Matching Items (47)

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Responses to Cheating in Need-Based Transfers: An Agent Based Model

Description

Gift-giving economies are economic models that freely give resources rather than barter for them or purchase them from market. Need-based transfers fit into this economic model by freely giving resources

Gift-giving economies are economic models that freely give resources rather than barter for them or purchase them from market. Need-based transfers fit into this economic model by freely giving resources on the basis of need, provided the giver can spare the resources. The Maasai are an East African pastoral tribe that practices need-based transfers through a tradition they call osotua. If they have a partner with an established osotua relationship, then they will give any amount of cattle that partner request, provided they can spare the cattle. Cheating each other is unheard of in this tradition, but for this simulation I am introducing cheating into this economic model through feigning need. If a cheater is not in need, they will act like they are in need. If they are in need, then the cheater will request more cattle than what they need to survive. I am testing two different responses to cheating: walking-away and punishing. In the walk-away condition, the victim ends their osotua partnership and establishes a new one. In the punishment condition, a portion of the cheater's stolen cattle is destroyed.

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Agent

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The Association Between Ongoing Task Context and Target Action Influences Activity-Based Prospective Memory

Description

Prospective memory is defined as the process of remembering to do something at a particular point in the future after first forming a conscious intention. There are three types of

Prospective memory is defined as the process of remembering to do something at a particular point in the future after first forming a conscious intention. There are three types of prospective memory intentions; event-based, time-based and activity-based intentions. Research has suggested that activity-based is one of the dominant prospective memory failures that people self-report yet there is little research on this area of prospective memory. The current study focuses on how activity-based PM is influenced by the association between the match of internal context and intended action. According to previous research, similar context between intention formation and retrieval has been shown to facilitate prospective memory, which increases the execution of intentions. Based on literature, we hypothesized that there would be higher intention completion when the internal context matches the intended action to be completed in the future. Results showed that internal context affected activity-based intention completion significantly. However the interaction between internal context and the intended action did not significantly affect intention completion. Although we did not get the hypothesized interaction, the means do cross over showing the interaction pattern is there. We decided to treat this as a pilot study and replicate it with a well-powered experiment consisting of 560 valid participants.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

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The Influence of Parental Overprotection on the Prevention of Anxiety Symptoms in Caucasian and Hispanic/Latino Children

Description

This study examined whether changes in intervention related gains from the REACH for Personal and Academic Success program, an indicated anxiety prevention school-based protocol, vary as a function of participant

This study examined whether changes in intervention related gains from the REACH for Personal and Academic Success program, an indicated anxiety prevention school-based protocol, vary as a function of participant youth's exposure to overprotective parenting. This study also examined if ethnicity/race (Caucasian vs. Hispanic/Latino) interacts with overprotective parenting to predict program response. A total of 98 children (M age = 9.70, SD = .07; 77.60% girls; 60.20% Hispanic/Latino) received 1 of 2 protocols (REACH or academic support) and responses were measured at post-treatment and 1-year follow-up. Findings showed that child self-regulation skills improved in the school program (REACH) for children of parents with low levels of overprotection, and child self-regulation skills improved in the control program (academic support) for children of parents with high levels of overprotection. These findings were significant in the Hispanic/Latino subsample, but not in Caucasian youth.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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The Neural Correlates of Embodied Cognition in Comprehension and Imagination

Description

The premise of the embodied cognition hypothesis is that cognitive processes require emotion, sensory, and motor systems in the brain, rather than using arbitrary symbols divorced from sensorimotor systems. The

The premise of the embodied cognition hypothesis is that cognitive processes require emotion, sensory, and motor systems in the brain, rather than using arbitrary symbols divorced from sensorimotor systems. The hypothesis explains many of the mechanisms of mental simulation or imagination and how they facilitate comprehension of concepts. Some forms of embodied processing can be measured using electroencephalography (EEG), in a particular waveform known as the mu rhythm (8-13 Hz) in the sensorimotor cortex of the brain. Power in the mu band is suppressed (or de-synchronized) when an individual performs an action, as well as when the individual imagines performing the action, thus mu suppression measures embodied imagination. An important question however is whether the sensorimotor cortex involvement while reading, as measured by mu suppression, is part of the comprehension of what is read or if it is arises after comprehension has taken place. To answer this question, participants first took the Gates-MacGinitie reading comprehension test. Then, mu-suppression was measured while participants read experimental materials. The degree of mu-suppression while reading verbs correlated .45 with their score on the Gates-MacGinitie test. This correlation strongly suggests that the sensorimotor system involvement while reading action sentences is part of the comprehension process rather than being an aftereffect.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Everyday Functioning in Individuals with Psychotic-like Experiences: Information Gleaned from Friends and Family

Description

Psychotic-Like Experiences (PLEs) are prevalent in the general population and may be a marker of risk for psychosis, yet little is known about the everyday functioning of individuals with PLEs.

