Matching Items (28)

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Revealing anelasticity and structural rearrangements in nanoscale metallic glass films using in situ TEM diffraction

Description

We used a novel diffraction-based method to extract the local, atomic-level elastic strain in nanoscale amorphous TiAl films during in situ transmission electron microscopy deformation, while simultaneously measuring the macroscopic

We used a novel diffraction-based method to extract the local, atomic-level elastic strain in nanoscale amorphous TiAl films during in situ transmission electron microscopy deformation, while simultaneously measuring the macroscopic strain. The complementary strain measurements revealed significant anelastic deformation, which was independently confirmed by strain rate experiments. Furthermore, the distribution of first nearest-neighbor distances became narrower during loading and permanent changes were observed in the atomic structure upon unloading, even in the absence of macroscopic plasticity. The results demonstrate the capability of in situ electron diffraction to probe structural rearrangements and decouple elastic and anelastic deformation in metallic glasses.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-09-22

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Electron Beam Induced Artifacts During in situ TEM Deformation of Nanostructured Metals

Description

A critical assumption underlying in situ transmission electron microscopy studies is that the electron beam (e-beam) exposure does not fundamentally alter the intrinsic deformation behavior of the materials being probed.

A critical assumption underlying in situ transmission electron microscopy studies is that the electron beam (e-beam) exposure does not fundamentally alter the intrinsic deformation behavior of the materials being probed. Here, we show that e-beam exposure causes increased dislocation activation and marked stress relaxation in aluminum and gold films spanning a range of thicknesses (80–400 nanometers) and grain sizes (50–220 nanometers). Furthermore, the e-beam induces anomalous sample necking, which unusually depends more on the e-beam diameter than intensity. Notably, the stress relaxation in both aluminum and gold occurs at beam energies well below their damage thresholds. More remarkably, the stress relaxation and/or sample necking is significantly more pronounced at lower accelerating voltages (120 kV versus 200 kV) in both the metals. These observations in aluminum and gold, two metals with highly dissimilar atomic weights and properties, indicate that e-beam exposure can cause anomalous behavior in a broad spectrum of nanostructured materials, and simultaneously suggest a strategy to minimize such artifacts.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-11-10

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Design and Testing of a Low-Cost Force Sensor for a Small Robotic Manipulator

Description

This thesis details the process of developing a force feedback system for a small robotic manipulator in order to prevent damage to manipulators and the objects they are grasping, which

This thesis details the process of developing a force feedback system for a small robotic manipulator in order to prevent damage to manipulators and the objects they are grasping, which is a desired feature in many autonomous robots. This includes the research, design, fabrication, and testing of a custom force-sensing resistor and a custom set of jaws to implement the feedback system on. In order to complete this project, extensive research went to designing and building test beds for the commercial and custom force sensors to determine if force values could even be obtained. Then the sensors were implemented on a manipulator and were evaluated for ease of use during assembly and testing, accuracy, and repeatability of results using a test bed designed during the course of this research. Afterwards the custom jaws were designed and fabricated based on problems encountered during testing with the initial set of jaws. The new jaws were then tested on the test bed with the sensors and the force feedback system was implemented on it. The overall system was then evaluated for any current limitations and improvements that could be made in the future to further develop this research and assist with its implementation on other robots. The results of this experiment show that a low-cost force sensor that is easy to mass produce can be implemented on an autonomous robot to add force feedback capabilities to it. It is hopeful that the results from the experiments conducted are implemented on robotic manipulators so the area of force sensing technologies research can be expanded upon and improved.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) of 7075 Aluminum Alloy to Induce a Protective Corrosion Resistant Layer

Description

This paper investigates Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) and the influence of treatment temperature and initial sample surface finish on the corrosion resistance of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy. Ambient SMAT was

This paper investigates Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) and the influence of treatment temperature and initial sample surface finish on the corrosion resistance of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy. Ambient SMAT was performed on AA7075 samples polished to 80-grit initial surface roughness. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests were used to characterize the corrosion behavior of samples before and after SMAT. Electrochemical tests indicated an improved corrosion resistance after application of SMAT process. The observed improvements in corrosion properties are potentially due to microstructural changes in the material surface induced by SMAT which encouraged the formation of a passive oxide layer. Further testing and research are required to understand the corrosion related effects of cryogenic SMAT and initial-surface finish as the COVID-19 pandemic inhibited experimentation plans.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

