Matching Items (54)

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Experimental Investigations and Machine Learning-Based Predictive Modeling of the Chemo-mechanical Characteristics of Ultra-High Performance Binders

Description

Ultra High Performance (UHP) cementitious binders are a class of cement-based materials with high strength and ductility, designed for use in precast bridge connections, bridge superstructures, high load-bearing structural members

Ultra High Performance (UHP) cementitious binders are a class of cement-based materials with high strength and ductility, designed for use in precast bridge connections, bridge superstructures, high load-bearing structural members like columns, and in structural repair and strengthening. This dissertation aims to elucidate the chemo-mechanical relationships in complex UHP binders to facilitate better microstructure-based design of these materials and develop machine learning (ML) models to predict their scale-relevant properties from microstructural information.To establish the connection between micromechanical properties and constitutive materials, nanoindentation and scanning electron microscopy experiments are performed on several cementitious pastes. Following Bayesian statistical clustering, mixed reaction products with scattered nanomechanical properties are observed, attributable to the low degree of reaction of the constituent particles, enhanced particle packing, and very low water-to-binder ratio of UHP binders. Relating the phase chemistry to the micromechanical properties, the chemical intensity ratios of Ca/Si and Al/Si are found to be important parameters influencing the incorporation of Al into the C-S-H gel.
ML algorithms for classification of cementitious phases are found to require only the intensities of Ca, Si, and Al as inputs to generate accurate predictions for more homogeneous cement pastes. When applied to more complex UHP systems, the overlapping chemical intensities in the three dominant phases – Ultra High Stiffness (UHS), unreacted cementitious replacements, and clinker – led to ML models misidentifying these three phases. Similarly, a reduced amount of data available on the hard and stiff UHS phases prevents accurate ML regression predictions of the microstructural phase stiffness using only chemical information. The use of generic virtual two-phase microstructures coupled with finite element analysis is also adopted to train MLs to predict composite mechanical properties. This approach applied to three different representations of composite materials produces accurate predictions, thus providing an avenue for image-based microstructural characterization of multi-phase composites such UHP binders. This thesis provides insights into the microstructure of the complex, heterogeneous UHP binders and the utilization of big-data methods such as ML to predict their properties. These results are expected to provide means for rational, first-principles design of UHP mixtures.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Using virtual testing for characterization of composite materials

Description

Composite materials are finally providing uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems applications – airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation systems. They

Composite materials are finally providing uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems applications – airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation systems. They have high strength-to-weight ratios, are durable and resistant to environmental effects, have high impact strength, and can be manufactured in a variety of shapes. Generalized constitutive models are being developed to accurately model composite systems so they can be used in implicit and explicit finite element analysis. These models require extensive characterization of the composite material as input. The particular constitutive model of interest for this research is a three-dimensional orthotropic elasto-plastic composite material model that requires a total of 12 experimental stress-strain curves, yield stresses, and Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s ratio in the material directions as input. Sometimes it is not possible to carry out reliable experimental tests needed to characterize the composite material. One solution is using virtual testing to fill the gaps in available experimental data. A Virtual Testing Software System (VTSS) has been developed to address the need for a less restrictive method to characterize a three-dimensional orthotropic composite material. The system takes in the material properties of the constituents and completes all 12 of the necessary characterization tests using finite element (FE) models. Verification and validation test cases demonstrate the capabilities of the VTSS.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Wind load analysis on a high-rise square-plan building

Description

Buildings and other structures, all components and cladding thereof, shall be designed and constructed to resist the wind loads are required in all wind codes. Simple quasi-static treatment of wind

Buildings and other structures, all components and cladding thereof, shall be designed and constructed to resist the wind loads are required in all wind codes. Simple quasi-static treatment of wind loads, which is universally applied to design of low to medium-rise structures, can be either overly conservative or erroneous under-estimated for design of high-rise structures. Dynamic response, vortex, wind directionality, and shedding from other structures are all complicated key factors suppose to be considered in design. Meanwhile, wind tunnel testing is expansive, difficult and sometimes inaccurate even if it is a widely used method in simulation of aerodynamic response. Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD), historically, were two-dimensional (2D) method using conformal transformations of the flow about a cylinder to the flow about an airfoil were developed in the 1930s. A number of three-dimensional (3D) codes were developed, leading to numerous commercial packages, which is more accessible and economical for wind load analysis.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Pore structure dependence of transport and fracture in pervious concretes

