Matching Items (33)

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Dynamic Modeling, Design and Control of Power Converters for Renewable Interface and Microgrids

Description

Distributed energy resources have experienced dramatic growth and are beginning to support a significant amount of customer loads. Power electronic converters are the primary interface between the grid and the

Distributed energy resources have experienced dramatic growth and are beginning to support a significant amount of customer loads. Power electronic converters are the primary interface between the grid and the distributed energy resources/storage and offer several advantages including fast control, flexibility and high efficiency. The efficiency and the power density by volume are important performance metrics of a power converter. Compact and high efficiency power converter is beneficial to the cost-effectiveness of the converter interfaced generations. In this thesis, a soft-switching technique is proposed to reduce the size of passive components in a grid-connected converter while maintaining a high power conversion efficiency. The dynamic impact of the grid-connected converters on the power system is causing concerns as the penetration level of the converter interfaced generation increases, necessitating a detailed dynamic analysis. The unbalanced nature of distribution systems makes the conventional transient stability simulation based on positive sequence components unsuitable for this purpose. Methods suitable for the dynamic simulation of grid-connected converters in large scale unbalanced and single-phase systems are presented in this thesis to provide an effective way to study the dynamic interactions between the grid and the converters. Dynamic-link library (DLL) of converter dynamic models are developed by which converter dynamic simulations can be easily conducted in OpenDSS. To extend the converter controls testing beyond pure simulation, real-time simulation can be utilized where partial realistic scenarios can be created by including realistic components in the simulation loop. In this work, a multi-platform, real-time simulation testbed including actual digital controller platforms, communication networks and inverters has been developed for validating the microgrid concepts and implementations. A hierarchical converted based microgrid control scheme is proposed which enables the islanded microgrid operation with 100% penetration level of converter interfaced generation. Impact of the load side dynamic modeling on the converter response is also discussed in this thesis.

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  • 2018

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Evaluation of Battery Performance in MMC based BESS

Description

Li-ion batteries are being used on a large scale varying from consumer electronics to electric vehicles. The key to efficient use of batteries is implementing a well-developed battery management system.

Li-ion batteries are being used on a large scale varying from consumer electronics to electric vehicles. The key to efficient use of batteries is implementing a well-developed battery management system. Also, there is an opportunity for research for improving the battery performance in terms of size and capacity. For all this it is imperative to develop Li-ion cell model that replicate the performance of a physical cell unit. This report discusses a dual polarization cell model and a battery management system implemented to control the operation of the battery. The Li-ion cell is modelled, and the performance is observed in PLECS environment.

The main aspect of this report studies the viability of Li-ion battery application in Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) in Modular multilevel converter (MMC). MMC-based BESS is a promising solution for grid-level battery energy storage to accelerate utilization and integration of intermittent renewable energy resources, i.e., solar and wind energy. When the battery units are directly integrated in submodules (SMs) without dc-dc interfaced converters, this configuration provides highest system efficiency and lowest cost. However, the lifetime of battery will be affected by the low-frequency components contained in arm currents, which has not been thoroughly investigated. This paper investigates impact of various low-frequency arm-current ripples on lifetime of Li-ion battery cells and evaluate performance of battery charging and discharging in an MMC-BESS without dc-dc interfaced converters.

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  • 2018

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Development of a Load-Managing Photovoltaic System Topology

Description

Nearly all solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are designed with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) functionality to maximize the utilization of available power from the PV array throughout the day. In

Nearly all solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are designed with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) functionality to maximize the utilization of available power from the PV array throughout the day. In conventional PV systems, the MPPT function is handled by a power electronic device, like a DC-AC inverter. However, given that most PV systems are designed to be grid-connected, there are several challenges for designing PV systems for DC-powered applications and off-grid applications. The first challenge is that all power electronic devices introduce some degree of power loss. Beyond the cost of the lost power, the upfront cost of power electronics also increases with the required power rating. Second, there are very few commercially available options for DC-DC converters that include MPPT functionality, and nearly all PV inverters are designed as “grid-following” devices, as opposed to “grid-forming” devices, meaning they cannot be used in off-grid applications.

To address the challenges of designing PV systems for high-power DC and off-grid applications, a load-managing photovoltaic (LMPV) system topology has been proposed. Instead of using power electronics, the LMPV system performs maximum power point tracking through load management. By implementing a load-management approach, the upfront costs and the power losses associated with the power electronics are avoided, both of which improve the economic viability of the PV system. This work introduces the concept of an LMPV system, provides in-depth analyses through both simulation and experimental validation, and explores several potential applications of the system, such as solar-powered commercial-scale electrolyzers for the production of hydrogen fuel or the production and purification of raw materials like caustic soda, copper, and zinc.

