Matching Items (17)

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Addressing the Pediatric Asthma Cluster in South and Central Phoenix

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Objective: To explain the origins of the pediatric asthma cluster present in south and central phoenix, and propose potential solutions to combat this cluster. Methods: A comprehensive literature review of the different factors that contribute to asthma starting at a

Objective: To explain the origins of the pediatric asthma cluster present in south and central phoenix, and propose potential solutions to combat this cluster. Methods: A comprehensive literature review of the different factors that contribute to asthma starting at a national level and working down to the Maricopa county level was conducted. Afterwards a literature review of past pediatric asthma intervention case studies was conducted. The results of both literature reviews were synthesized in regards to applicability in south and central phoenix. Results: A combined targeted intervention in health care delivery, patient/clinician education, and housing status/infrastructure could yield promising results in regards to combatting the pediatric asthma cluster in south and central phoenix.

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2018-05

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Individual Rights vs. the Public Good: How Do State Exemption Policies Impact Childhood Vaccination Rates?

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Growing hotspots of unvaccinated children corroborate with states that have highly permissive vaccination policies. State-based nonmedical exemption (NME) policies such as religious or philosophical exemptions make it easy for parents to opt out of vaccinating their children thus lowering herd

Growing hotspots of unvaccinated children corroborate with states that have highly permissive vaccination policies. State-based nonmedical exemption (NME) policies such as religious or philosophical exemptions make it easy for parents to opt out of vaccinating their children thus lowering herd immunity and increasing the risk of outbreaks. Recent studies have revealed that Phoenix is the metropolitan area with the highest number of nonmedical exemptions in the country with vaccination rates below herd immunity. This thesis investigates the role of the law in enabling low vaccination rates and develops a set of policy recommendations that lawmakers may use as a tool to restore these rates to herd immunity levels. To do this, an in-depth literature review was performed and supplemented with a case study of California’s policy response to the 2014 Disneyland measles outbreak. This information was synthesized into an in-depth policy analysis addressing the political, social, practical, and economic factors of the issue and four potential policy responses for state lawmakers. Based on the analysis and California’s example, eliminating nonmedical vaccine exemptions was identified as the most effective policy option to reach the intended goal of restoring vaccination rates to herd immunity levels. This policy option is both the most cost-effective and productive in reaching herd immunity but infringes the most on parental rights and will be met with the most significant political pushback. Despite these challenges, lawmakers should take this policy step to protect our community and the most vulnerable among us.

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2019-05

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Bridging the Rural-Urban Divide: Addressing Barriers to Health Services in the Rural USA and Mexico

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Due to unique barriers to access and quality of healthcare, rural Americans have, among many other poorer health outcomes, a worsening life expectancy than their urban counterparts: 76.8 years compared to 78.8 years. In addition to overall mortality, the burden

Due to unique barriers to access and quality of healthcare, rural Americans have, among many other poorer health outcomes, a worsening life expectancy than their urban counterparts: 76.8 years compared to 78.8 years. In addition to overall mortality, the burden of disease is greater in rural areas, as well as rates of physical injury. There are many intersecting influencing factors including, but not limited to, barriers to access needed healthcare, issues regarding the quality of healthcare provided, the ability to pay for healthcare and other socioeconomic considerations are both causes and consequences of poor health and healthcare access.
The health disparities between rural and urban communities in the United States are not uniquely American. This rural-urban divide in health outcomes is present across the world and, closer to home, across North America. In addition to reviewing the current literature surrounding barriers to health and healthcare access in the United States, we will also use southern neighbor Mexico’s history and their pursuit of rural equity (universally and in health/healthcare access) to contrast initiatives that the U.S. has attempted, with the intent of exploring new theories of rural healthcare provision. By combining the history of social medicine in Mexico with literature on barriers to healthcare access, I hope to highlight areas of innovation and improvement in the American health care delivery system.
The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature regarding health disparities among rural Americans, possible causes of such disparities and current strategies to improve health, healthcare access and healthcare quality in rural America in order to recommend the most effective, practical solutions to improve rural mortality, morbidity and quality of life.

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2019-05

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A Review of Podcast Impact and Implications for Education and Beyond

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The world of podcasting has exploded in popularity in recent years. This medium is being used in education as well as in the public sector to share ideas, news, and stories. This paper reviews the research behind podcast success as

The world of podcasting has exploded in popularity in recent years. This medium is being used in education as well as in the public sector to share ideas, news, and stories. This paper reviews the research behind podcast success as a news form and in the educational sector and the implications of these findings for the future. Podcast listeners tend to listen to podcasts for entertainment and, notably, to diversify their time while completing other tasks. New ways to directly stream media from portable devices and advances in the internet have helped bolster the popularity of this media form. Podcasting proved to be successful in higher education as students tended to perform better when given access to podcasts. However, they were only successful when using podcasts as classroom adjuncts. This implies that educational podcasts must be produced differently than ones intended for the public. By reviewing the neuroscience behind language, emotion and memory, it was found that narrative formats that also evoked emotions had a positive ability in enhancing the listeners learning and memory. Keeping this in mind, the developed podcast aimed to bridge educational material to the general public by utilizing narrative as a vessel in which to deliver complex information about medicine, science and neuroscience. The accessibility and virtually non-existent barriers to the podcasting world offer a breadth of knowledge and opinions that have numerous factors of social influence. The impact of podcasting on the modern world deserves more research in sociology and psychology as it continues to grow in popularity.