A Study of the Mechanical Behavior Of Nanocrystalline Metals Using Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

Description

The study of the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices lies at the intersection of nanotechnology, mechanical engineering and material science. The extremely small grains that

The study of the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices lies at the intersection of nanotechnology, mechanical engineering and material science. The extremely small grains that make up nanocrystalline metals lead to higher strength but lower ductility as compared to bulk metals. Effects of strain-rate dependence on the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals are explored. Knowing the strain rate dependence of mechanical properties would enable optimization of material selection for different applications and lead to lighter structural components and enhanced sustainability.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Develop a Method to Measure the Packing Loads on the Evacuation Slide System Packboard

Description

This executive summary covers the process and results of developing a method to measure packing loads on an evacuation slide system packboard. Since evacuation slides are packed very tightly to

This executive summary covers the process and results of developing a method to measure packing loads on an evacuation slide system packboard. Since evacuation slides are packed very tightly to fit on the aircraft, the packing process requires large amount of stress on the packboard that holds the slide components. Methods such as load cells, strain gauges, and pressure sensitive films were found to be too inaccurate. An electronic pressure mapping device was found to be the only feasible and accurate method in measuring loads on the packboard.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Crack Injection as a Mechanism for Stress Corrosion Cracking

Description

Traditionally nanoporous gold is created by selective dissolution of silver or copper from a binary silver-gold or copper-gold alloy. These alloys serve as prototypical model systems for a phenomenon

Traditionally nanoporous gold is created by selective dissolution of silver or copper from a binary silver-gold or copper-gold alloy. These alloys serve as prototypical model systems for a phenomenon referred to as stress-corrosion cracking. Stress-corrosion cracking is the brittle failure of a normally ductile material occurring in a corrosive environment under a tensile stress. Silver-gold can experience this type of brittle fracture for a range of compositions. The corrosion process in this alloy results in a bicontinuous nanoscale morphology composed of gold-rich ligaments and voids often referred to as nanoporous gold. Experiments have shown that monolithic nanoporous gold can sustain high speed cracks which can then be injected into parent-phase alloy. This work compares nanoporous gold created from ordered and disordered copper-gold using digital image analysis and electron backscatter diffraction. Nanoporous gold from both disordered copper-gold and silver-gold, and ordered copper-gold show that grain orientation and shape remain largely unchanged by the dealloying process. Comparing the morphology of the nanoporous gold from ordered and disordered copper-gold with digital image analysis, minimal differences are found between the two and it is concluded that they are not statistically significant. This reveals the robust nature of nanoporous gold morphology against small variations in surface diffusion and parent-phase crystal structure.
Then the corrosion penetration down the grain boundary is compared to the depth of crack injections in polycrystal silver-gold. Based on statistical comparison, the crack-injections penetrate into the parent-phase grain boundary beyond the corrosion-induced porosity. To compare crack injections to stress-corrosion cracking, single crystal silver-gold samples are employed. Due to the cleavage-like nature of the fracture surfaces, electron backscatter diffraction is possible and employed to compare the crystallography of stress-corrosion crack surfaces and crack-injection surfaces. From the crystallographic similarities of these fracture surfaces, it is concluded that stress-corrosion can occur via a series of crack-injection events. This relationship between crack injections and stress corrosion cracking is further examined using electrochemical data from polycrystal silver-gold samples during stress-corrosion cracking. The results support the idea that crack injection is a mechanism for stress-corrosion cracking.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Finite element analysis of micro-cantilever beam experiments in UO2

Description

Uranium Dioxide (UO2) is a significant nuclear fission fuel, which is widely used

in nuclear reactors. Understanding the influence of microstructure on thermo-mechanical behavior of UO2 is extremely important to predict

Uranium Dioxide (UO2) is a significant nuclear fission fuel, which is widely used