Description

Properties of random porous material such as pervious concrete are strongly dependant on its pore structure features. This research deals with the development of an understanding of the relationship between

Properties of random porous material such as pervious concrete are strongly dependant on its pore structure features. This research deals with the development of an understanding of the relationship between the material structure and the mechanical and functional properties of pervious concretes. The fracture response of pervious concrete specimens proportioned for different porosities, as a function of the pore structure features and fiber volume fraction, is studied. Stereological and morphological methods are used to extract the relevant pore structure features of pervious concretes from planar images. A two-parameter fracture model is used to obtain the fracture toughness (KIC) and critical crack tip opening displacement (CTODc) from load-crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) data of notched beams under three-point bending. The experimental results show that KIC is primarily dependent on the porosity of pervious concretes. For a similar porosity, an increase in pore size results in a reduction in KIC. At similar pore sizes, the effect of fibers on the post-peak response is more prominent in mixtures with a higher porosity, as shown by the residual load capacity, stress-crack extension relationships, and GR curves. These effects are explained using the mean free spacing of pores and pore-to-pore tortuosity in these systems. A sensitivity analysis is employed to quantify the influence of material design parameters on KIC. This research has also focused on studying the relationship between permeability and tortuosity as it pertains to porosity and pore size of pervious concretes. Various ideal geometric shapes were also constructed that had varying pore sizes and porosities. The pervious concretes also had differing pore sizes and porosities. The permeabilities were determined using three different methods; Stokes solver, Lattice Boltzmann method and the Katz-Thompson equation. These values were then compared to the tortuosity values determined using a Matlab code that uses a pore connectivity algorithm. The tortuosity was also determined from the inverse of the conductivity determined from a numerical analysis that was necessary for using the Katz-Thompson equation. These tortuosity values were then compared to the permeabilities. The pervious concretes and ideal geometric shapes showed consistent similarities betbetween their tortuosities and permeabilities.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Effects of Phase Transformations and Dynamic Material Strength on Hydrodynamic Instability Evolution in Metals

Description

Hydrodynamic phenomena such as the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities can be described by exponential/linear growth of surface perturbations at a bimaterial interface when subjected to constant/impulsive acceleration. A

Hydrodynamic phenomena such as the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities can be described by exponential/linear growth of surface perturbations at a bimaterial interface when subjected to constant/impulsive acceleration. A challenge in designing systems to mitigate or exploit these effects is the lack of accurate material models at large dynamic strain rates and pressures. In particular, little stress-strain constitutive information at large strain rates and pressures is available for transient material phases formed at high pressures, and the continuum effect the phase transformation process has on the instability evolution. In this work, a phase-aware isotropic strength model is developed and partially validated with a novel RM-based instability experiment in addition to existing data from the literature. With the validated material model additional simulations are performed to provide insight into to the role that robust material constitutive behavior (e.g., pressure, temperature, rate dependence) has on RM instability and how RM instability experiments can be used to characterize and validated expected material behavior. For phase aware materials, particularly iron in this work, the simulations predict a strong dependence on the Atwood number that single phase materials do not have. At Atwood numbers close to unity, and pressures in the high pressure stability region, the high pressure phase dominates the RM evolution. However, at Atwood numbers close to negative one, the RM evolution is only weakly affected by the high-pressure phase even for shocks well above the phase transformation threshold. In addition to RM evolution this work looks at the closely related shock front perturbation evolution. Existing analytical models for isentropic processes in gases and liquids are modified for metal equation of states and plastic behavior for the first time. It is found that the presence of a volume collapsing phase transformation with increased pressure causes shock front perturbations to decay sooner, while plastic strength has the opposite effect which is significantly different from the effect viscosity has. These results suggest additional experimental setups to validate material models, or relevant material parameters that can be optimized for system design objectives, e.g., minimize feed through perturbations in inertial confinement fusion capsules.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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A generalized orthotropic elasto-plastic material model for impact analysis

Description

Composite materials are now beginning to provide uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems such as airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation

