Matching Items (13)

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An Investigation of Human Error Correction in Anthropomorphic Robotic Armatures

Description

As robots become more prevalent, the need is growing for efficient yet stable control systems for applications with humans in the loop. As such, it is a challenge for scientists

As robots become more prevalent, the need is growing for efficient yet stable control systems for applications with humans in the loop. As such, it is a challenge for scientists and engineers to develop robust and agile systems that are capable of detecting instability in teleoperated systems. Despite how much research has been done to characterize the spatiotemporal parameters of human arm motions for reaching and gasping, not much has been done to characterize the behavior of human arm motion in response to control errors in a system. The scope of this investigation is to investigate human corrective actions in response to error in an anthropomorphic teleoperated robot limb. Characterizing human corrective actions contributes to the development of control strategies that are capable of mitigating potential instabilities inherent in human-machine control interfaces. Characterization of human corrective actions requires the simulation of a teleoperated anthropomorphic armature and the comparison of a human subject's arm kinematics, in response to error, against the human arm kinematics without error. This was achieved using OpenGL software to simulate a teleoperated robot arm and an NDI motion tracking system to acquire the subject's arm position and orientation. Error was intermittently and programmatically introduced to the virtual robot's joints as the subject attempted to reach for several targets located around the arm. The comparison of error free human arm kinematics to error prone human arm kinematics revealed an addition of a bell shaped velocity peak into the human subject's tangential velocity profile. The size, extent, and location of the additional velocity peak depended on target location and join angle error. Some joint angle and target location combinations do not produce an additional peak but simply maintain the end effector velocity at a low value until the target is reached. Additional joint angle error parameters and degrees of freedom are needed to continue this investigation.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Simple Method for Estimating Shaft-Power Gas Turbine Off-Design Point Performance

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This thesis is concerned with off-design performance of gas turbines using the program GasTurb12. The thesis provides basic background research into gas turbine performance and an extensive discussion about off-design

This thesis is concerned with off-design performance of gas turbines using the program GasTurb12. The thesis provides basic background research into gas turbine performance and an extensive discussion about off-design performance. The program GasTurb12 is used to perform design point calculations to verify the program against known textbook results and to perform a detailed off-design analysis based on a formulated problem statement. The results in GasTurb12 showed good correlation with the textbook results and the detailed off-design analysis provides valuable information about gas turbine design. An implementation strategy has been suggested to not only research further uses of GasTurb12, but also to incorporate it into undergraduate curriculum. It is recommended to further evaluate the capabilities of GasTurb12 to verify the program with real gas turbine systems.

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  • 2013-05

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Feasibility Study of the Integration of Asphalt Heat Energy Power Generation for Heat Mitigation Purposes at Arizona State University

Description

The heat island effect has resulted in an observational increase in averave ambient as well as surface temperatures and current photovoltaic implementation do not migitate this effect. Thus, the feasibility

The heat island effect has resulted in an observational increase in averave ambient as well as surface temperatures and current photovoltaic implementation do not migitate this effect. Thus, the feasibility and performance of alternative solutions are explored and determined using theoretical, computational data.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

Trebuchet Mechanics: Modeling and Optimization of the Trebuchet

Description

Abstract A study was conducted on three models of the medieval siege engine, the trebuchet. The three models analyzed were the "see-saw", the hinged, and the floating arm trebuchet. Of

Abstract A study was conducted on three models of the medieval siege engine, the trebuchet. The three models analyzed were the "see-saw", the hinged, and the floating arm trebuchet. Of these models, the mathematical model of each was determined. With his model, the most efficient model was determined to be the floating arm trebuchet, with a range efficiency of 0.8275 and an energy efficiency of 0.8526. The hinged trebuchet achieved efficiencies of 0.8065 for both range and energy efficiency and the "see-saw" with efficiencies of only 0.567 and 0.570, respectively. Then, the floating arm trebuchet's arm length ratio and sling length were then optimized. It was determined that the optimal arm length ratio was approximately 1:2, where the short arm is 1.7 feet and the long arm is 3.3 feet. The optimized sling length was 4.45 feet. Finally, the mathematical models were compared to full scale models. These ranges of the full scale models were surprisingly accurate with what was predicted. The hinged trebuchet model had the largest percentage error at 8.4%.

