Matching Items (11)

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Multiplexed Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays

Description

Rationale: Cell-free protein microarrays display naturally-folded proteins based on just-in-time in situ synthesis, and have made important contributions to basic and translational research. However, the risk of spot-to-spot cross-talk from

Rationale: Cell-free protein microarrays display naturally-folded proteins based on just-in-time in situ synthesis, and have made important contributions to basic and translational research. However, the risk of spot-to-spot cross-talk from protein diffusion during expression has limited the feature density of these arrays.
Methods: In this work, we developed the Multiplexed Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array (M-NAPPA), which significantly increases the number of displayed proteins by multiplexing as many as five different gene plasmids within a printed spot.
Results: Even when proteins of different sizes were displayed within the same feature, they were readily detected using protein-specific antibodies. Protein-protein interactions and serological antibody assays using human viral proteome microarrays demonstrated that comparable hits were detected by M-NAPPA and non-multiplexed NAPPA arrays. An ultra-high density proteome microarray displaying > 16k proteins on a single microscope slide was produced by combining M-NAPPA with a photolithography-based silicon nano-well platform. Finally, four new tuberculosis-related antigens in guinea pigs vaccinated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) were identified with M-NAPPA and validated with ELISA.
Conclusion: All data demonstrate that multiplexing features on a protein microarray offer a cost-effective fabrication approach and have the potential to facilitate high throughput translational research.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-09-20

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Differential Relationships Among Autoantibody Responses to P53 Family Proteins in Late Stage Colorectal Cancer

Description

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most highly diagnosed cancers in the United States and accounts for 9.5% of all new cancer cases worldwide. With a 50% five-year prognosis,

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most highly diagnosed cancers in the United States and accounts for 9.5% of all new cancer cases worldwide. With a 50% five-year prognosis, it is the second highest cancerous cause of death in the U.S. CRC tumors express antigens that are capable of inducing an immune response. The identification of autoantibodies (AAb) against tumor-associated antigens (TAA) may facilitate personalized tumor treatment in the form of targeted immunotherapy. The objective of this study was to observe the AAb expression raised against a 2000 human gene survey in late-stage colorectal cancer using the Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA). AAbs from serum samples were collected from 80 patients who died within 24 months of their last blood draw and 80 age and gender matched healthy control were profiled using NAPPA. TAA p53, a well-established protein that is one of the most highly mutated across a variety of cancers, was one of the top candidates based on statistical analysis, which, along with its family proteins p63 and p73 (which showed inverse AAb response profiles) warranted further testing via RAPID ELISA. Statistical analysis from these results revealed an inverse differential relationship between p53 and p63, in which p53 seropositivity was higher in patients than in controls, while the opposite was unexpectedly the case for p63. This study involving the AAb immunoprofiling of advanced stage CRC patients is one of the first to shed light on the high-throughput feasibility of immunoproteomic experiments using protein arrays as well as the identification of immunotherapy targets in a more rapid move towards specialized treatment of advanced CRC.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Characterization of the Auto-acetylation Activity of CREB3L1

Description

CREB3L1 has been previously shown to auto-acetylate itself when prepared from HeLa cell based in vitro protein expression lysates. To circumvent the concerns of the contamination of co-purified human proteins

CREB3L1 has been previously shown to auto-acetylate itself when prepared from HeLa cell based in vitro protein expression lysates. To circumvent the concerns of the contamination of co-purified human proteins from HeLa lysates, the protein was purified through insect cell transfection in vitro. The objective of this study was to assay the auto-acetylation activity of CREB3L1 prepared from insect cells using the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). To this end, His-tagged CREB3L1 was affinity purified from Hi5 cells using an IMAC column and used for acetylation assay. Samples were taken different time points and auto-acetylation was by western using antibodies specific to acetylated lysines. Auto-acetylation activity was observed after overnight incubation. Future experiments will focus on the improvement of purification yield and the identification of the substrates and interacting proteins of CREB3L1 to better understand the biological functions of this novel acetyltransferase.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Development of Viral Protein Arrays to Study the Role of Viral Infections in Type 1 Diabetes

Description

The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is still not fully understood in the scientific community. Evidence has shown that viral infections are one of the important environmental factors associated

