Matching Items (7)

Implications of Internet of Things Technologies in Supply Chain Management

Description

The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the system of 'smart' inter-connected networked devices that contain sensors to communicate information to the Internet. Due to the complex and intricate nature of IoT technologies, in addition to the many applications of

The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the system of 'smart' inter-connected networked devices that contain sensors to communicate information to the Internet. Due to the complex and intricate nature of IoT technologies, in addition to the many applications of IoT, the IoT has the potential to revolutionize how we interact and work every day. The information gathered through IoT is aggregated and can be used to improve business decision making, as well as contribute to a greater society. IoT spans various market sectors including retail, energy, and transportation. IoT can also be used to improve efficiencies within the supply chain. By increasing the transparency of items in-transit, in addition to providing greater visibility about inventory usage and consumer consumption habits, there are many implications of IoT that can be utilized to transform logistical processes. While some literature exists that discusses the impact of the IoT on the supply chain, the findings are limited in size and scope and tend to focus on particular implementations of IoT technologies. Further research is necessary to evaluate the impact of IoT to advance supply chain best practices and to understand the potential implications of the IoT in improving supply chain planning and distribution. This thesis aims to address this gap in the literature. By focusing on supply chain management, the thesis will look at the context in which the IoT operates, the market and implications of IoT devices, current logistics processes, the capabilities of IoT, as well as the potential problems and weaknesses with the implementation of the IoT.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-05

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The Food Chain Drain: Analyzing Waste in the Food Supply Chain

Description

ABSTRACT American households are throwing out billions of dollars of valuable food every year, which in turn ends up in landfills, harms the environment, and consumes precious tax dollars. The nation must reduce the waste that is causing a drain

ABSTRACT American households are throwing out billions of dollars of valuable food every year, which in turn ends up in landfills, harms the environment, and consumes precious tax dollars. The nation must reduce the waste that is causing a drain on resources. Furthermore, rather than turn excess food to waste, people can redistribute food to feed the millions of food insecure households nationwide. To address this issue, this paper utilizes a supply chain approach to research central links in the food chain and identify the causes for waste at each process. Additionally, an investigation of barriers to change is conducted, explaining the struggles stakeholders face in the food challenge. Taking these barriers into consideration, various solutions are recommended that can help alleviate the food challenge. Waste reduction is possible through proper management of the six supply chain drivers: information, inventory, sourcing, transportation, pricing, and facilities. Through better information sharing, more accurate forecasts can be produced, reducing the bullwhip effect thus minimizing waste. Sourcing, transportation, and pricing can help create secondary food markets. These local, online, or discount venues put imperfect and short shelf life foods back on shelves instead of landfills. Small improvements in facilities such as reengineering display units can reduce the chances of damaged produce as well. To a humanitarian end, gleaning efforts bring nutritious, unharvested crops from farms to food pantries. Centralized donation networks better educate businesses and allocate resources to those in need. Moreover, consumer-driven initiatives at a store or web-based level can move food surpluses to food insecure homes. Combined, these methods will provide a triple bottom line benefit to profits, people, and the planet.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2013-12

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The effect of social interactions on demand and service levels of online retailers in the social shopping context

Description

Social shopping has emerged as a popular online retailing segment. Social shopping revolves around online communities that bring consumers together to shop for deals. Online retailers have been making significant investments to encourage consumers to join online communities linked to

Social shopping has emerged as a popular online retailing segment. Social shopping revolves around online communities that bring consumers together to shop for deals. Online retailers have been making significant investments to encourage consumers to join online communities linked to their websites in the hope that social interactions among consumers will increase consumption rates. However, the assumption that social interactions increase consumption rates in social shopping remains largely untested in empirical settings. Also, the mechanisms of such an effect remain unclear. Moreover, extant literature has overlooked the role played by elements of the marketing mix, including product characteristics and the commercial context, in defining the effect that social interaction mechanisms have on consumption rates in this focused context. Furthermore, common knowledge in the operations management discipline challenges the largely held assumption, in the social interactions literature, that increasing consumption rates will always be beneficial to online retailers. Higher consumption rates may lead to stockouts, leading to lower service levels. This dissertation develops and empirically tests a theoretical framework that addresses these managerially relevant issues. Specifically, the investigation centers on the effects of social interaction mechanisms on consumption rates in social shopping. In turn, it assesses the nature of the relationship between consumption rates and service levels, after controlling for inventory provision. Finally, it assesses the role played by elements of the marketing mix in defining the relationship between social interaction mechanisms and consumption rates in this focused context. The research methodology uses experiments as the primary source of data collection, and employs econometrics techniques to statistically assess the conceptual framework. The results from the empirical analysis provide interesting insights. First, they unveil influential consumers in social shopping according to relational and structural elements of the social network of consumers and time of purchase. Second, the influence of early buyers' purchases on consumption rates becomes weaker when the quality of the products being offered as part of a deal increases, but it becomes stronger when the price of those products increases. Finally, as deals' consumption rates increase, their service levels decrease at a faster pace.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