Composite materials are now beginning to provide uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems such as airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation systems. These structural systems are often subjected to impact loads and there is a pressing need for accurate prediction of deformation, damage and failure. There are numerous material models that have been developed to analyze the dynamic impact response of polymer matrix composites. However, there are key features that are missing in those models that prevent them from providing accurate predictive capabilities. In this dissertation, a general purpose orthotropic elasto-plastic computational constitutive material model has been developed to predict the response of composites subjected to high velocity impacts. The constitutive model is divided into three components – deformation model, damage model and failure model, with failure to be added at a later date. The deformation model generalizes the Tsai-Wu failure criteria and extends it using a strain-hardening-based orthotropic yield function with a non-associative flow rule. A strain equivalent formulation is utilized in the damage model that permits plastic and damage calculations to be uncoupled and capture the nonlinear unloading and local softening of the stress-strain response. A diagonal damage tensor is defined to account for the directionally dependent variation of damage. However, in composites it has been found that loading in one direction can lead to damage in multiple coordinate directions. To account for this phenomena, the terms in the damage matrix are semi-coupled such that the damage in a particular coordinate direction is a function of the stresses and plastic strains in all of the coordinate directions. The overall framework is driven by experimental tabulated temperature and rate-dependent stress-strain data as well as data that characterizes the damage matrix and failure. The developed theory has been implemented in a commercial explicit finite element analysis code, LS-DYNA®, as MAT213. Several verification and validation tests using a commonly available carbon-fiber composite, Toyobo’s T800/F3900, have been carried and the results show that the theory and implementation are efficient, robust and accurate.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Experimental investigations and modeling of the strain sensing response of matrices containing metallic inclusions

Description

This study explores the possibility of two matrices containing metallic particulates to act as smart materials by sensing of strain due to the presence of the conducting particles in the

This study explores the possibility of two matrices containing metallic particulates to act as smart materials by sensing of strain due to the presence of the conducting particles in the matrix. The first matrix is a regular Portland cement-based one while the second is a novel iron-based, carbonated binder developed at ASU. Four different iron replacement percentages by volume (10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) in a Portland cement matrix were selected, whereas the best performing iron carbonate matrix developed was used. Electrical impedance spectroscopy was used to obtain the characteristic Nyquist plot before and after application of flexural load. Electrical circuit models were used to extract the changes in electrical properties under application of load. Strain sensing behavior was evaluated with respect to application of different stress levels and varying replacement levels of the inclusion. A similar approach was used to study the strain sensing capabilities of novel iron carbonate binder. It was observed that the strain sensing efficiency increased with increasing iron percentage and the resistivity increased with increase in load (or applied stress) for both the matrices. It is also found that the iron carbonate binder is more efficient in strain sensing as it had a higher gage factor when compared to the OPC matrix containing metallic inclusions.

Analytical equations (Maxwell) were used to extract frequency dependent electrical conductivity and permittivity of the cement paste (or the host matrix), interface, inclusion (iron) and voids to develop a generic electro-mechanical coupling model to for the strain sensing behavior. COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2a was used as finite element analysis software to develop the model. A MATLAB formulation was used to generate the microstructure with different volume fractions of inclusions. Material properties were assigned (the frequency dependent electrical parameters) and the coupled structural and electrical physics interface in COMSOL was used to model the strain sensing response. The experimental change in resistance matched well with the simulated values, indicating the applicability of the model to predict the strain sensing response of particulate composite systems.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Experimental Characterization and Finite Element Modeling of Composites to Support a Generalized Orthotropic Elasto-Plastic Damage Material Model for Impact Analysis

Description

An orthotropic elasto-plastic damage material model (OEPDMM) suitable for impact simulations has been developed through a joint research project funded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics

An orthotropic elasto-plastic damage material model (OEPDMM) suitable for impact simulations has been developed through a joint research project funded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Development of the model includes derivation of the theoretical details, implementation of the theory into LS-DYNA®, a commercially available nonlinear transient dynamic finite element code, as material model MAT 213, and verification and validation of the model. The material model is comprised of three major components: deformation, damage, and failure. The deformation sub-model is used to capture both linear and nonlinear deformations through a classical plasticity formulation. The damage sub-model is used to account for the reduction of elastic stiffness of the material as the degree of plastic strain is increased. Finally, the failure sub-model is used to predict the onset of loss of load carrying capacity in the material. OEPDMM is driven completely by tabulated experimental data obtained through physically meaningful material characterization tests, through high fidelity virtual tests, or both. The tabulated data includes stress-strain curves at different temperatures and strain rates to drive the deformation sub-model, damage parameter-total strain curves to drive the damage sub-model, and the failure sub-model can be driven by the data required for different failure theories implemented in the computer code. The work presented herein focuses on the experiments used to obtain the data necessary to drive as well as validate the material model, development and implementation of the damage model, verification of the deformation and damage models through single element (SE) and multi-element (ME) finite element simulations, development and implementation of experimental procedure for modeling delamination, and finally validation of the material model through low speed impact simulations and high speed impact simulations.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Nonlinear Reduced Order Modeling of Structures Exhibiting a Strong Nonlinearity

