Matching Items (16)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

132424-Thumbnail Image.png

Characterization of the Notch Ligand Deltalike 3 from A. carolinensis

Description

The highly conserved Notch signaling pathway regulates cell-cell communication pathways, cell fate, cell determination, cell death, embryonic development, and adult tissue pathways in metazoans. The Notch receptors and ligands that bind to Notch are single pass, transmembrane proteins that communicate

The highly conserved Notch signaling pathway regulates cell-cell communication pathways, cell fate, cell determination, cell death, embryonic development, and adult tissue pathways in metazoans. The Notch receptors and ligands that bind to Notch are single pass, transmembrane proteins that communicate cell to cell via juxtacrine signaling. There are reports of the divergent function and localization of the Deltalike 3 (Dll3) ligand. In Mus musculus (an eutherin mammal) the DLL3 protein inhibits the Notch signaling pathway and is localized in the Golgi apparatus. In contrast, the DLL3 protein from zebrafish, Danio rerio (a teleost) activates Notch and is located on the cell surface. This study will focus on examining the evolutionary pathway/evolutionary similarities, localization, and function of the A. carolinensis dll3 gene in comparison to other vertebrate species. This is important because there is not much known about the evolutionary divergence of the DLL3 A. carolinensis protein, its function in Notch signaling, and its subcellular localization.
Evolutionary analysis of vertebrate DLL3 protein sequences using phylogenetic trees showed that D. rerio and A. carolinensis are more evolutionarily similar in comparison to M. musculus suggesting that they may have similar intracellular localization. However, immunofluorescence staining experiments showed that the A. carolinensis DLL3 protein co-localized significantly with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) specific primary antibody. Since this protein is localized in the secretory system, similar to that of M. musculus DLL3, it suggests that its function is to inhibit the Notch signaling pathway. Protein sequence alignments were created that suggested that there is a region in the protein sequences where the lizard and mouse sequence are conserved, while the zebrafish sequence simultaneously varies. This region of the amino acid sequence could be responsible for the difference in localization and function of the protein in these two species.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-05

132429-Thumbnail Image.png

In Vitro Gametogenesis (IVG): Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) in Development

Description

In vitro gametogenesis (IVG) research has been growing in countries like Japan, US, and China after the development of stem cell research and other scientific advancements as well as because of the perception of infertility as a domestic and international

In vitro gametogenesis (IVG) research has been growing in countries like Japan, US, and China after the development of stem cell research and other scientific advancements as well as because of the perception of infertility as a domestic and international problem. IVG research’s progress has been deliberated internationally, with discussion of questions, challenges, and possibilities that have arisen and may arise in the future as the technology is adopted by different countries. The first section introduces the meaning of IVG, explains the importance of review by scientists and citizens for IVG, and describes a rise in infertility reported in multiple developed countries that could be addressed by IVG. The second section discusses IVG’s applications and implications using 5 ethical categories articulated by Obama’s Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues: Public Beneficence, Responsible Stewardship, Intellectual Freedom and Responsibility, Democratic Deliberation, and Justice and Fairness. These five ethical principles were intended for analysis of emerging technologies, and IVG is an emerging technology with possible integration into clinical settings. Among the principles, it seemed that a major weak point of inquiry concerns LGBT+ and disability inclusion, especially of gender dysphoric and transgender people who may experience higher rates of infertility and have a harder time conceiving due to a mix of discrimination, gender dysphoria, and infertility due to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) treatment or gender/sex reassignment surgeries (GRSs/SRSs) that may impair or remove reproductive body parts. A number of other ethical considerations arise about this technology.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-05

134437-Thumbnail Image.png

Examination and Analysis of Numb 3' UTR

Description

Numb is a gene that encodes an adaptor protein which has been characterized for its role cell migration, cell adhesion, endocytosis, and cell fate determination through asymmetrical division in various embryonic and adult tissues. In vertebrates, several Numb isoforms are

