Matching Items (3)

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Machine learning to predict rapid progression of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with impaired glucose tolerance

Description

Objectives
Prediabetes is a major epidemic and is associated with adverse cardio-cerebrovascular outcomes. Early identification of patients who will develop rapid progression of atherosclerosis could be beneficial for improved risk

Objectives
Prediabetes is a major epidemic and is associated with adverse cardio-cerebrovascular outcomes. Early identification of patients who will develop rapid progression of atherosclerosis could be beneficial for improved risk stratification. In this paper, we investigate important factors impacting the prediction, using several machine learning methods, of rapid progression of carotid intima-media thickness in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) participants.
Methods
In the Actos Now for Prevention of Diabetes (ACT NOW) study, 382 participants with IGT underwent carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) ultrasound evaluation at baseline and at 15–18 months, and were divided into rapid progressors (RP, n = 39, 58 ± 17.5 μM change) and non-rapid progressors (NRP, n = 343, 5.8 ± 20 μM change, p < 0.001 versus RP). To deal with complex multi-modal data consisting of demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables, we propose a general data-driven framework to investigate the ACT NOW dataset. In particular, we first employed a Fisher Score-based feature selection method to identify the most effective variables and then proposed a probabilistic Bayes-based learning method for the prediction. Comparison of the methods and factors was conducted using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analyses and Brier score.
Results
The experimental results show that the proposed learning methods performed well in identifying or predicting RP. Among the methods, the performance of Naïve Bayes was the best (AUC 0.797, Brier score 0.085) compared to multilayer perceptron (0.729, 0.086) and random forest (0.642, 0.10). The results also show that feature selection has a significant positive impact on the data prediction performance.
Conclusions
By dealing with multi-modal data, the proposed learning methods show effectiveness in predicting prediabetics at risk for rapid atherosclerosis progression. The proposed framework demonstrated utility in outcome prediction in a typical multidimensional clinical dataset with a relatively small number of subjects, extending the potential utility of machine learning approaches beyond extremely large-scale datasets.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-09-05

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The Effect of Glucocorticoids on Insulin Resistance in Rat Skeletal Muscle via TXNIP

Description

Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids that bind to glucocorticoid receptors
within cells that result in changes in the metabolism of carbohydrates and immune functions.
Ingesting glucocorticoids has

Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids that bind to glucocorticoid receptors
within cells that result in changes in the metabolism of carbohydrates and immune functions.
Ingesting glucocorticoids has also been linked to insulin resistance, a main feature of Type 2
diabetes. Experiments including polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and glycogen
synthase analysis were conducted to determine if exposure to higher doses of dexamethasone, a
glucocorticoid, induces insulin resistance in cultured rat skeletal muscle via interaction with
thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). Treatment with dexamethasone was shown to cause
mild increases in TXNIP while a definitive increase or decrease in insulin signaling was unable
to be determined.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The application of multiple reaction monitoring and multi-analyte profiling to HDL proteins

Description

Background
HDL carries a rich protein cargo and examining HDL protein composition promises to improve our understanding of its functions. Conventional mass spectrometry methods can be lengthy and difficult to

Background
HDL carries a rich protein cargo and examining HDL protein composition promises to improve our understanding of its functions. Conventional mass spectrometry methods can be lengthy and difficult to extend to large populations. In addition, without prior enrichment of the sample, the ability of these methods to detect low abundance proteins is limited. Our objective was to develop a high-throughput approach to examine HDL protein composition applicable to diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Methods
We optimized two multiplexed assays to examine HDL proteins using a quantitative immunoassay (Multi-Analyte Profiling- MAP) and mass spectrometric-based quantitative proteomics (Multiple Reaction Monitoring-MRM). We screened HDL proteins using human xMAP (90 protein panel) and MRM (56 protein panel). We extended the application of these two methods to HDL isolated from a group of participants with diabetes and prior cardiovascular events and a group of non-diabetic controls.
Results
We were able to quantitate 69 HDL proteins using MAP and 32 proteins using MRM. For several common proteins, the use of MRM and MAP was highly correlated (p < 0.01). Using MAP, several low abundance proteins implicated in atherosclerosis and inflammation were found on HDL. On the other hand, MRM allowed the examination of several HDL proteins not available by MAP.
Conclusions
MAP and MRM offer a sensitive and high-throughput approach to examine changes in HDL proteins in diabetes and CVD. This approach can be used to measure the presented HDL proteins in large clinical studies.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-01-08