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  • 2013-05

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Can Best Value Practices Be Applied To Create Higher Performance In Student-run/Volunteer Developmental Engineering Projects

Description

In this paper, the impact of running a Best Value system in a student-run/volunteer group is measured, documented, and analyzed. The group being used for this test is the Arizona

In this paper, the impact of running a Best Value system in a student-run/volunteer group is measured, documented, and analyzed. The group being used for this test is the Arizona State University Society of Automotive Engineers Formula Team. The Arizona State University Society of Automotive Engineers Formula Team has participated in national Formula SAE competitions since at least 1992, however, in the last twenty years, the team has only been able to produce one car that was able to finish the competition on time. In a similar time period, Best Value has been successfully tested on over 1860 professional projects with a 95% satisfaction rating. Using the Best Value approach to increase transparency and accountability through simple metrics and documentation, the 2016 Arizona State University Society of Automotive Engineers Formula Team was able to complete their car in 278 days. In comparison, it took 319 days for the 2015 team and 286 for the average collegiate team. This is an improvement of 13% when compared to the 2015 team and 3% when compared to the average collegiate team. With these results it can be deduced that the Best Value approach is a viable method for improving efficiency of student-run and volunteer organizations. It is the recommendation of this report that the Arizona State University Society of Automotive Engineers Formula Team continue to utilize Best Value practices and run this system again each year moving forward. This consistent documentation should result in continuous improvement in the time required to complete the car as well as its quality.

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  • 2016-05

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E-bike Retrofitting Kit

Description

The goal of this honors thesis creative project was to design, manufacture and test a retrofitted E-bike kit that met certain stated design objections. To design a successful E-bike kit,

The goal of this honors thesis creative project was to design, manufacture and test a retrofitted E-bike kit that met certain stated design objections. To design a successful E-bike kit, the needs of the customer were researched and turned into measurable engineering requirements. For the biker, these requirements are speed, range, cost and simplicity. The approach is outlined similarly to the capstone program here at ASU. There is an introduction in sections 1 and 2 which gives the motivation and an overview of the project done. In section 3, the voice of the customer is discussed and converted into requirements. In sections 4, 5,6,7 and 8 the design process is described. Section 4 is the conceptual design where multiple concepts are narrowed down to one design. Section 5 is the preliminary design, where the design parts are specified and optimized to fit requirements. Section 6 is fabrication and assembly which gives details into how the product was manufactured and built. Sections 7 and 8 are the testing and validation sections where tests were carried out to verify that the requirements were met. Sections 9 and 10 were part of the conclusion in which recommendations and the project conclusions are depicted. In general, I produced a successful prototype. Each phase of the design came with its own issues and solutions but in the end a functioning bike was delivered. There were a few design options considered before selecting the final design. The rear-drive friction design was selected based on its price, simplicity and performance. The design was optimized in the preliminary design phase and items were purchased. The purchased items were either placed on the bike directly or had to be manufactured in some way. Once the assembly was completed, testing and validation took place to verify that the design met the requirements. Unfortunately, the prototype did not meet all the requirements. The E-bike had a maximum speed of 14.86 mph and a range of 12.75 miles which were below the performance requirements of 15 mph and 15 miles. The cost was $41.67 over the goal of $300 although the total costs remained under budget. At the end of the project, I delivered a functioning E-bike retrofitting kit on the day of the defense. While it did not meet the requirements fully, there was much room for improvement and optimization within the design.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Design and Analysis of an Exhaust System for a Four Cylinder Engine

Description

Formula SAE is a student design competition where students design and fabricate a formula-style racecar to race in a series of events against schools from around the world. It gives