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  • 2020

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On Enhancing Microgrid Control and the Optimal Design of a Modular Solid-State Transformer with Grid-Forming Inverter

Description

This dissertation covers three primary topics and relates them in context. High frequency transformer design, microgrid modeling and control, and converter design as it pertains to the other topics are

This dissertation covers three primary topics and relates them in context. High frequency transformer design, microgrid modeling and control, and converter design as it pertains to the other topics are each investigated, establishing a summary of the state-of-the-art at the intersection of the three as a baseline. The culminating work produced by the confluence of these topics is a novel modular solid-state transformer (SST) design, featuring an array of dual active bridge (DAB) converters, each of which contains an optimized high-frequency transformer, and an array of grid-forming inverters (GFI) suitable for centralized control in a microgrid environment. While no hardware was produced for this design, detailed modeling and simulation has been completed, and results are contextualized by rigorous analysis and comparison with results from published literature. The main contributions to each topic are best presented by topic area. For transformers, contributions include collation and presentation of the best-known methods of minimum loss high-frequency transformer design and analysis, descriptions of the implementation of these methods into a unified design script as well as access to an example of such a script, and the derivation and presentation of novel tools for analysis of multi-winding and multi-frequency transformers. For microgrid modeling and control, contributions include the modeling and simulation validation of the GFI and SST designs via state space modeling in a multi-scale simulation framework, as well as demonstration of stable and effective participation of these models in a centralized control scheme under phase imbalance. For converters, the SST design, analysis, and simulation are the primary contributions, though several novel derivations and analysis tools are also presented for the asymmetric half bridge and DAB.

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  • 2019

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Advanced high frequency soft-switching converters for automotive applications

Description

Presently, hard-switching buck/boost converters are dominantly used for automotive applications. Automotive applications have stringent system requirements for dc-dc converters, such as wide input voltage range and limited EMI noise emission.

Presently, hard-switching buck/boost converters are dominantly used for automotive applications. Automotive applications have stringent system requirements for dc-dc converters, such as wide input voltage range and limited EMI noise emission. High switching frequency of the dc-dc converters is much desired in automotive applications for avoiding AM band interference and for compact size. However, hard switching buck converter is not suitable at high frequency operation because of its low efficiency. In addition, buck converter has high EMI noise due to its hard-switching. Therefore, soft-switching topologies are considered in this thesis work to improve the performance of the dc-dc converters.

Many soft-switching topologies are reviewed but none of them is well suited for the given automotive applications. Two soft-switching PWM converters are proposed in this work. For low power automotive POL applications, a new active-clamp buck converter is proposed. Comprehensive analysis of this converter is presented. A 2.2 MHz, 25 W active-clamp buck converter prototype with Si MOSFETs was designed and built. The experimental results verify the operation of the converter. For 12 V to 5 V conversion, the Si based prototype achieves a peak efficiency of 89.7%. To further improve the efficiency, GaN FETs are used and an optimized SR turn-off delay is employed. Then, a peak efficiency of 93.22% is achieved. The EMI test result shows significantly improved EMI performance of the proposed active-clamp buck converter. Last, large- and small-signal models of the proposed converter are derived and verified by simulation.

For automotive dual voltage system, a new bidirectional zero-voltage-transition (ZVT) converter with coupled-inductor is proposed in this work. With the coupled-inductor, the current to realize zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) of main switches is much reduced and the core loss is minimized. Detailed analysis and design considerations for the proposed converter are presented. A 1 MHz, 250 W prototype is designed and constructed. The experimental results verify the operation. Peak efficiencies of 93.98% and 92.99% are achieved in buck mode and boost mode, respectively. Significant efficiency improvement is achieved from the efficiency comparison between the hard-switching buck converter and the proposed ZVT converter with coupled-inductor.

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  • 2016

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Impact of converter interfaced generation and load on grid performance

Description

Alternate sources of energy such as wind, solar photovoltaic and fuel cells are coupled to the power grid with the help of solid state converters. Continued deregulation of the power

Alternate sources of energy such as wind, solar photovoltaic and fuel cells are coupled to the power grid with the help of solid state converters. Continued deregulation of the power sector coupled with favorable government incentives has resulted in the rapid growth of renewable energy sources connected to the distribution system at a voltage level of 34.5kV or below. Of late, many utilities are also investing in these alternate sources of energy with the point of interconnection with the power grid being at the transmission level. These converter interfaced generation along with their associated control have the ability to provide the advantage of fast control of frequency, voltage, active, and reactive power. However, their ability to provide stability in a large system is yet to be investigated in detail. This is the primary objective of this research.

