Matching Items (21)

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Perceptions of Relationships: A comparison of Sugar Baby/Sugar Daddy, Same-sex, and Heterosexual Couplings

Description

Abstract The current study examined how people perceive three different types of relationships: Sugar Baby/Sugar Daddy (SB/SD) relationships, same-sex relationships, and heterosexual relationships. In an online survey, undergraduate students rated

Abstract The current study examined how people perceive three different types of relationships: Sugar Baby/Sugar Daddy (SB/SD) relationships, same-sex relationships, and heterosexual relationships. In an online survey, undergraduate students rated these different types of couplings on overall general view, acceptability and approval. Additionally, survey participants were asked to complete measures of religiosity and socio-sexual orientation to investigate whether these individual measures moderated ratings. Overall, SB/SD relationships were rated the most negatively, least acceptable, and least approved of out of the three relationship types. Following SB/SD relationships are same-sex relationships and then lastly heterosexual relationships. Higher religiosity scores led to lower general views, acceptability, and approval ratings of SB/SD relationships. The opposite pattern emerged for socio-sexuality such that higher socio-sexuality scores correlated to higher general views, acceptability, and approval ratings of SB/SD relationships. The findings suggest that societal views toward alternative relationship types are negative, relative to traditional heterosexual couplings, and these views may be exacerbated in the case of more, as opposed to less novel pairings. Just as cross-race and same-sex relationships have faced adversity in the past (Testa, 1987), newer types of relationships, such as SB/SD, that don't follow traditional conventions are still bound to face negativity. Moreover, these views are not monolithic in that individual differences based on religiosity and socio-sexuality lead to variation in judgments. The data presented herein represent an initial exploration of SB/SD relationships, a phenomenon that is increasing in frequency and about which many questions remain. Keywords: Sugar baby, Sugar daddy, same-sex, relationship, perceptions

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Personality and Belief: Examining the Associations between the Big Five and Philosophy Dichotomy Test

Description

Personality is a relevant and applicable research topic now more than ever; because of the Internet, self-report measures of personality are becoming increasingly accessible. Although now widely available for personal

Personality is a relevant and applicable research topic now more than ever; because of the Internet, self-report measures of personality are becoming increasingly accessible. Although now widely available for personal application, personality inventories are not often examined in the context of their associations with other factors. Specifically, there exists a gap in the research on personality and its associations with philosophical belief. Based on a sample of 88 individuals, correlations between the Big Five and Philosophy Dichotomy Test were examined in order to investigate the associations between personality traits and philosophical belief. Agreeableness was found to be negatively associated with the sensuality, values, metaphysical, and societal axes, corresponding to higher levels of hedonism, rationalism, materialism, and egoism. These findings suggest that personality as measured by the Big Five and philosophical belief are somewhat associated. Limitations and future directions are presented.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Effects of message planning on support message effectiveness, nonverbal behaviors, and supporter stress and anxiety

Description

Emotional support messages can benefit recipients; however, verbal and nonverbal aspects of these messages can vary in effectiveness, and the process of communicating support can be stressful to some supporters.

Emotional support messages can benefit recipients; however, verbal and nonverbal aspects of these messages can vary in effectiveness, and the process of communicating support can be stressful to some supporters. One potential behavior that may yield more effective support messages for recipients while reducing anxiety and stress for supporters is message planning. Thus, planning theory is used to test whether planning influences message effectiveness, nonverbal delivery of messages, self-reported anxiety, and physiological stress markers. Additionally, an individual’s trait-level reticence and prior support experiences are predicted to moderate the effects of message planning. One hundred laboratory participants were assigned to either a planning condition or writing distraction task and completed a series of self-report and physiological measures before, during, and after recording an emotional support message to a friend who had hypothetically been diagnosed with a serious form of cancer. Subsequently, a sample of one hundred cancer patients viewed the laboratory participants’ videos to provide message effectiveness ratings and four trained coders provided data on nonverbal behaviors from these recorded messages. Findings showed planning leads to more effective messages; however, it also leads to supporters engaging in success bias and inflation bias. Planning also increased vocal fluency, but not other nonverbal behaviors. Likewise, planning attenuated heart rate reactivity, but not other physiological markers. In general, experience and reticence did not moderate these main effects. Theoretical, practical, clinical, pedagogical, and methodological implications are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Coping with stress associated with anticipated stigma: the role of dyadic coping for married undergraduate students

Description

Being married as an undergraduate student is uncommon, considering the average age people marry in the U.S. is 28-years-old. Given that the “traditional” undergraduate student is unmarried, being a married

Being married as an undergraduate student is uncommon, considering the average age people marry in the U.S. is 28-years-old. Given that the “traditional” undergraduate student is unmarried, being a married undergraduate student may be associated with the anticipation of stigma due to their marital status, which may be a stressful experience (hereafter-anticipated stigma stress) and have harmful effects on one’s well-being, particularly symptoms of anxiety. As such, it is important to identify ways in which romantic partners can help one another cope with this unique stressor by engaging in positive or negative dyadic coping (DC). Using cross-sectional data from 151 married undergraduate students, this project examined whether perceptions of partner’s positive and negative DC moderated the association between anticipated stigma stress and symptoms of anxiety. There was a significant main effect of anticipated stigma stress on anxiety, such that higher anticipated stigma stress was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety. Delegated DC moderated this association, such that when participants reported high levels of anticipated stigma stress, those who reported higher partner’s use of delegated DC also reported higher symptoms of anxiety as compared to those who reported low partner’s use of delegated DC. Implications for future research and mental health counselors are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Emerging adults and their helicopter parents: communication quality as mediator between affect and stress