Numb is a gene that encodes an adaptor protein which has been characterized for its role cell migration, cell adhesion, endocytosis, and cell fate determination through asymmetrical division in various embryonic and adult tissues. In vertebrates, several Numb isoforms are produced via alternative splicing. In the Mus musculus genome, one Numb gene on chromosome 12 is alternatively spliced to produce four distinct protein isoforms, characterized by an 11 amino acid insert in the phosphotyrosine binding domain and a 49 amino acid insert in the proline rich region. Two poly adenylation sites in the currently published Numb 3' UTR exist, thus, the possibility that various 3' UTRs containing different miRNA seed sites is a possible posttranscriptional mechanism by which differential expression is observed. In an attempt to elucidate this hypothesis, PCR was performed to amplify the 3' UTR of murine neural tube cells, the products of which were subsequently cloned and sequenced. Multiple fragment sizes were consistently observed in the PCR data, however, sequencing demonstrated that these bands did not reveal an association with Numb.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017-05

135304-Thumbnail Image.png

MKX Regulation of Macrophage Recruitment during Chronic Muscle Damage Associated with Muscular Dystrophy

Description

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a muscular degenerative disease characterized by striated membrane instability that stimulates continuous cycles of muscle repair. Chronic activation of the innate immune response necessary for muscle repair leads to a pathological accumulation of fibrotic materials

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a muscular degenerative disease characterized by striated membrane instability that stimulates continuous cycles of muscle repair. Chronic activation of the innate immune response necessary for muscle repair leads to a pathological accumulation of fibrotic materials that disrupt muscle function. During healthy tissue repair, a balance between pro-inflammatory macrophage (M1) and anti-inflammatory macrophage (M2) promotes clearance of necrotic fibers (myolysis) followed by tissue repair. This is regulated by an intricate feedback loop between muscle, neutrophils and macrophages mediated by Th1 and Th2 cytokines and chemokines. During chronic inflammation, there is an imbalance in an M2 species that produces high levels of extracellular matrix that leads to fibrosis. Finding treatments that ameliorate fibrosis are essential to limiting the muscle pathology that reduces ambulation of DMD patients. Previous studies have shown that Mohawk, (Mkx) a homeobox transcription factor, is essential for the initiation of the inflammation response during acute muscle injury. This study aims to examine whether Mkx regulates inflammation during chronic damage associated with muscular dystrophy. The mdx mouse is a well-studied mouse model that recapitulates muscle necrosis, chronic inflammatory response and fibrosis associated with muscular dystrophy. Utilizing quantitative RT-PCR and histological analysis, the diaphragms and Quadriceps of adult Mkx-/-/mdx and Mkx+/+/mdx mice were analyzed at three critical time points (4 weeks, 3 months and 7 months). In contrast to what was anticipated, there was evidence of increased muscle damage in the absence of Mkx. There was a consistent reduction in the diameter of muscle fibers found in both types of tissue in Mkx-/-/mdx versus Mkx+/+/mdx mice without a difference in the number of fibers with centralized nuclei at 4 weeks and 1 year between the two genotypes, suggesting that the Mkx mutation influences the maturation of fibers forming in response to muscle damage. Fibrosis was higher in the diaphragm of the Mkx-/-/mdx mice at 4 weeks and 3 months, while at1 year there did not appear to be a difference. Overall, the results predict that the absence of Mkx exacerbates the instability of muscle fibers in the mdx mouse. Future studies will be needed to understand the relationship between Mkx and the dystrophin gene.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-05

137093-Thumbnail Image.png

Bcl11a and Bcl11b Regulation of the Decision for Murine Cells to Proliferate or Differentiate During Skeletal Muscle Development and Repair

Description

The development of skeletal muscle during embryogenesis and repair in adults is dependent on the intricate balance between the proliferation of myogenic progenitor cells and the differentiation of those cells into functional muscle fibers. Recent studies demonstrate that the Drosophila

The development of skeletal muscle during embryogenesis and repair in adults is dependent on the intricate balance between the proliferation of myogenic progenitor cells and the differentiation of those cells into functional muscle fibers. Recent studies demonstrate that the Drosophila melanogaster transcription factor CG9650 is expressed in muscle progenitor cells, where it maintains myoblast numbers. We are interested in the Mus musculus orthologs Bcl11a and Bcl11b (C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors), and understanding their role as molecular switches that control proliferation/differentiation decisions in muscle progenitor cells. Expression analysis revealed that Bcl11b, but not Bcl11a, is expressed in the region of the mouse embryo populated with myogenic progenitor cells; gene expression studies in muscle cell culture confirmed Bcl11b is also selectively transcribed in muscle. Furthermore, Bcl11b is down-regulated with differentiation, which is consistent with the belief that the gene plays a role in cell proliferation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-05