Formula SAE is a student design competition where students design and fabricate a formula-style racecar to race in a series of events against schools from around the world. It gives students of all majors the ability to use classroom theory and knowledge in a real world application. The general guidelines for the prototype racecars is for the students to use four-stroke, Otto cycle piston engines with a displacement of no greater than 610cc. A 20mm air restrictor downstream the throttle limits the power of the engines to under 100 horsepower. A 178-page rulebook outlines the remaining restrictions as they apply to the various vehicle systems: vehicle dynamics, driver interface, aerodynamics, and engine. Vehicle dynamics is simply the study of the forces which affect wheeled vehicles in motion. Its primary components are the chassis and suspension system. Driver interface controls everything that the driver interacts with including steering wheel, seat, pedals, and shifter. Aerodynamics refers to the outside skin of the vehicle which controls the amount of drag and downforce on the vehicle. Finally, the engine consists of the air intake, engine block, cooling system, and the exhaust. The exhaust is one of the most important pieces of an engine that is often overlooked in racecar design. The purpose of the exhaust is to control the removal of the combusted air-fuel mixture from the engine cylinders. The exhaust as well as the intake is important because they govern the flow into and out of the engine's cylinders (Heywood 231). They are especially important in racecar design because they have a great impact on the power produced by an engine. The higher the airflow through the cylinders, the larger amount of fuel that can be burned and consequently, the greater amount of power the engine can produce. In the exhaust system, higher airflow is governed by several factors. A good exhaust design gives and engine a higher volumetric efficiency through the exhaust scavenging effect. Volumetric efficiency is also affected by frictional losses. In addition, the system should ideally be lightweight, and easily manufacturable. Arizona State University's Formula SAE racecar uses a Honda F4i Engine from a CBR 600 motorcycle. It is a four cylinder Otto cycle engine with a 600cc displacement. An ideal or tuned exhaust system for this car would maximize the negative gauge pressure during valve overlap at the ideal operating rpm. Based on the typical track layout for the Formula SAE design series, an ideal exhaust system would be optimized for 7500 rpm and work well in the range

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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An Experimental Study of the Effect of Induction and Exhaust Systems on a Vehicle's Fuel Efficiency

Description

This thesis focuses on the effects of an engine's induction and exhaust systems on vehicle fuel efficiency, along with the challenges accompanying improvement of this parameter. The aim of the