The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is still not fully understood in the scientific community. Evidence has shown that viral infections are one of the important environmental factors associated with the disease development. Seven of the top T1D related viruses were selected to study the prevalence of viral humoral response in T1D patients using our innovative protein array platform called Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array (NAPPA). In this study, each viral gene was individually captured using various PCR based techniques, cloned into a protein expression vector, and assembled as the first version of T1D viral protein array. Humoral responses of IgG, IgA, and IgM were examined. Although each class of immunoglobulin generated a wide-range of reactivity, responses to various viral proteins from different proteins were observed. In summary, we captured most of the T1D related viral genes, established viral protein expression on the protein array, and displayed the serum response on the viral protein array. The successful progress will help to fulfill the long term goal of testing the viral infection hypothesis in T1D development.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Global Identification of AMPylation Substrates for SidM using Human Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays

Description

AMPylation is a post-translation modification that has an important role in the survival of many bacterial pathogens by affecting the host cell's molecular signaling. In the course of studying this

AMPylation is a post-translation modification that has an important role in the survival of many bacterial pathogens by affecting the host cell's molecular signaling. In the course of studying this intercellular manipulation, there has only been modest progression in the identification of the enzymes with AMPylation capabilities (AMPylators) and their respective targets. The reason for these minimal developments is the inability to analyze a large subset of these proteins. Therefore, to increase the efficiency of the identification and characterization of the proteins, Yu et al developed a high-throughput non-radioactive discovery platform using Human Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA) and a validation platform using bead-based assays. The large-scale unbiased screening of potential substrates for two bacterial AMPylators containing Fic domain, VopS and IbpAFic2, had been performed and dozens of novel substrates were identified and confirmed. With the efficiency of this method, the platform was extended to the identification of novel substrates for a Legionella virulence factor, SidM, containing a different adenylyl transferase domain. The screening was performed using NAPPA arrays comprising of 10,000 human proteins, the active AMPylator SidM, and its inactive D110/112A mutant as a negative control. Many potential substrates of SidM were found, including Rab GTPases and non-GTPase proteins. Several of which have been confirmed with the bead-based AMPylation assays.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Microreactor Array Device

Description

We report a device to fill an array of small chemical reaction chambers (microreactors) with reagent and then seal them using pressurized viscous liquid acting through a flexible membrane. The

We report a device to fill an array of small chemical reaction chambers (microreactors) with reagent and then seal them using pressurized viscous liquid acting through a flexible membrane. The device enables multiple, independent chemical reactions involving free floating intermediate molecules without interference from neighboring reactions or external environments. The device is validated by protein expressed in situ directly from DNA in a microarray of ~10,000 spots with no diffusion during three hours incubation. Using the device to probe for an autoantibody cancer biomarker in blood serum sample gave five times higher signal to background ratio compared to standard protein microarray expressed on a flat microscope slide. Physical design principles to effectively fill the array of microreactors with reagent and experimental results of alternate methods for sealing the microreactors are presented.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-03-04

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Circulating and synovial antibody profiling of juvenile arthritis patients by nucleic acid programmable protein arrays

Description

Introduction
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation of unknown cause in children. JIA is an autoimmune disease and small numbers of autoantibodies have

Introduction
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation of unknown cause in children. JIA is an autoimmune disease and small numbers of autoantibodies have been reported in JIA patients. The identification of antibody markers could improve the existing clinical management of patients.
Methods
A pilot study was performed on the application of a high-throughput platform, the nucleic acid programmable protein array (NAPPA), to assess the levels of antibodies present in the systemic circulation and synovial joint of a small cohort of juvenile arthritis patients. Plasma and synovial fluid from 10 JIA patients was screened for antibodies against 768 proteins on NAPPAs.
Results
Quantitative reproducibility of NAPPAs was demonstrated with > 0.95 intra-array and inter-array correlations. A strong correlation was also observed for the levels of antibodies between plasma and synovial fluid across the study cohort (r = 0.96). Differences in the levels of 18 antibodies were revealed between sample types across all patients. Patients were segregated into two clinical subtypes with distinct antibody signatures by unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis.
Conclusion
The NAPPAs provide a high-throughput quantitatively reproducible platform to screen for disease-specific autoantibodies at the proteome level on a microscope slide. The strong correlation between the circulating antibody levels and those of the inflamed joint represents a novel finding and provides confidence to use plasma for discovery of autoantibodies in JIA, thus circumventing the challenges associated with joint aspiration. We expect that autoantibody profiling of JIA patients on NAPPAs could yield antibody markers that can act as criteria to stratify patients, predict outcomes and understand disease etiology at the molecular level.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012-04-17

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Development of a full-length human protein production pipeline

