly Incarcerated Individuals

Description

Incarceration has a lasting and robust impact on individuals’ health, social support networks, and general well-being. Yet the role of carceral or personal factors in health outcomes remains unclear, particularly

Incarceration has a lasting and robust impact on individuals’ health, social support networks, and general well-being. Yet the role of carceral or personal factors in health outcomes remains unclear, particularly for racial and ethnic minorities. Prisons, with crowded living areas and shared bathroom facilities, invite the spread of infectious diseases such as hepatitis C and HIV/AIDS. The overwhelming majority of incarcerated individuals will eventually be released back to their communities, bringing with them any health-related issues acquired in prison and beforehand. This makes ex-prisoners’ health a correctional and public health and safety issue. Accordingly, this study seeks to advance our understanding and improve correctional policy by (1) assessing the factors that affect the adverse physical and mental health of returning prisoners, (2) determining how different types of social support (instrumental or emotional) and stress alter the relationship between health and positive reentry outcomes, and (3) examining how health, stress, and social support influence offending and drug use. The broader purpose of this research is to inform correctional policy and practice, engage public health concerns about ex-prisoners, and create a cost-effective model to decrease the stressors related to offender reentry, with the ultimate aim of reducing recidivism. The study includes 802 male ex-prisoners, with an original target sample size of 400 gang and 400 non-gang members identified using disproportionate stratified random sampling techniques. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) in two prisons. Data come from the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) funded LoneStar Project and include a battery of survey questions about demographic information, physical and mental health, criminological theoretical constructs, release planning, criminogenic attitudes, and gang membership. The dissertation uses two waves of the LoneStar Project: an in-prison baseline interview, administered a week before release, and an interview administered over the phone at one month post-release. After conducting descriptive analyses, regression modeling will be used to assess the effects of the key independent variables on physical health and later, self-reported offending, net of appropriate controls. Results and relevant policy implications are discussed and should appeal to criminologists, health scholars, policymakers, and practitioners.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Crime in late life

Description

Most criminological theories are tested using samples of adolescents. Consequently, there is ample evidence regarding the correlates of criminal behavior committed by teenagers. The problem, however, is that there is

Most criminological theories are tested using samples of adolescents. Consequently, there is ample evidence regarding the correlates of criminal behavior committed by teenagers. The problem, however, is that there is relatively little information regarding the correlates of criminal offending committed during late life. This limits the ability to assess the generalizability of some of the leading theories in criminology. To fill this void in the literature the present study used a sample of 2,000 elderly people (i.e., 60 years of age and older) from Arizona and Florida to examine three issues: (1) the role of general and specific routine activity measures in the explanation of criminal activity in late life, (2) the invariance of low self-control across various subgroups of the elderly sample, and (3) the generality of self-control theory and routine activity theory. The analyses revealed several important findings. First, general routine activity measures are better predictors of general criminal offending than specific indicators. However, specific routine activity measures still matter in the explanation of specific types of crimes. Another important finding of this study was that low self-control has an invariant effect on criminal offending across gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Finally, self-control theory and routine activity theory are general frameworks that explain criminal behavior committed by older people in much the same manner as among teenagers. Routine activity does not mediate the link between low self-control and offending. Rather, both low self-control and routine activity exert independent effects on late life criminal activity, net of statistical controls. The present study concludes with a discussion of the findings situated in the literature and provides policy implications that stem from the results.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012