in nuclear reactors. Understanding the influence of microstructure on thermo-mechanical behavior of UO2 is extremely important to predict its performance. In particular, evaluating mechanical properties, such as elasticity, plasticity and creep at sub-grain length scales is key to developing this understanding as well as building multi-scale models of fuel behavior with predicting capabilities. In this work, modeling techniques were developed to study effects of microstructure on Young’s modulus, which was selected as a key representative property that affects overall mechanical behavior, using experimental data obtained from micro-cantilever bending testing as benchmarks. Beam theory was firstly introduced to calculate Young's modulus of UO2 from the experimental data and then three-dimensional finite element models of the micro-cantilever beams were constructed to simulate bending tests in UO2 at room temperature. The influence of the pore distribution was studied to explain the discrepancy between predicted values and experimental results. Results indicate that results of tests are significantly affected by porosity given that both pore size and spacing in the samples are of the order of the micro-beam dimensions. Microstructure reconstruction was conducted with images collected from three-dimensional serial sectioning using focused ion beam (FIB) and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) and pore clusters were placed at different locations along the length of the beam. Results indicate that the presence of pore clusters close to the substrate, i.e., the clamp of the micro-cantilever beam, has the strongest effect on load-deflection behavior, leading to a reduction of stiffness that is the largest for any location of the pore cluster. Furthermore, it was also found from both numerical and i

analytical models that pore clusters located towards the middle of the span and close to the end of the beam only have a very small effect on the load-deflection behavior, and it is concluded that better estimates of Young's modulus can be obtained from micro- cantilever experiments by using microstructurally explicit models that account for porosity in about one half of the beam length close to the clamp. This, in turn, provides an avenue to simplify micro-scale experiments and their analysis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

Synthesis and in situ characterization of nanostructured and amorphous metallic films

Description

Nanocrystalline (nc) thin films exhibit a wide range of enhanced mechanical properties compared to their coarse-grained counterparts. Furthermore, the mechanical behavior and microstructure of nc films is intimately related.

Nanocrystalline (nc) thin films exhibit a wide range of enhanced mechanical properties compared to their coarse-grained counterparts. Furthermore, the mechanical behavior and microstructure of nc films is intimately related. Thus, precise control of the size, aspect ratio and spatial distribution of grains can enable the synthesis of thin films with exceptional mechanical properties. However, conventional bottom-up techniques for synthesizing thin films are incapable of achieving the microstructural control required to explicitly tune their properties. This dissertation focuses on developing a novel technique to synthesize metallic alloy thin films with precisely controlled microstructures and subsequently characterizing their mechanical properties using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Control over the grain size and distribution was achieved by controlling the recrystallization process of amorphous films by the use of thin crystalline seed layers. The novel technique was used to manipulate the microstructure of structural (TiAl) and functional (NiTi) thin films thereby exhibiting its capability and versatility. Following the synthesis of thin films with tailored microstructures, in situ TEM techniques were employed to probe their mechanical properties. Firstly, a novel technique was developed to measure local atomic level elastic strains in metallic glass thin films during in situ TEM straining. This technique was used to detect structural changes and anelastic deformation in metallic glass thin films. Finally, as the electron beam (e-beam) in TEMs is known to cause radiation damage to specimen, systematic experiments were carried out to quantify the effect of the e-beam on the stress-strain response of nc metals. Experiments conducted on Al and Au films revealed that the e-beam enhances dislocation activity leading to stress relaxation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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In situ electromigration and reliability of Pb-free solders at extremely small length scales

Description

Over the past several years, the density of integrated circuits has been increasing at a very fast rate, following Moore’s law. The advent of three dimensional (3D) packaging technologies enable

Over the past several years, the density of integrated circuits has been increasing at a very fast rate, following Moore’s law. The advent of three dimensional (3D) packaging technologies enable the increase in density of integrated circuits without necessarily shrinking the dimensions of the device. Under such constraints, the solder volume necessary to join the various layers of the package is also extremely small. At smaller length scales, the local cooling rates are higher, so the microstructures are much finer than that obtained in larger joints (BGA, C4). The fraction of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) present in solder joints in these volumes will be larger. The Cu6Sn5 precipitate size and spacing, and Sn grain structure and crystallography will be different at very small volumes. These factors will most certainly affect the performance of the solder. Examining the mechanical behavior and reliability of Pb-free solders is difficult, primarily because a methodology to characterize the microstructure and the mechanics of deformation at these extremely small length scales has yet to be developed.

In this study, Sn grain orientation and Cu6Sn5 IMC fraction, size, and morphology are characterized in 3D, in pure Sn based solder joints. The obtained results show differences in morphology of Sn grains and IMC precipitates as a function of location within the solder joint indicating influence of local cooling rate differences. Ex situ and in situ electromigration tests done on 250 um and 500 um pure Sn solder joints elucidate the evolution of microstructure, specifically Sn grain growth, IMC segregation and surface degradation. This research implements 3D quantification of microstructural features over micro and nano-scales, thereby enabling a multi-scale / multi-characterization approach.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016