This thesis focuses on the effects of an engine's induction and exhaust systems on vehicle fuel efficiency, along with the challenges accompanying improvement of this parameter. The aim of the project was to take an unconventional approach by investigating potential methods of increasing fuel economy via change of these systems outside the engine, as finding substantial gains via this method negates the need to alter engine architectures, potentially saving manufacturers research and development costs. The ultimate goal was to determine the feasibility of modifying induction and exhaust systems to increase fuel efficiency via reduction of engine pumping losses and increase in volumetric efficiency, with the hope that this research can aid others researching engine design in both educational and commercial settings. The first step toward achieving this goal was purchasing a test vehicle and performing experimental fuel efficiency testing on the unmodified, properly serviced specimen. A test route was devised to provide for a well-rounded fuel efficiency measurement for each trial. After stock vehicle trials were completed, the vehicle was to be taken out of service for a turbocharger system installation; unfortunately, challenges arose that could not be rectified within the project timeframe, and this portion of the project was aborted, to be investigated in the future. This decision was made after numerous fitment and construction issues with prefabricated turbo conversion parts were found, including induction and exhaust pipe size problems and misalignments, kit component packaging issues such as intercooler dimensions being too large, as well as manufacturing oversights, like failure to machine flanges flat for sealing and specification of incorrect flange sizes for mating components. After returning the vehicle to stock condition by removing the partially installed turbocharger system, the next step in the project was then installation of high-flow induction and exhaust systems on the test vehicle, followed by fuel efficiency testing using the same procedure as during the first portion of the experiment. After analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data collected during this thesis project, several conclusions were made. First, the replacement of stock intake and exhaust systems with high-flow variants did make for a statistically significant increase in fuel efficiency, ranging between 10 and 20 percent on a 95% confidence interval. Average fuel efficiency of the test vehicle rose from 21.66 to 24.90 MPG, an impressive increase considering the relative simplicity of the modifications. The tradeoff made was in noise produced by the vehicle; while the high-flow induction system only resulted in increased noise under very high-load circumstances, the high-flow exhaust system created additional noise under numerous load conditions, limiting the market applicability for this system. The most ideal vehicle type for this type of setup is sports/enthusiast cars, as increased noise is often considered a desirable addition to the driving experience; light trucks also represent an excellent application opportunity for these systems, as noise is not a primary concern in production of these vehicles. Finally, it was found that investing in high-flow induction and exhaust systems may not be a wise investment at the consumer level due to the lengthy payoff period, but for manufacturers, these systems represent a lucrative opportunity to increase fuel efficiency, potentially boosting sales and profits, as well as allowing the company to more easily meet federal CAFE standards in America. After completion of this project, there are several further research directions that could be taken to expand upon what was learned. The fuel efficiency improvements realized by installing high-flow induction and exhaust systems together on a vehicle were experimentally measured during testing; determining the individual effects of each of these systems installed on a vehicle would be the next logical research step within the same vein. Noise, vibration, and harshness increases after installing these systems were also noticed during experimental trials, so another future research direction could be an investigation into reducing these unwanted effects of high-flow systems. Finally, turbocharging to increase a vehicle's fuel efficiency, the original topic of this thesis, is another very important, contemporary issue in the world of improving vehicle fuel efficiency, and with manufacturers consistently moving toward turbocharged platform development, is a prime research topic in this area of study. In conclusion, the results from this thesis project exhibit that high-flow induction and exhaust systems can substantially improve a vehicle's fuel efficiency without modifying any internal engine components. This idea of improving a vehicle's fuel economy from outside the engine will ideally be further researched, such as by investigating turbocharger systems and their ability to improve fuel efficiency, as well as be developed and implemented by others in their educational projects and commercial products.

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  • 2016-12

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Method to Systematically Optimize the Formula Society of Automotive Engineering Race Car

Description

The purpose of this paper is to provide a new and improved design method for the Formula Society of Automotive Engineering (FSAE) team. There are five tasks that I accomplish

The purpose of this paper is to provide a new and improved design method for the Formula Society of Automotive Engineering (FSAE) team. There are five tasks that I accomplish in this paper: 1. I describe how the FSAE team is currently designing their car. This allows the reader to understand where the flaws might arise in their design method. 2. I then describe the key aspects of systems engineering design. This is the backbone of the method I am proposing, and it is important to understand the key concepts so that they can be applied to the FSAE design method. 3. I discuss what is available in the literature about race car design and optimization. I describe what other FSAE teams are doing and how that differs from systems engineering design. 4. I describe what the FSAE team at Arizona State University (ASU) should do to improve their approach to race car design. I go into detail about how the systems engineering method works and how it can and should be applied to the way they design their car. 5. I then describe how the team should implement this method because the method is useless if they do not implement it into their design process. I include an interview from their brakes team leader, Colin Twist, to give an example of their current method of design and show how it can be improved with the new method. This paper provides a framework for the FSAE team to develop their new method of design that will help them accomplish their overall goal of succeeding at the national competition.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Viability of Solar Stills for Desalination

Description

This thesis investigates the viability of a solar still for desalination of a personal water supply. The end goal of the project is to create a design that meets the

This thesis investigates the viability of a solar still for desalination of a personal water supply. The end goal of the project is to create a design that meets the output requirement while tailoring the components to focus on low cost so it would be feasible in the impoverished areas of the world. The primary requirement is an output of 3 liters of potable water per day, the minimum necessary for an adult human. The study examines the effect of several design parameters, such as the basin material, basin thickness, starting water depth, basin dimensions, cover material, cover angle, and cover thickness. A model for the performance of a solar still was created in MATLAB to simulate the system's behavior and sensitivity to these parameters. An instrumented prototype solar still demonstrated viability of the concept and provided data for validation of the MATLAB model.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05