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Platform Design and Operations in the Last-Mile of the Supply Chain

Description

Platform business models have become pervasive in many aspects of the economy,particularly in the areas experiencing rapid growth such as retailing (e.g., Amazon and
eBay) and last-mile transportation (e.g., Instacart and Amazon Flex). The popularity
of platform business models is,

Platform business models have become pervasive in many aspects of the economy,particularly in the areas experiencing rapid growth such as retailing (e.g., Amazon and
eBay) and last-mile transportation (e.g., Instacart and Amazon Flex). The popularity
of platform business models is, in part, due to the asset-light prospect which allows
businesses to maintain flexibility while scaling up their operations. Yet, this ease of
growth may not necessarily be conducive to viable outcomes. Because scalability in a
platform depends on the intermediary’s role it plays in facilitating matching between
users on each side of the platform, the efficiency of matching could be eroded as growth
increases search frictions and matching costs. This phenomenon is demonstrated in
recent studies on platform growth (e.g. Fradkin, 2017; Lian and Van Ryzin, 2021; Li
and Netessine, 2020). To sustain scalability during growth, platforms must rely on effective platformdesign to mitigate challenges arising in facilitating efficient matching. Market design
differs in its focus between retail and last-mile transportation platforms. In retail
platforms, platform design’s emphasis is on helping consumers navigate through
a variety of product offerings to match their needs while connecting vendors to a
large consumer base (Dinerstein et al., 2018; Bimpikis et al., 2020). Because these
platforms exist to manage two-sided demand, scalability depends on the realization of
indirect network economies where benefits for users to participate on the platforms
are commensurate with the size of users on the other side (Parker and Van Alstyne,
2005; Armstrong, 2006; Rysman, 2009). Thus, platform design plays a critical role in
the realization of indirect network economies on retail platforms. Last-mile transportation platforms manage independent drivers on one side andretailers on the other, both parties holding flexibility in switching between platforms.
High demand for independent drivers along with their flexibility in work participation induces platforms to use subsidies to incentivize retention. This leads to short-term
improvements in retention at the expense of significant increases in platforms’
compensation costs. Acute challenges to driver retention call for effective compensation
strategies to better coordinate labor participation from these drivers (Nikzad, 2017;
Liu et al., 2019; Guda and Subramanian, 2019). In addition to driver turnover,
retailers’ withdrawal can undermine the operating efficiency of last-mile transportation
platforms (Borsenberger et al., 2018). This dissertation studies platforms’ scalability
and operational challenges faced by platforms in the growth.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021

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Dynamics of information distribution on social media platforms during disasters

Description

When preparing for and responding to disasters, humanitarian organizations must run effective and efficient supply chains to deliver the resources needed by the affected population. The management of humanitarian supply chains include coordinating the flows of goods, finances, and information.

When preparing for and responding to disasters, humanitarian organizations must run effective and efficient supply chains to deliver the resources needed by the affected population. The management of humanitarian supply chains include coordinating the flows of goods, finances, and information. This dissertation examines how humanitarian organizations can improve the distribution of information, which is critical for the planning and coordination of the other two flows. Specifically, I study the diffusion of information on social media platforms since such platforms have emerged as useful communication tools for humanitarian organizations during times of crisis.

In the first chapter, I identify several factors that affect how quickly information spreads on social media platforms. I utilized Twitter data from Hurricane Sandy, and the results indicate that the timing of information release and the influence of the content’s author determine information diffusion speed. The second chapter of this dissertation builds directly on the first study by also evaluating the rate at which social media content diffuses. A piece of content does not diffuse in isolation but, rather, coexists with other content on the same social media platform. After analyzing Twitter data from four distinct crises, the results indicate that other content’s diffusion often dampens a specific post’s diffusion speed. This is important for humanitarian organizations to recognize and carries implications for how they can coordinate with other organizations to avoid inhibiting the propagation of each other’s social media content. Finally, a user’s followers on social media platforms represent the user’s direct audience. The larger the user’s follower base, the more easily the same user can extensively broadcast information. Therefore, I study what drives the growth of humanitarian organizations’ follower bases during times of normalcy and emergency using Twitter data from one week before and one week after the 2016 Ecuador earthquake.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