In the future, along with an increase in the percentage of converter interfaced renewable energy sources connected to the transmission network, there exists a possibility of even connecting synchronous machines to the grid through converters. Thus, all sources of energy can be expected to be coupled to the grid through converters. The control and operation of such a grid will be unlike anything that has been encountered till now. In this dissertation, the operation and behavior of such a grid will be investigated. The first step in such an analysis will be to build an accurate and simple mathematical model to represent the corresponding components in commercial software. Once this bridge has been crossed, conventional machines will be replaced with their solid state interfaced counterparts in a phased manner. At each stage, attention will be devoted to the control of these sources and also on the stability performance of the large power system.

This dissertation addresses various concerns regarding the control and operation of a futuristic power grid. In addition, this dissertation also aims to address the issue of whether a requirement may arise to redefine operational reliability criteria based on the results obtained.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Solar micro inverter modeling and reliability

Description

The demand for cleaner energy technology is increasing very rapidly. Hence it is

important to increase the eciency and reliability of this emerging clean energy technologies.

This thesis focuses on modeling and

The demand for cleaner energy technology is increasing very rapidly. Hence it is

important to increase the eciency and reliability of this emerging clean energy technologies.

This thesis focuses on modeling and reliability of solar micro inverters. In

order to make photovoltaics (PV) cost competitive with traditional energy sources,

the economies of scale have been guiding inverter design in two directions: large,

centralized, utility-scale (500 kW) inverters vs. small, modular, module level (300

W) power electronics (MLPE). MLPE, such as microinverters and DC power optimizers,

oer advantages in safety, system operations and maintenance, energy yield,

and component lifetime due to their smaller size, lower power handling requirements,

and module-level power point tracking and monitoring capability [1]. However, they

suer from two main disadvantages: rst, depending on array topology (especially

the proximity to the PV module), they can be subjected to more extreme environments

(i.e. temperature cycling) during the day, resulting in a negative impact to

reliability; second, since solar installations can have tens of thousands to millions of

modules (and as many MLPE units), it may be dicult or impossible to track and

repair units as they go out of service. Therefore identifying the weak links in this

system is of critical importance to develop more reliable micro inverters.

While an overwhelming majority of time and research has focused on PV module

eciency and reliability, these issues have been largely ignored for the balance

of system components. As a relatively nascent industry, the PV power electronics

industry does not have the extensive, standardized reliability design and testing procedures

that exist in the module industry or other more mature power electronics

industries (e.g. automotive). To do so, the critical components which are at risk and

their impact on the system performance has to be studied. This thesis identies and

addresses some of the issues related to reliability of solar micro inverters.

This thesis presents detailed discussions on various components of solar micro inverter

and their design. A micro inverter with very similar electrical specications in

comparison with commercial micro inverter is modeled in detail and veried. Components

in various stages of micro inverter are listed and their typical failure mechanisms

are reviewed. A detailed FMEA is conducted for a typical micro inverter to identify

the weak links of the system. Based on the S, O and D metrics, risk priority number

(RPN) is calculated to list the critical at-risk components. Degradation of DC bus

capacitor is identied as one the failure mechanism and the degradation model is built

to study its eect on the system performance. The system is tested for surge immunity

using standard ring and combinational surge waveforms as per IEEE 62.41 and

IEC 61000-4-5 standards. All the simulation presented in this thesis is performed

using PLECS simulation software.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Nuclear fission weapon yield, type, and neutron spectrum determination using thin Li-ion batteries

Description

With the status of nuclear proliferation around the world becoming more and more complex, nuclear forensics methods are needed to restrain the unlawful usage of nuclear devices. Lithium-ion batteries are

With the status of nuclear proliferation around the world becoming more and more complex, nuclear forensics methods are needed to restrain the unlawful usage of nuclear devices. Lithium-ion batteries are present ubiquitously in consumer electronic devices nowadays. More importantly, the materials inside the batteries have the potential to be used as neutron detectors, just like the activation foils used in reactor experiments. Therefore, in a nuclear weapon detonation incident, these lithium-ion batteries can serve as sensors that are spatially distributed.

In order to validate the feasibility of such an approach, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) models are built for various lithium-ion batteries, as well as neutron transport from different fission nuclear weapons. To obtain the precise battery compositions for the MCNP models, a destructive inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis is utilized. The same battery types are irradiated in a series of reactor experiments to validate the MCNP models and the methodology. The MCNP nuclear weapon radiation transport simulations are used to mimic the nuclear detonation incident to study the correlation between the nuclear reactions inside the batteries and the neutron spectra. Subsequently, the irradiated battery activities are used in the SNL-SAND-IV code to reconstruct the neutron spectrum for both the reactor experiments and the weapon detonation simulations.

