Matching Items (34)

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Solar micro inverter modeling and reliability

Description

The demand for cleaner energy technology is increasing very rapidly. Hence it is

important to increase the eciency and reliability of this emerging clean energy technologies.

This thesis focuses on modeling and reliability of solar micro inverters. In

order to make photovoltaics (PV)

The demand for cleaner energy technology is increasing very rapidly. Hence it is

important to increase the eciency and reliability of this emerging clean energy technologies.

This thesis focuses on modeling and reliability of solar micro inverters. In

order to make photovoltaics (PV) cost competitive with traditional energy sources,

the economies of scale have been guiding inverter design in two directions: large,

centralized, utility-scale (500 kW) inverters vs. small, modular, module level (300

W) power electronics (MLPE). MLPE, such as microinverters and DC power optimizers,

oer advantages in safety, system operations and maintenance, energy yield,

and component lifetime due to their smaller size, lower power handling requirements,

and module-level power point tracking and monitoring capability [1]. However, they

suer from two main disadvantages: rst, depending on array topology (especially

the proximity to the PV module), they can be subjected to more extreme environments

(i.e. temperature cycling) during the day, resulting in a negative impact to

reliability; second, since solar installations can have tens of thousands to millions of

modules (and as many MLPE units), it may be dicult or impossible to track and

repair units as they go out of service. Therefore identifying the weak links in this

system is of critical importance to develop more reliable micro inverters.

While an overwhelming majority of time and research has focused on PV module

eciency and reliability, these issues have been largely ignored for the balance

of system components. As a relatively nascent industry, the PV power electronics

industry does not have the extensive, standardized reliability design and testing procedures

that exist in the module industry or other more mature power electronics

industries (e.g. automotive). To do so, the critical components which are at risk and

their impact on the system performance has to be studied. This thesis identies and

addresses some of the issues related to reliability of solar micro inverters.

This thesis presents detailed discussions on various components of solar micro inverter

and their design. A micro inverter with very similar electrical specications in

comparison with commercial micro inverter is modeled in detail and veried. Components

in various stages of micro inverter are listed and their typical failure mechanisms

are reviewed. A detailed FMEA is conducted for a typical micro inverter to identify

the weak links of the system. Based on the S, O and D metrics, risk priority number

(RPN) is calculated to list the critical at-risk components. Degradation of DC bus

capacitor is identied as one the failure mechanism and the degradation model is built

to study its eect on the system performance. The system is tested for surge immunity

using standard ring and combinational surge waveforms as per IEEE 62.41 and

IEC 61000-4-5 standards. All the simulation presented in this thesis is performed

using PLECS simulation software.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
2015

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Representation of vector-controlled induction motor drive load in electro-magnetic transient and positive sequence transient stability simulators

Description

This dissertation presents innovative techniques to develop performance-based models and complete transient models of induction motor drive systems with vector controls in electro-magnetic transient (EMT) and positive sequence transient stability (PSTS) simulation programs. The performance-based model is implemented by obtaining

This dissertation presents innovative techniques to develop performance-based models and complete transient models of induction motor drive systems with vector controls in electro-magnetic transient (EMT) and positive sequence transient stability (PSTS) simulation programs. The performance-based model is implemented by obtaining the characteristic transfer functions of perturbed active and reactive power consumptions with respect to frequency and voltage perturbations. This level of linearized performance-based model is suitable for the investigation of the damping of small-magnitude low-frequency oscillations. The complete transient model is proposed by decomposing the motor, converter and control models into d-q axes components and developing a compatible electrical interface to the positive-sequence network in the PSTS simulators. The complete transient drive model is primarily used to examine the system response subject to transient voltage depression considering increasing penetration of converter-driven motor loads.

For developing the performance-based model, modulations are performed on the supply side of the full drive system to procure magnitude and phase responses of active and reactive powers with respect to the supply voltage and frequency for a range of discrete frequency points. The prediction error minimization (PEM) technique is utilized to generate the curve-fitted transfer functions and corresponding bode plots. For developing the complete drive model in the PSTS simulation program, a positive-sequence voltage source is defined properly as the interface of the model to the external system. The dc-link of the drive converter is implemented by employing the average model of the PWM converter, and is utilized to integrate the line-side rectifier and machine-side inverter.

Numerical simulation is then conducted on sample test systems, synthesized with suitable characteristics to examine performance of the developed models. The simulation results reveal that with growing amount of drive loads being distributed in the system, the small-signal stability of the system is improved in terms of the desirable damping effects on the low-frequency system oscillations of voltage and frequency. The transient stability of the system is also enhanced with regard to the stable active power and reactive power controls of the loads, and the appropriate VAr support capability provided by the drive loads during a contingency.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
2016

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Real-Time Simulation of a Smart Inverter

Description

With the increasing penetration of Photovoltaic inverters, there is a necessity for recent PV inverters to have smart grid support features for increased power system reliability and security. The grid support features include voltage support, active and reactive power control.