Description

There are many proteomic applications that require large collections of purified protein, but parallel production of large numbers of different proteins remains a very challenging task. To help meet the

There are many proteomic applications that require large collections of purified protein, but parallel production of large numbers of different proteins remains a very challenging task. To help meet the needs of the scientific community, we have developed a human protein production pipeline. Using high-throughput (HT) methods, we transferred the genes of 31 full-length proteins into three expression vectors, and expressed the collection as N-terminal HaloTag fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and two commercial cell-free (CF) systems, wheat germ extract (WGE) and HeLa cell extract (HCE). Expression was assessed by labeling the fusion proteins specifically and covalently with a fluorescent HaloTag ligand and detecting its fluorescence on a LabChip[superscript ®] GX microfluidic capillary gel electrophoresis instrument. This automated, HT assay provided both qualitative and quantitative assessment of recombinant protein. E. coli was only capable of expressing 20% of the test collection in the supernatant fraction with ≥20 μg yields, whereas CF systems had ≥83% success rates. We purified expressed proteins using an automated HaloTag purification method. We purified 20, 33, and 42% of the test collection from E. coli, WGE, and HCE, respectively, with yields ≥1 μg and ≥90% purity. Based on these observations, we have developed a triage strategy for producing full-length human proteins in these three expression systems.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-08-01

Exploration of Panviral Proteome: High-Throughput Cloning and Functional Implications in Virus-host Interactions

Description

Throughout the long history of virus-host co-evolution, viruses have developed delicate strategies to facilitate their invasion and replication of their genome, while silencing the host immune responses through various mechanisms.

Throughout the long history of virus-host co-evolution, viruses have developed delicate strategies to facilitate their invasion and replication of their genome, while silencing the host immune responses through various mechanisms. The systematic characterization of viral protein-host interactions would yield invaluable information in the understanding of viral invasion/evasion, diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of a viral infection, and mechanisms of host biology. With more than 2,000 viral genomes sequenced, only a small percent of them are well investigated. The access of these viral open reading frames (ORFs) in a flexible cloning format would greatly facilitate both in vitro and in vivo virus-host interaction studies. However, the overall progress of viral ORF cloning has been slow. To facilitate viral studies, we are releasing the initiation of our panviral proteome collection of 2,035 ORF clones from 830 viral genes in the Gateway® recombinational cloning system. Here, we demonstrate several uses of our viral collection including highly efficient production of viral proteins using human cell-free expression system in vitro, global identification of host targets for rubella virus using Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA) containing 10,000 unique human proteins, and detection of host serological responses using micro-fluidic multiplexed immunoassays. The studies presented here begin to elucidate host-viral protein interactions with our systemic utilization of viral ORFs, high-throughput cloning, and proteomic technologies. These valuable plasmid resources will be available to the research community to enable continued viral functional studies.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-11-30

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Autoantibody Signature for the Serologic Detection of Ovarian Cancer

Description

Sera from patients with ovarian cancer contain autoantibodies (AAb) to tumor-derived proteins that are potential biomarkers for early detection. To detect AAb, we probed high-density programmable protein microarrays (NAPPA) expressing

Sera from patients with ovarian cancer contain autoantibodies (AAb) to tumor-derived proteins that are potential biomarkers for early detection. To detect AAb, we probed high-density programmable protein microarrays (NAPPA) expressing 5177 candidate tumor antigens with sera from patients with serous ovarian cancer (n = 34 cases/30 controls) and measured bound IgG. Of these, 741 antigens were selected and probed with an independent set of ovarian cancer sera (n = 60 cases/60 controls). Twelve potential autoantigens were identified with sensitivities ranging from 13 to 22% at >93% specificity. These were retested using a Luminex bead array using 60 cases and 60 controls, with sensitivities ranging from 0 to 31.7% at 95% specificity. Three AAb (p53, PTPRA, and PTGFR) had area under the curve (AUC) levels >60% (p < 0.01), with the partial AUC (SPAUC) over 5 times greater than for a nondiscriminating test (p < 0.01). Using a panel of the top three AAb (p53, PTPRA, and PTGFR), if at least two AAb were positive, then the sensitivity was 23.3% at 98.3% specificity. AAb to at least one of these top three antigens were also detected in 7/20 sera (35%) of patients with low CA 125 levels and 0/15 controls. AAb to p53, PTPRA, and PTGFR are potential biomarkers for the early detection of ovarian cancer.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-01-01