Description

With the establishment of the emerging adult developmental period and the rise of helicopter parents, attachment theory provides foundation for conceptualizing the continued involvement of helicopter parents in their emerging

With the establishment of the emerging adult developmental period and the rise of helicopter parents, attachment theory provides foundation for conceptualizing the continued involvement of helicopter parents in their emerging adults’ emotion regulation processes. This study utilized dyadic data from 66 emerging adult children and their helicopter parents to examine the association of helicopter parent-emerging adult communication in mitigating the associations between experiences of affect and stress. Specifically, the purpose of the present study was to use dyadic data to examine how communication within the helicopter parent-emerging adult relationship associates with emerging adults’ ability to regulate experiences of negative and positive affect. Both associations within the emerging adult and helicopter parent individually (actor effects) and how helicopter parents impact construct associations for emerging adults’ (partner effects) were considered.

Two multilevel mediation models using Actor-Partner Interdependence Models were conducted to assess the relations between affect, stress, and helicopter parent-emerging adult communication quality for negative and positive affect separately. The positive direct effect between negative affect and stress was statistically significant for emerging adults, but not for helicopter parents, suggesting that, for emerging adults, higher perceptions of negative affect were associated with higher levels of stress. The direct and indirect effects for the mediation model examining actor and partner effects between negative affect, communication quality, and stress were non-significant for both emerging adults and helicopter parents. The direct effect between positive affect and stress was statistically significant for helicopter parents but not for emerging adults; however, the directionality of the significant association was positive and not as hypothesized. Finally, the direct and indirect effects for the mediation model examining actor and partner effects between positive affect, communication quality, and stress were non-significant for emerging adults and helicopter parents. Considerations for future studies examining aspects of attachment within emotion regulation for the helicopter parent-emerging adult relationship and the importance of considering relationship characteristics, such the relational characteristics of social support and conflict, are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Associations between dyadic coping and interaction quality: the mediating effect of couples' language use during real-time conversations

Description

Stress in romantic relationships is an all-too-common phenomenon that has detrimental effects on relationship well-being. Specifically, stress can increase partners’ negative interactions, ultimately decreasing effective communication and overall relationship functioning.

Stress in romantic relationships is an all-too-common phenomenon that has detrimental effects on relationship well-being. Specifically, stress can increase partners’ negative interactions, ultimately decreasing effective communication and overall relationship functioning. Positive dyadic coping (DC) occurs when one partner assists the other in coping with stress (e.g. empathizing or helping the partner problem-solve solutions to their stress), and has been proposed as a method of buffering the deleterious effect of stress on interaction quality. One possible mechanism between the positive associations between DC and interaction quality could be how partners verbally express their support (e.g., more we-talk) during discussions about external stress. Using real-time interaction data from 40 heterosexual couples, this project examined whether observed positive and negative DC was associated with greater (or lesser) levels of perceived interaction quality. Further, language use (i.e., pronouns, emotion words, cognition words) was assessed as mediators in the associations between DC and interaction quality. Overall, results suggested that language did not mediate the effect of DC on interaction quality; however, there were several interesting links between DC, language, and interaction quality. Implications of these findings for relationship researchers and mental health clinicians working with couples are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Intercultural couples' stress: impact of dyadic coping on relationship satisfaction

Description

Intercultural couples -partners from two different countries- may face increased levels of stress within their relationship (internal stress). Internal stress can negatively impact relationship satisfaction, whereas developing healthy ways to

Intercultural couples -partners from two different countries- may face increased levels of stress within their relationship (internal stress). Internal stress can negatively impact relationship satisfaction, whereas developing healthy ways to cope (dyadic coping; DC) can lower stress levels and improve relationship satisfaction (e.g., Bodenmann, 2005). Specifically, it may be important for partners to perceive that their partner as supporting them during times of stress through engaging in DC. This study examined whether intercultural couples experience internal stress and what effects, if any, perceived partner engagement in DC had on their reported relationship satisfaction. Cross-sectional data was gathered from 85 couples and was analyzed using Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (APIMs; Kenny & Cook, 1999). Separate APIMs were conducted to examine the association between the independent variables (perceived partner engagement in: positive DC, negative DC, delegated DC, and supportive DC) and the outcome variables of internal stress and relationship satisfaction, while controlling for years each partner lived in their country of birth, average and differences on identification with individualism-collectivism values and behaviors, and if partners did or did not identify as the same race and/or ethnicity. Additionally, APIMs of internal stress on relationship as moderated by perceived partner positive and negative DC were conducted. Results showed significant associations of all independent variables on internal stress and relationship satisfaction. There were no signification interactions between internal stress and DC on relationship satisfaction. Implications for relationship researchers and mental health professionals working with intercultural couples are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Experimental evaluation of internet-based stress inoculation for adult children of divorce