With the increasing penetration of Photovoltaic inverters, there is a necessity for recent PV inverters to have smart grid support features for increased power system reliability and security. The grid support features include voltage support, active and reactive power control. These support features mean that inverters should have bidirectional power and communication capabilities. The inverter should be able to communicate with the grid utility and other inverter modules.

This thesis studies the real time simulation of smart inverters using PLECS Real Time Box. The real time simulation is performed as a Controller Hardware in the Loop (CHIL) real time simulation. In this thesis, the power stage of the smart inverter is emulated in the PLECS Real Time Box and the controller stage of the inverter is programmed in the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) connected to the real time box. The power stage emulated in the real time box and the controller implemented in the DSP form a closed loop smart inverter.

This smart inverter, with power stage and controller together, is then connected to an OPAL-RT simulator which emulates the power distribution system of the Arizona State University Poly campus. The smart inverter then sends and receives commands to supply power and support the grid. The results of the smart inverter with the PLECS Real time box and the smart inverter connected to an emulated distribution system are discussed under various conditions based on the commands received by the smart inverter.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
2017

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Analytical approaches for identification and representation of critical protection systems in transient stability studies

Description

After a major disturbance, the power system response is highly dependent on protection schemes and system dynamics. Improving power systems situational awareness requires proper and simultaneous modeling of both protection schemes and dynamic characteristics in power systems analysis tools. Historical

After a major disturbance, the power system response is highly dependent on protection schemes and system dynamics. Improving power systems situational awareness requires proper and simultaneous modeling of both protection schemes and dynamic characteristics in power systems analysis tools. Historical information and ex-post analysis of blackouts reaffirm the critical role of protective devices in cascading events, thereby confirming the necessity to represent protective functions in transient stability studies. This dissertation is aimed at studying the importance of representing protective relays in power system dynamic studies. Although modeling all of the protective relays within transient stability studies may result in a better estimation of system behavior, representing, updating, and maintaining the protection system data becomes an insurmountable task. Inappropriate or outdated representation of the relays may result in incorrect assessment of the system behavior. This dissertation presents a systematic method to determine essential relays to be modeled in transient stability studies. The desired approach should identify protective relays that are critical for various operating conditions and contingencies. The results of the transient stability studies confirm that modeling only the identified critical protective relays is sufficient to capture system behavior for various operating conditions and precludes the need to model all of the protective relays. Moreover, this dissertation proposes a method that can be implemented to determine the appropriate location of out-of-step blocking relays. During unstable power swings, a generator or group of generators may accelerate or decelerate leading to voltage depression at the electrical center along with generator tripping. This voltage depression may cause protective relay mis-operation and unintentional separation of the system. In order to avoid unintentional islanding, the potentially mis-operating relays should be blocked from tripping with the use of out-of-step blocking schemes. Blocking these mis-operating relays, combined with an appropriate islanding scheme, help avoid a system wide collapse. The proposed method is tested on data from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council. A triple line outage of the California-Oregon Intertie is studied. The results show that the proposed method is able to successfully identify proper locations of out-of-step blocking scheme.

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Created

Date Created
2017

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High Gain DC-DC and Active Power Decoupling Techniques for Photovoltaic Inverters

Description

The dissertation encompasses the transformer-less single phase PV inverters for both the string and microinverter applications. Two of the major challenge with such inverters include the presence of high-frequency common mode leakage current and double line frequency power decoupling with

The dissertation encompasses the transformer-less single phase PV inverters for both the string and microinverter applications. Two of the major challenge with such inverters include the presence of high-frequency common mode leakage current and double line frequency power decoupling with reliable capacitors without compromising converter power density. Two solutions are presented in this dissertation: half-bridge voltage swing (HBVS) and dynamic dc link (DDCL) inverters both of which completely eliminates the ground current through topological improvement. In addition, through active power decoupling technique, the capacitance requirement is reduced for both, thus achieving an all film-capacitor based solution with higher reliability. Also both the approaches are capable of supporting a wide range of power factor.

Moreover, wide band-gap devices (both SiC and GaN) are used for implementing their hardware prototypes. It enables the switching frequency to be high without compromising on the converter efficiency. Also it allows a reduced magnetic component size, further enabling a high power density solution, with power density far beyond the state-of-the art solutions.