Based on this study, empirical data show that the lithium-ion batteries have the potential to serve as widely distributed neutron detectors in this simulated environment to (1) calculate the nuclear device yield, (2) differentiate between gun and implosion fission weapons, and (3) reconstruct the neutron spectrum of the device.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Soft-Switching Techniques of Power Conversion System in Automotive Chargers

Description

This thesis investigates different unidirectional topologies for the on-board charger in an electric vehicle and proposes soft-switching solutions in both the AC/DC and DC/DC stage of the converter with a

This thesis investigates different unidirectional topologies for the on-board charger in an electric vehicle and proposes soft-switching solutions in both the AC/DC and DC/DC stage of the converter with a power rating of 3.3 kW. With an overview on different charger topologies and their applicability with respect to the target specification a soft-switching technique to reduce the switching losses of a single phase boost-type PFC is proposed. This work is followed by a modification to the popular soft-switching topology, the dual active bridge (DAB) converter for application requiring unidirectional power flow. The topology named as the semi-dual active bridge (S-DAB) is obtained by replacing the fully active (four switches) bridge on the load side of a DAB by a semi-active (two switches and two diodes) bridge. The operating principles, waveforms in different intervals and expression for power transfer, which differ significantly from the basic DAB topology, are presented in detail. The zero-voltage switching (ZVS) characteristics and requirements are analyzed in detail and compared to those of DAB. A small-signal model of the new configuration is also derived. The analysis and performance of S-DAB are validated through extensive simulation and experimental results from a hardware prototype.

Secondly, a low-loss auxiliary circuit for a power factor correction (PFC) circuit to achieve zero voltage transition is also proposed to improve the efficiency and operating frequency of the converter. The high dynamic energy generated in the switching node during turn-on is diverted by providing a parallel path through an auxiliary inductor and a transistor placed across the main inductor. The paper discusses the operating principles, design, and merits of the proposed scheme with hardware validation on a 3.3 kW/ 500 kHz PFC prototype. Modifications to the proposed zero voltage transition (ZVT) circuit is also investigated by implementing two topological variations. Firstly, an integrated magnetic structure is built combining the main inductor and auxiliary inductor in a single core reducing the total footprint of the circuit board. This improvement also reduces the size of the auxiliary capacitor required in the ZVT operation. The second modification redirects the ZVT energy from the input end to the DC link through additional half-bridge circuit and inductor. The half-bridge operating at constant 50% duty cycle simulates a switching leg of the following DC/DC stage of the converter. A hardware prototype of the above-mentioned PFC and DC/DC stage was developed and the operating principles were verified using the same.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Modeling, Control and Design of Modular Multilevel Converters for High Power Applications

Description

Modular multilevel converters (MMCs) have become an attractive technology for high power applications. One of the main challenges associated with control and operation of the MMC-based systems is to smoothly

Modular multilevel converters (MMCs) have become an attractive technology for high power applications. One of the main challenges associated with control and operation of the MMC-based systems is to smoothly precharge submodule (SM) capacitors to the nominal voltage during the startup process. The existing closed-loop methods require additional effort to analyze the small-signal model of MMC and tune control parameters. The existing open-loop methods require auxiliary voltage sources to charge SM capacitors, which add to the system complexity and cost. A generalized precharging strategy is proposed in this thesis.

For large-scale MMC-embedded power systems, it is required to investigate dynamic performance, fault characteristics, and stability. Modeling of the MMC is one of the challenges associated with the study of large-scale MMC-based power systems. The existing models of MMC did not consider the various configurations of SMs and different operating conditions. An improved equivalent circuit model is proposed in this thesis.

The solid state transformer (SST) has been investigated for the distribution systems to reduce the volume and weight of power transformer. Recently, the MMC is employed into the SST due to its salient features. For design and control of the MMC-based SST, its operational principles are comprehensively analyzed. Based on the analysis, its mathematical model is developed for evaluating steady-state performances. For optimal design of the MMC-based SST, the mathematical model is modified by considering circuit parameters.

One of the challenges of the MMC-based SST is the balancing of capacitor voltages. The performances of various voltage balancing algorithms and different modulation methods have not been comprehensively evaluated. In this thesis, the performances of different voltage-balancing algorithms and modulation methods are analyzed and evaluated. Based on the analysis, two improved voltage-balancing algorithms are proposed in this thesis.

For design of the MMC-based SST, existing references only focus on optimal design of medium-frequency transformer (MFT). In this thesis, an optimal design procedure is developed for the MMC under medium-frequency operation based on the mathematical model of the MMC-based SST. The design performance of MMC is comprehensively evaluated based on free system parameters.

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Date Created
  • 2020