Description

Descriptions of gray divorce often include consequences for young adult children who are increasingly being left to cope with their parents’ decision. Adult children of divorce may experience different stressors

Descriptions of gray divorce often include consequences for young adult children who are increasingly being left to cope with their parents’ decision. Adult children of divorce may experience different stressors and reactions than younger children especially during holidays; moreover, their increased social awareness leaves their parental relationship vulnerable to rupture as a result of pressure to choose sides. Interventions for helping young adults cope with their parents’ break-up are rarely described, much less evaluated. An online delivery format would be especially well-suited given the possibility of in-home participation at any time of day with privacy assured and negligible cost. We thus developed and experimentally evaluated Transitions, a two week internet-based program organized around a classic stress inoculation framework. The goals of Transitions are to foster stress-coping skills and to improve parent-child relationships throughout the divorce process. Our study was restricted to young adult college students (N = 95) who had experienced parental separation or divorce within the past year, and who were not receiving psychological services elsewhere. Participants were screened and randomly assigned to experimental and delayed-treatment control conditions; a priori analyses indicated sufficient power to detect large effects. During the first week of Transitions, participants received psychoeducation, training in progressive muscle relaxation, and a cognitive restructuring curriculum derived from Ellis and Beck. The second week began with a review and then introduced mindfulness meditation and communication skills. Practice sessions were embedded throughout the curriculum and simulations were specific to experiences of parental divorce. Videos of young college graduates sharing personal stories about their parents’ divorce were streamed between each module. Comprehension of the content presented in Transitions was monitored and coded for partial or full completion of the program. Outcome measures were keyed to the nature of the clinical problem and interventions deployed. A repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (RM-MANOVA) yielded a significant interaction. Univariate follow-up ANOVAs showed significant improvement relative to controls on stress but not on relationship variables. Neither moderator nor intent-to-treat analyses altered this outcome pattern. Future research will focus on refining the stress reduction components of Transitions and improving its impact on relationships with parents.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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The Effect of Internalized Transphobia on the Association Between Gender Congruence and Sexual Satisfaction in Transgender Men

Description

Despite the population of transgender individuals in the United States doubling

from 2011 to 2016, this population is one of the most understudied in psychological

science. Of the available research,

Despite the population of transgender individuals in the United States doubling

from 2011 to 2016, this population is one of the most understudied in psychological

science. Of the available research, the associations between gender congruence, defined

as an individual’s body matching their gender identity, and well-being have been

examined, particularly demonstrating positive associations between gender congruence

and overall life satisfaction. However, there remains a dearth of research on the possible

associations between gender congruence and relational well-being - particularly sexual

satisfaction - and possible moderating effects of the internal negative feelings regarding

one’s identity (internalized transphobia). To address these gaps in the literature, this study

gathered data from 165 binary transgender men. While there was not an effect of gender

congruence on sexual satisfaction, internalized transphobia was found to moderate this

association such that individuals who reported high internalized transphobia and high

gender congruence reported the highest sexual satisfaction. Results of this study highlight

the existing literature on the negative associations between internalized transphobia and

well-being for transgender individuals. Implications for counselors are discussed,

including advocacy efforts and implementation of techniques to facilitate growth and

resilience to help transgender clients navigate the negative effects of internalized

transphobia.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Couples’ Conflict Through an Attachment Lens: A Brief, Theory-Driven Writing Intervention

Description

Emerging adulthood represents a liminal space between adolescence and adulthood. Attachment with a romantic partner is commonly developed during this time; however, the nature of the dating relationship often remains

Emerging adulthood represents a liminal space between adolescence and adulthood. Attachment with a romantic partner is commonly developed during this time; however, the nature of the dating relationship often remains ambiguous and/or undefined. Dating provides emerging adults the opportunity to develop their romantic competence and navigate these particular attachment relationships. Conflict, and how it is managed, is a critical variable during this time and differentiates between couples who progress in their relationship from those who terminate. What is more, partners may become stuck in destructive cycles, or patterns, of conflict (i.e., demand-withdrawal). Using the theoretical frameworks of attachment theory and emotionally focused couples therapy, this study’s goal it to examine the impact of a brief writing-intervention on relational quality, secure attachment behaviors (i.e., accessibility, responsiveness, and engagement) and attachment dimensions (i.e., anxiety, avoidance). Sixty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions for a two-wave study: (1) a treatment condition that was provided an educational presentation regarding couples’ negative cycles of interaction and attachment needs, followed by a guided writing task; (2) a comparison condition that only received the educational presentation; and (3) a control condition that received neither the educational presentation nor the writing task. Hypotheses proposed that participants in the treatment condition would experience increased relational quality, secure attachment behaviors (for both themselves and their partner), and greater secure attachment (i.e., decreased anxiety and avoidance) across time compared to the comparison and control conditions. Data did not support the hypotheses. These findings offer important implications for the development of future brief couples’ interventions and aim to generate future research.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020