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2019-05

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Literature review: A Comparison between the US and Australia of Economic Factors affecting breastfeeding and Policies to Increase Breastfeeding in the Workplace

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Breastfeeding has been shown by a number of studies to have numerous benefits on both the mother and the infant. Major health organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), now agree that breastfeeding should be encouraged and supported in

Breastfeeding has been shown by a number of studies to have numerous benefits on both the mother and the infant. Major health organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), now agree that breastfeeding should be encouraged and supported in all countries. But like many things, the wheels of the law are slow to catch up with scientific evident. Although breastfeeding is supported, working women do not have the option of breastfeeding without consequences. For example, in 2003, Kirstie Marshall, a then member of parliament in Australia was ejected from the lower house chamber on February 23, for breastfeeding her baby [3]. According to standing order 30 at the time, "Unless by order of the House, no Member of this House shall presume to bring any stranger into any part of the House appropriated to the Members of this House while the House, or a Committee of the whole House, is sitting" [3]. The rules did not specify the age of strangers, so the then 11-day-old baby, Charlotte Louise and her mother were shown the exit door of parliament. She had to choose between being present at times of major discussions or leaving the house to breastfeed her child, she chose to leave. More recent statistics show that developed nations like the US and Australia which also have high rates of women employment had low rates of breastfeeding. This might mean that workplace policies do not favor breastfeeding or expressing milk at work. Fortunately, laws have since been introduced in both the United States and Australia that support breastfeeding at the workplace. The next step would be to access how these laws affect breastfeeding statistics and how variation between these two countries like the paid parental leave in Australia (which is not present in all US states) would affect these numbers.

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2018-05

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Implications of the Public Charge Rule on Child Health: A Growing Threat to the U.S. Health Care System

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In recent months, the current administration has proposed a series of recent federal policy changes, namely the Public Charge Rule, intended to limit immigrants into the U.S. on the basis of financial grounds. In essence, the Public Charge Rule redefines

In recent months, the current administration has proposed a series of recent federal policy changes, namely the Public Charge Rule, intended to limit immigrants into the U.S. on the basis of financial grounds. In essence, the Public Charge Rule redefines the term “public charge”. Under this policy, most applicants for permanent residency who use any number of public benefits—including Medicaid, government housing, and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)—count toward being flagged as a public charge, or an individual likely to become dependent on the government for subsistence; this will count against them in residency status applications. Even in the wake of the recent Supreme Court ruling and early implementation of the policy, the Public Charge Rule has shown increasing disenrollment from public benefits along with a growing climate of fear, mistrust, and misinformation in relation to connecting with the healthcare system. This policy particularly threatens low-income children, the majority of which are U.S.-born legal citizens, who are incredibly vulnerable to poor health outcomes without longitudinal, preventive health services. Recent studies show that two million children legally eligible for Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) could be disenrolled from the program due to this climate of uncertainty. This policy brief investigates the role of health systems and providers in bracing for the expected impacts and develops a set of policy recommendations that providers and health administrators may use as a tool for protecting patient health and ensuring patient-centered care. To achieve this, a literature review was performed with a compilation of current population health trends and a historical case study. This compilation of data was analyzed to better understand the current political, social, and economic landscape in the United States. From this, three potential policy recommendations were outlined for health providers. Based on current research and the analysis conducted, community engagement and policy advocacy was identified as the most effective policy option for health providers to best provide patient-centered care. However, a more holistic solution should be considered for states that serve populations that are deemed high-need, namely Arizona. Education within clinic walls for providers and patients will bridge the misinformation gap and build shared understanding between provider and patient. Beyond clinic walls, community engagement and policy advocacy mends community mistrust of health systems. Further pilot investigation is warranted at high-utilization medical centers.