129471-Thumbnail Image.png

Transcriptomic Analysis of Tail Regeneration in the Lizard 'Anolis Carolinensis' Reveals Activation of Conserved Vertebrate Developmental and Repair Mechanisms

Description

Lizards, which are amniote vertebrates like humans, are able to lose and regenerate a functional tail. Understanding the molecular basis of this process would advance regenerative approaches in amniotes, including humans. We have carried out the first transcriptomic analysis of

Lizards, which are amniote vertebrates like humans, are able to lose and regenerate a functional tail. Understanding the molecular basis of this process would advance regenerative approaches in amniotes, including humans. We have carried out the first transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in a lizard, the green anole Anolis carolinensis, which revealed 326 differentially expressed genes activating multiple developmental and repair mechanisms. Specifically, genes involved in wound response, hormonal regulation, musculoskeletal development, and the Wnt and MAPK/FGF pathways were differentially expressed along the regenerating tail axis. Furthermore, we identified 2 microRNA precursor families, 22 unclassified non-coding RNAs, and 3 novel protein-coding genes significantly enriched in the regenerating tail. However, high levels of progenitor/stem cell markers were not observed in any region of the regenerating tail. Furthermore, we observed multiple tissue-type specific clusters of proliferating cells along the regenerating tail, not localized to the tail tip. These findings predict a different mechanism of regeneration in the lizard than the blastema model described in the salamander and the zebrafish, which are anamniote vertebrates. Thus, lizard tail regrowth involves the activation of conserved developmental and wound response pathways, which are potential targets for regenerative medical therapies.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2014-08-20

137310-Thumbnail Image.png

Validation and Characterization of Novel FCHSD2 Translocations Identified in Multiple Myeloma

Description

Multiple myeloma is a genetically heterogeneous disease, which can be divided into several genetic subtypes based upon gene expression profiles and chromosomal abnormalities. Unlike older techniques employed in myeloma research, such as cytogenetics, FISH, and microarray technologies, RNA sequencing offers

Multiple myeloma is a genetically heterogeneous disease, which can be divided into several genetic subtypes based upon gene expression profiles and chromosomal abnormalities. Unlike older techniques employed in myeloma research, such as cytogenetics, FISH, and microarray technologies, RNA sequencing offers a unique approach to examine the aforementioned genetic characteristics in that it allows for gene expression profiling and the detection of novel fusion transcripts arising from chromosomal rearrangements. This study utilized RNA sequencing to analyze the transcriptomes of 84 multiple myeloma patients and 69 human myeloma cell lines. FCHSD2 was found to be involved in five novel fusion events along with known oncogenes, MMSET and MYC, as well as three previously unreported genes in myeloma, including CHMP4B, NCF2, and CARNS1. An analysis of FCHSD2 expression within myeloma cell lines indicated that it is highly expressed in comparison to other tissues, suggesting that FCHSD2 translocations could lead to promoter replacement events in which the expression of partnering genes is dysregulated. The presence of the five FCHSD2 hybrid transcripts was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Overexpression of the FCHSD2 fusion transcripts in HEK293 cells resulted in the production of N-terminally truncated fusion partner proteins and a novel FCHSD2-CARNS1 fusion protein.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-05

132080-Thumbnail Image.png

Analysis of Numb 3’ UTR in Mouse Skeletal Muscle

Description

The Numb gene encodes an adaptor protein that has been shown to play a role in muscle repair, cell proliferation, and the determination of cell fate in satellite cells. Ablation of this gene in satellite cells results in an up-regulation

The Numb gene encodes an adaptor protein that has been shown to play a role in muscle repair, cell proliferation, and the determination of cell fate in satellite cells. Ablation of this gene in satellite cells results in an up-regulation of myostatin and p21, which inhibit the proliferation of myoblasts. These results indicate that the regulation of numb and myostatin could be used to amplify muscle regeneration. This would function as a therapeutic approach to degenerative muscle diseases, such as muscular dystrophy. There are four mammalian NUMB proteins produced through alternative splicing of the Numb mRNA transcript. Only two isoforms are present in adult mammalian muscle, indicating some form of muscle-specific post-transcriptional control of the gene. Additionally, the presence of two polyadenylation sites, and multiple miRNA seed sequences within the 3’ untranslated region (UTR) of mouse Numb indicate the possibility of regulation by a muscle specific miRNA.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-12