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Moral hazard, power, and risk sharing in scan-based trading

Description

While scan-based trading (SBT) is a growing trend in the retail industry, evidence suggests that many SBT initiatives have contributed only to the retailers’ bottom line at the suppliers’ expense. This research attempts to disclose some of the causes of

While scan-based trading (SBT) is a growing trend in the retail industry, evidence suggests that many SBT initiatives have contributed only to the retailers’ bottom line at the suppliers’ expense. This research attempts to disclose some of the causes of SBT failure as a collaborative inventory management initiative and identify SBT’s integrative potential using both positivistic and normative research methodologies.

In the first chapter, SBT contracts are analyzed through the lens of Agency Theory. By focusing on unique inventory ownership and risks considerations resulting from retailers managing supplier-owned inventory without bearing the cost of inventory shrinkage, the effect of SBT on inventory shrinkage is examined empirically using a data set from a packaged bakery manufacturer. The results show that inventory shrinkage tends to be higher under SBT contracts compared to traditional vendor-managed inventory (VMI) contracts. The study highlights a potential loss in efficiency in food supply chains reflected in higher shrinkage under SBT contracts.

The second chapter aims to identify conditions under which SBT contracts could be mutually beneficial for retailers and suppliers. Using stylized game theoretic models involving a retailer and a supplier of a product with limited shelf life, the study finds that, while inventory shrinkage may be amplified under SBT contracts compared to VMI contracts due to the decreased retailer’s incentive to manage inventory at the store, SBT could help suppliers minimize inventory overage and underage under high demand uncertainty. The integrative potential for SBT contracts, thus, lies in the trade-off between inventory shrinkage and forecasting accuracy.

In the third paper, the role of bargaining power on the performance of SBT contracts is examined. Based on the bargaining literature, it is hypothesized that perceptions of bargaining power can be reshaped in the bargaining process through concession tactics. The results of a negotiation experiment show that, while powerful retailers do tend to have the upper hand in negotiating SBT contracts, weak suppliers could ameliorate or even overcome retailer power by offering services as a concession in a way that the product-service bundle improves the value of their offerings in the eyes of the retailers.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

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Three Essays on Firm Responses to Climate Change

Description

Evidence is mounting to address and reverse the effects of environmental neglect. Perhaps the greatest evidence for needing environmental stewardship originates from the ever-increasing extreme weather events ranging from the deadly wildfires scorching Greece and California to the extreme heatwaves

Evidence is mounting to address and reverse the effects of environmental neglect. Perhaps the greatest evidence for needing environmental stewardship originates from the ever-increasing extreme weather events ranging from the deadly wildfires scorching Greece and California to the extreme heatwaves in Japan. Scientists have concluded that the probability and severity for about two thirds of such extreme natural events that occurred between 2004 and 2018 is contributed by rising global temperatures.

Operations management literature regarding environmental issues have typically focused on the “win-win” approach with a multitude of papers investigating a link between sustainability and firm performance. This dissertation seeks to take a different approach by investigating firm responses to climate change. The first two essays explore firm emissions goals and the last essay investigates firm emissions performance.

The first essay identifies firm determinants of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets. The essay leverages Behavioral Theory of the Firm (BTOF) and argues for two additional determinants, Data Stratification and Science-Based Targets, unique to GHG emissions. Utilizing system generalized method of moments on a dataset from Carbon Disclosure Project for years 2011-2017, the paper finds partial confirmation for BTOF and support for the two additional determinants of firm GHG emission goals.

The second essay is an exploratory study that seeks to understand factors for firm participation in the Science-Based Targets (SBT) initiative by combining both primary and secondary data analysis. The study is a working paper with primary data still needing to be completed. Secondary data analysis begins with a review of the literature which suggested four potential factors: ISO 14001 certification, Customer Engagement, Emission Credit Purchases, and presence of Absolute Emissions Targets. Preliminary results using panel logistic regression suggest that Emissions Credit Purchases and Absolute Emissions Targets influence SBT participation.

The third essay seeks to understand whether stakeholder pressure drives firm GHG emissions reductions. This relies on Stakeholder Theory and classification schemes proposed in Management literature to divide stakeholders, based on their relationship with the firm, into three groups: primary, secondary, and public. Random effects estimation results provide evidence for primary and public stakeholder pressure impacting firm GHG emissions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2020