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2020-05

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The Impact of Medicaid Expansion from the Affordable Care Act in Arizona and Nationally: How the proposition has improved patient access to health care and future propositions may impact the future of Medicaid Patients

Description

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was created in 2010 to ensure American Citizens to obtain healthcare in which one way is to apply for Medicaid as more persons became eligible under expansion of coverage. The policies concerning

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was created in 2010 to ensure American Citizens to obtain healthcare in which one way is to apply for Medicaid as more persons became eligible under expansion of coverage. The policies concerning Medicaid expansion has not federally mandated that every state adopt Medicaid expansion by Supreme Court decision, therefore it has been questioned in its ability by the current presidential cabinet which has led the Republican House of Representatives to create reforms of the current health law. The reforms to Medicaid expansion included the use of block grants or per capita caps through the American Health Care Act (AHCA) in which either of the reform would give more power and funding rights to the states themselves. However, the Senate withdrew the bill before voting as majority did not agree with the provisions and wanted current health care law to remain as is. With this bill not having been passed, other options of reforms are going to be considered by the Republican House of Representatives and the President. In the meantime, it is evident that states that have not yet expanded Medicaid should apply for a waiver to adopt the Medicaid expansion policies. This is because under the ACA's Medicaid expansion there has been a decrease in uninsured persons nationally, including the state of Arizona.

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2017-05

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Increasing Access to Medical Care Through Scope of Practice Laws

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This paper sought to answer the question of how to improve the American healthcare system. The Affordable Care Act aimed to do this by increasing access to insurance. What this has done, however, is exacerbate the already rising rate of

This paper sought to answer the question of how to improve the American healthcare system. The Affordable Care Act aimed to do this by increasing access to insurance. What this has done, however, is exacerbate the already rising rate of physician shortages. As a way to fix this problem, it is suggested that state legislatures and the federal government adopt the rising trend of expanding scope of practice to the extent of the care providers' certification. This is a movement has garnered support throughout the country and 20 states already allow for nearly autonomous practice by advanced practice nurses (APNs). This paper looked at systematic review, peer-reviewed papers, state/federal legislation and labor statistics to demonstrate how this move could increase access to healthcare providers as well as decrease cost by nearly 25%. This paper also evaluated how to formalization of nursing education has had positive impacts on the French healthcare system. Additionally, it evaluated a more specific look at Arizona and used data provided by the Arizona Board of Nursing and The Arizona Medical Board to make a compelling argument as to why this is a viable option for solving the disparity between rural and urban healthcare. The conclusion of the paper was to push policy makers to make the statutory constraints of the profession closer to the certification the people receive in their education as opposed to relying on case law. Additionally, it would be helpful to use technological innovations, like project echo, to help these professionals practice in rural areas. This will ultimately lead to a healthcare system that better serves the needs of all populations, as well as decreasing the overall cost of care.

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2018-05

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Identifying Barriers to Care Coordination for Children with Special Health Care Needs: the Provider Perspective Comparing Physical & Behavioral Disability

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The term "Children with Special Health Care Needs," often abbreviated as CSHCN, is an umbrella term, encompassing a wide variety of children with a range of health conditions. As of 2011, CSHCN constituted 15-20% of all children age 0-17 in

The term "Children with Special Health Care Needs," often abbreviated as CSHCN, is an umbrella term, encompassing a wide variety of children with a range of health conditions. As of 2011, CSHCN constituted 15-20% of all children age 0-17 in the United States (Bethell et al., 2013). Despite this, CSHCN "account for 80% of all pediatric medical expenses." (Hardy, Vivier, Rivara, & Melzer, 2012). This project specifically compares children with physical disability and behavioral disability in hopes of gaining a greater insight into both groups, assessing/comparing differences, and evaluating whether or not having a co-morbidity has a mediating or contending effect on care coordination.

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2017-12

Barriers to Healthcare Access within Native American Populations

Description

Introduction: Health disparities for the Native American population in the United States have been well documented for years. Native Americans face many barriers to healthcare access, including low socioeconomic status, historical trauma, and lack of access to healthcare facilities. Barriers

Introduction: Health disparities for the Native American population in the United States have been well documented for years. Native Americans face many barriers to healthcare access, including low socioeconomic status, historical trauma, and lack of access to healthcare facilities. Barriers to healthcare and challenges associated with achieving optimal health among Native Americans contribute to health disparities within these populations. If these barriers are to be overcome, they must be understood and addressed. Purpose: The purpose of this review was to identify barriers to healthcare access for Native American populations as well as strategies to address barriers. Method: A preliminary scan of several online databases was conducted. Key terms used in the search included American Indians, Native American, healthcare, healthcare access, health disparities, barriers, and intervention. Articles were selected based on relevance, and data from each chosen article were extracted and categorized. Results: The initial search resulted in 272 articles of potential interest. Based on the abstract review, 32 were deemed relevant, and full text reviews were completed. Based on the full text review, an additional 10 articles were excluded, resulting in a final review of 22 articles. The articles addressed barriers related to various health conditions: cancer treatment, drug or alcohol use, maternal and child health, historical trauma, diabetes and chronic illnesses, and oral health. Conclusion: Native Americans face several barriers to healthcare access that are associated with social, physical, and mental health disparities. Successful efforts to address these barriers include patient-centered, culturally-competent interventions. Others include interventions which focus on community involvement.

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2017-12