137233-Thumbnail Image.png

A Histological Analysis of Cell Proliferation Patterns in the Regenerating Tail of the Lizard, Anolis carolinensis

Description

While a number of vertebrates, including fishes, salamanders, frogs, and lizards, display regenerative capacity, the process is not necessarily the same. It has been proposed that regeneration, while evolutionarily conserved, has diverged during evolution. However, the extent to which the

While a number of vertebrates, including fishes, salamanders, frogs, and lizards, display regenerative capacity, the process is not necessarily the same. It has been proposed that regeneration, while evolutionarily conserved, has diverged during evolution. However, the extent to which the mechanisms of regeneration have changed between taxa still remains elusive. In the salamander limb, cells dedifferentiate to a more plastic state and aggregate in the distal portion of the appendage to form a blastema, which is responsible for outgrowth and tissue development. In contrast, no such mechanism has been identified in lizards, and it is unclear to what extent evolutionary divergence between amniotes and anamniotes has altered this mechanism. Anolis carolinensis lizards are capable of regenerating their tails after stress-induced autotomy or self-amputation. In this investigation, the distribution of proliferating cells in early A. carolinensis tail regeneration was visualized by immunohistochemistry to examine the location and quantity of proliferating cells. An aggregate of proliferating cells at the distal region of the regenerate is considered indicative of blastema formation. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and minichromosome maintenance complex component 2 (MCM2) were utilized as proliferation markers. Positive cells were counted for each tail (n=9, n=8 respectively). The percent of proliferating cells at the tip and base of the regenerating tail were compared with a one-way ANOVA statistical test. Both markers showed no significant difference (P=0.585, P=0.603 respectively) indicating absence of a blastema-like structure. These results suggest an alternative mechanism of regeneration in lizards and potentially other amniotes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-05

150510-Thumbnail Image.png

Regulation of satellite cells during skeletal muscle repair and regeneration

Description

Postnatal skeletal muscle repair is dependent on the tight regulation of an adult stem cell population known as satellite cells. In response to injury, these quiescent cells are activated, proliferate and express skeletal muscle-specific genes. The majority of satellite cells

Postnatal skeletal muscle repair is dependent on the tight regulation of an adult stem cell population known as satellite cells. In response to injury, these quiescent cells are activated, proliferate and express skeletal muscle-specific genes. The majority of satellite cells will fuse to damaged fibers or form new muscle fibers, while a subset will return to a quiescent state, where they are available for future rounds of repair. Robust muscle repair is dependent on the signals that regulate the mutually exclusive decisions of differentiation and self-renewal. A likely candidate for regulating this process is NUMB, an inhibitor of Notch signaling pathway that has been shown to asymmetrically localize in daughter cells undergoing cell fate decisions. In order to study the role of this protein in muscle repair, an inducible knockout of Numb was made in mice. Numb deficient muscle had a defective repair response to acute induced damage as characterized by smaller myofibers, increased collagen deposition and infiltration of fibrotic cells. Satellite cells isolated from Numb-deficient mice show decreased proliferation rates. Subsequent analyses of gene expression demonstrated that these cells had an aberrantly up-regulated Myostatin (Mstn), an inhibitor of myoblast proliferation. Further, this defect could be rescued with Mstn specific siRNAs. These data indicate that NUMB is necessary for postnatal muscle repair and early proliferative expansion of satellite cells. We used an evolutionary compatible to examine processes controlling satellite cell fate decisions, primary satellite cell lines were generated from Anolis carolinensis. This green anole lizard is evolutionarily the closet animal to mammals that forms de novo muscle tissue while undergoing tail regeneration. The mechanism of regeneration in anoles and the sources of stem cells for skeletal muscle, cartilage and nerves are poorly understood. Thus, satellite cells were isolated from A. carolinensis and analyzed for their plasticity. Anole satellite cells show increased plasticity as compared to mouse as determined by expression of key markers specific for bone and cartilage without administration of exogenous morphogens. These novel data suggest that satellite cells might contribute to more than muscle in tail regeneration of A. carolinensis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012