Additionally, for the transformer-less microinverter application, another challenge is to achieve a very high gain DC-DC stage with a simultaneous high conversion efficiency. An extended duty ratio (EDR) boost converter which is a hybrid of switched capacitors and interleaved inductor technique, has been implemented for this purpose. It offers higher converter efficiency as most of the switches encounter lower voltage stress directly impacting switching loss; the input current being shared among all the interleaved converters (inherent sharing only in a limited duty ratio), the inductor conduction loss is reduced by a factor of the number of phases.

Further, the EDR boost converter has been studied for both discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) operations and operations with wide input/output voltage range in continuous conduction mode (CCM). A current sharing between its interleaved input phases is studied in detail to show that inherent sharing is possible for only in a limited duty ratio span, and modification of the duty ratio scheme is proposed to ensure equal current sharing over all the operating range for 3 phase EDR boost. All the analysis are validated with experimental results.

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Created

Date Created
2017

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Determination of Hotspot Location and Conductor Temperatures from Spare Duct Temperatures in an Underground Installation

Description

In this work a comparison has been made between the predictions from the models using both the present theory for the underground cable temperature prediction and the CYMCAP application and the field measurements to determine which, if any, models are

In this work a comparison has been made between the predictions from the models using both the present theory for the underground cable temperature prediction and the CYMCAP application and the field measurements to determine which, if any, models are capable of predicting the temperature and hotspot locations in an installation where the power cable is not embedded with the optical fibers and, therefore, where the cable temperatures must be inferred from the temperature measurements made in nearby spare ducts. The temperature measurements were collected from the underground 69 kV cable at the Brandow-Pickrell installation, which is a part of Salt River Project’s power sub-transmission system. The model development and the results are explained in detail. Results from the model developed have been compared and the factors affecting the cable temperature are highlighted.

Once the models were developed, it was observed that the earth surface temperature above the installation, solar radiation and other external factors such as underlying water lines, drain pipes, etc. play a key role in heating up or cooling down the power cables. It was also determined that the hotspot location in the power cable in the main duct was the same as the hotspot location in the spare duct inside the same installation.

It was also observed that the CYMCAP model had its limitations when the earth surface temperature variations were modeled in the software as the software only allows the earth’s ambient temperature to be modeled as a constant; further, results from the MATLAB model were more in line with the present theory of underground power cable temperature prediction. However, simulation results from both the MATLAB and CYMCAP model showed deviation from the measured data. It was also observed that the spare duct temperatures in this particular underground installation seemed to be affected by external factors such as solar radiation, underlying water lines, gas lines etc. which cannot be modeled in CYMCAP.

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Date Created
2017

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Nuclear fission weapon yield, type, and neutron spectrum determination using thin Li-ion batteries

Description

With the status of nuclear proliferation around the world becoming more and more complex, nuclear forensics methods are needed to restrain the unlawful usage of nuclear devices. Lithium-ion batteries are present ubiquitously in consumer electronic devices nowadays. More importantly, the

With the status of nuclear proliferation around the world becoming more and more complex, nuclear forensics methods are needed to restrain the unlawful usage of nuclear devices. Lithium-ion batteries are present ubiquitously in consumer electronic devices nowadays. More importantly, the materials inside the batteries have the potential to be used as neutron detectors, just like the activation foils used in reactor experiments. Therefore, in a nuclear weapon detonation incident, these lithium-ion batteries can serve as sensors that are spatially distributed.

In order to validate the feasibility of such an approach, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) models are built for various lithium-ion batteries, as well as neutron transport from different fission nuclear weapons. To obtain the precise battery compositions for the MCNP models, a destructive inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis is utilized. The same battery types are irradiated in a series of reactor experiments to validate the MCNP models and the methodology. The MCNP nuclear weapon radiation transport simulations are used to mimic the nuclear detonation incident to study the correlation between the nuclear reactions inside the batteries and the neutron spectra. Subsequently, the irradiated battery activities are used in the SNL-SAND-IV code to reconstruct the neutron spectrum for both the reactor experiments and the weapon detonation simulations.

Based on this study, empirical data show that the lithium-ion batteries have the potential to serve as widely distributed neutron detectors in this simulated environment to (1) calculate the nuclear device yield, (2) differentiate between gun and implosion fission weapons, and (3) reconstruct the neutron spectrum of the device.

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Date Created
2017

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PV System Information Enhancement and Better Control of Power Systems.