Description

The focus of this dissertation is first on understanding the difficulties involved in constructing reduced order models of structures that exhibit a strong nonlinearity/strongly nonlinear events such as snap-through, buckling

The focus of this dissertation is first on understanding the difficulties involved in constructing reduced order models of structures that exhibit a strong nonlinearity/strongly nonlinear events such as snap-through, buckling (local or global), mode switching, symmetry breaking. Next, based on this understanding, it is desired to modify/extend the current Nonlinear Reduced Order Modeling (NLROM) methodology, basis selection and/or identification methodology, to obtain reliable reduced order models of these structures. Focusing on these goals, the work carried out addressed more specifically the following issues:

i) optimization of the basis to capture at best the response in the smallest number of modes,

ii) improved identification of the reduced order model stiffness coefficients,

iii) detection of strongly nonlinear events using NLROM.

For the first issue, an approach was proposed to rotate a limited number of linear modes to become more dominant in the response of the structure. This step was achieved through a proper orthogonal decomposition of the projection on these linear modes of a series of representative nonlinear displacements. This rotation does not expand the modal space but renders that part of the basis more efficient, the identification of stiffness coefficients more reliable, and the selection of dual modes more compact. In fact, a separate approach was also proposed for an independent optimization of the duals. Regarding the second issue, two tuning approaches of the stiffness coefficients were proposed to improve the identification of a limited set of critical coefficients based on independent response data of the structure. Both approaches led to a significant improvement of the static prediction for the clamped-clamped curved beam model. Extensive validations of the NLROMs based on the above novel approaches was carried out by comparisons with full finite element response data. The third issue, the detection of nonlinear events, was finally addressed by building connections between the eigenvalues of the finite element software (Nastran here) and NLROM tangent stiffness matrices and the occurrence of the ‘events’ which is further extended to the assessment of the accuracy with which the NLROM captures the full finite element behavior after the event has occurred.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Analysis, simulation and measurements of CBS antennas loaded with non-uniformly biased ferrite material

Description

When ferrite materials are used in antenna designs, they introduce some interesting and unique performance characteristics. One of the attractive features, for example, is the ability to reconfigure the center

When ferrite materials are used in antenna designs, they introduce some interesting and unique performance characteristics. One of the attractive features, for example, is the ability to reconfigure the center frequency of the antenna. In addition, ferrite materials also introduce a number of challenges in the modeling and simulation of such antennas. In order for the ferrite material to be useful in an antenna design, it usually is subjected to an external magnetic field. This field induces the internal magnetic field inside the ferrite material. The internal field plays a pivotal role in the radiation characteristics of the antenna. Thus, from the numerical point of view, accurate computation of this field is critical to the overall accuracy of the analysis. Usually the internal field is non-uniform and its computation is often a rather complex and non-trivial task. Therefore, to facilitate the modeling, simplifying assumptions, which introduce some kind of averaging, are often made. In this study, ferrite-loaded cavity-backed slot antennas are used to demonstrate that averaging procedures can lead to very unsatisfactory results. For instance, it is common practice to assume that the external field is uniform by averaging its distribution. One of the pivotal points in this study is the demonstration that the external magnetic field plays a very significant role and should be included in the modeling without averaging, if the accurate results are to be attained. Results presented in this study clearly support this argument. A procedure which avoids such averaging is presented and verified by comparing simulations with measurements. In contrast to the previous formulations, the modeling methodology developed in this dissertation leads to accurate results which compare very well with measurements for both uniform and non-uniform field distributions. The utility of this methodology is especially evident for the case when the magnetic field is severely non-uniform.

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Date Created
  • 2012