Description

Due to the rapid penetration of solar power systems in residential areas, there has

been a dramatic increase in bidirectional power flow. Such a phenomenon of bidirectional

power flow creates a need to know where Photovoltaic (PV) systems are

located, what their quantity

Due to the rapid penetration of solar power systems in residential areas, there has

been a dramatic increase in bidirectional power flow. Such a phenomenon of bidirectional

power flow creates a need to know where Photovoltaic (PV) systems are

located, what their quantity is, and how much they generate. However, significant

challenges exist for accurate solar panel detection, capacity quantification,

and generation estimation by employing existing methods, because of the limited

labeled ground truth and relatively poor performance for direct supervised learning.

To mitigate these issue, this thesis revolutionizes key learning concepts to (1)

largely increase the volume of training data set and expand the labelled data set by

creating highly realistic solar panel images, (2) boost detection and quantification

learning through physical knowledge and (3) greatly enhance the generation estimation

capability by utilizing effective features and neighboring generation patterns.

These techniques not only reshape the machine learning methods in the GIS

domain but also provides a highly accurate solution to gain a better understanding

of distribution networks with high PV penetration. The numerical

validation and performance evaluation establishes the high accuracy and scalability

of the proposed methodologies on the existing solar power systems in the

Southwest region of the United States of America. The distribution and transmission

networks both have primitive control methodologies, but now is the high time

to work out intelligent control schemes based on reinforcement learning and show

that they can not only perform well but also have the ability to adapt to the changing

environments. This thesis proposes a sequence task-based learning method to

create an agent that can learn to come up with the best action set that can overcome

the issues of transient over-voltage.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019

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Establishing the Value of Battery Energy Storage System in a dc Fast Charging Sta-tion

Description

The objectives of this research project were to develop a model of real power demand from a dc fast charging station both with and without an integrated battery energy storage system (BESS). An optimal deterministic control strategy was devel-oped to

The objectives of this research project were to develop a model of real power demand from a dc fast charging station both with and without an integrated battery energy storage system (BESS). An optimal deterministic control strategy was devel-oped to perform load-shaping under various scenarios with various load-shaping goals in mind to establish the value for BESS’s with various power and energy capacities.

To achieve these objectives, first a statistical model of electric vehicle drivers’ charging behaviors (home charging and dc fast charging) was constructed and simu-lated according to empirical charging data and several key findings about people’s charging habits in the literature.

Data of private vehicles’ driving records was extracted from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), derived 42 statistical distributions that mathe-matically modeled people’s driving behaviors. From this start, two algorithms were developed to simulate driver behavior: one using a database sampling method (DSM) and another using probability distribution sampling method (PDSM) to simulate the electric vehicles’ driving cycles. Both methods used data and statistical distributions derived from NHTS. Next, a model of the EV drivers’ charging behavior was incor-porated into the simulation of the electric vehicles’ driving cycles, and then the ve-hicles’ charging behaviors were simulated. From these simulations, one can forecast the real-power demand of a typical dc fast charging station with six dc 50 kW fast chargers serving a population of 700 EVs. (The ratio of six dc fast chargers to 700 EVs was selected based on the current value of this ratio in the US.) Next, a BESS was integrated into the dc fast charging station demand model and the size and charging behavior was optimized to account for different criteria which were based on the goals of the different potential owners: SRP or a third-party owner. It was established when a BESS would become economically feasible using a simplified economic model.

It was observed that the real-power demand shape is a function of the size of the BESS and the owner’s objective, i.e., flattening the demand curve or minimizing the cost of electricity.

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Created

Date Created
2019

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Accurate Estimation of Core Losses for PFC Inductors

Description

As the world becomes more electronic, power electronics designers have continuously designed more efficient converters. However, with the rising number of nonlinear loads (i.e. electronics) attached to the grid, power quality concerns, and emerging legislation, converters that intake alternating current

As the world becomes more electronic, power electronics designers have continuously designed more efficient converters. However, with the rising number of nonlinear loads (i.e. electronics) attached to the grid, power quality concerns, and emerging legislation, converters that intake alternating current (AC) and output direct current (DC) known as rectifiers are increasingly implementing power factor correction (PFC) by controlling the input current. For a properly designed PFC-stage inductor, the major design goals include exceeding minimum inductance, remaining below the saturation flux density, high power density, and high efficiency. In meeting these goals, loss calculation is critical in evaluating designs. This input current from PFC circuitry leads to a DC bias through the filter inductor that makes accurate core loss estimation exceedingly difficult as most modern loss estimation techniques neglect the effects of a DC bias. This thesis explores prior loss estimation and design methods, investigates finite element analysis (FEA) design tools, and builds a magnetics test bed setup to empirically determine a magnetic core’s loss under any electrical excitation. In the end, the magnetics test bed hardware results are compared and future work needed to improve the test bed is outlined.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019