Psychotic-Like Experiences (PLEs) are prevalent in the general population and may be a marker of risk for psychosis, yet little is known about the everyday functioning of individuals with PLEs. The purpose of this study was to compare everyday functioning of people with and without PLEs. Participants were 108 college students enrolled in an introductory psychology course who were selected for participation in the study because they scored in the top and bottom 10% of a screening test for PLEs. Informants were emailed questionnaires and asked to report on the participants' functioning in three domains: interpersonal functioning, disorganized behavior, and cognitive-perceptual functioning. Informants also reported on participants' attention and memory problems. Results showed that, consistent with prior research, individuals high in PLEs were from lower SES families and reported more depression, anxiety, and substance use. Moreover, informants for participants high in PLEs reported more unusual/disorganized behavior than informants for participants low in PLEs. No differences were observed between individuals high versus low in PLEs for informant-reported interpersonal functioning and attention and memory problems, however. Findings suggest that noticeable difficulties among individuals with PLEs are limited to disorganized behavior. More research is needed to determine the functional consequences of disorganized behavior among individuals with PLEs.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

Joint Action Produces Super Mirror Neurons

Description

Abstract: Behavioral evidence suggests that joint coordinated movement attunes one's own motor system to the actions of another. This attunement is called a joint body schema (JBS). According to the

Abstract: Behavioral evidence suggests that joint coordinated movement attunes one's own motor system to the actions of another. This attunement is called a joint body schema (JBS). According to the JBS hypothesis, the attunement arises from heightened mirror neuron sensitivity to the actions of the other person. This study uses EEG mu suppression, an index of mirror neuron system activity, to provide neurophysiological evidence for the JBS hypothesis. After a joint action task in which the experimenter used her left hand, the participant's EEG revealed greater mu suppression (compared to before the task) in her right cerebral hemisphere when watching a left hand movement. This enhanced mu suppression was found regardless of whether the participant was moving or watching the experimenter move. These results are suggestive of super mirror neurons, that is, mirror neurons which are strengthened in sensitivity to another after a joint action task and do not distinguish between whether the individual or the individual's partner is moving.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Leaders at Face-Value

Description

Besides acquiring group status via dominance or force, as in other animals, human beings can acquire status via prestige, which follows from other group members valuing one’s expert knowledge. Past

Besides acquiring group status via dominance or force, as in other animals, human beings can acquire status via prestige, which follows from other group members valuing one’s expert knowledge. Past research has shown a preference for prestigious leaders over dominant leaders. That is, people prefer leaders who are expert over those who are domineering. In this research, I explored whether the preference for prestige over dominance applies to preferences for actual political figures with facial features that appear dominant or prestigious. I also asked whether the same links between dominance, prestige, and voter preference would hold for both men and women. American participants (recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated European politicians’ faces on traits associated with prestige and dominance and indicated their likelihood of voting for this person as a governor of their state. Findings suggest ratings of both prestige is a strong predictor of leadership preference than dominance. However, strong correlations between variables suggest prestige and dominance are two closely related concepts. In addition, participants indicated a marginal to significant preference for female leaders, depending on their perceived dominance and prestigiousness.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Mania Symptom Endorsement and Creativity

Description

Bipolar disorder will affect an estimated 4.4% of adults in the U.S (Bipolar Disorder, 2017). This study addresses the hypothesis that individuals endorsing mania symptoms also tend to show increased

Bipolar disorder will affect an estimated 4.4% of adults in the U.S (Bipolar Disorder, 2017). This study addresses the hypothesis that individuals endorsing mania symptoms also tend to show increased creativity. There has been some empirical support linking mania and creativity, as well as anecdotal evidence of highly creative individuals posthumously being diagnosed with some form of bipolar disorder. To our knowledge, however, no prior studies have sought to link specific symptoms of mania with creativity. Participants in this study completed two separate creativity tasks, measuring convergent and divergent thinking, respectively; the Remote Associates Test (RAT) and the Alternate Uses Test (AUT). Two questionnaires followed: The Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Scale (BIS/BAS; Carver & White, 1994) with subscales for Drive, Fun Seeking and Reward Responsiveness and the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS; Stanton, McArtor & Watson, 2017) with subscales for an individual’s level of Modesty, Charisma, Activation, Intellectual Confidence and Lability. Multiple regression analyses revealed that scores on Activation, Intellectual Confidence, and Modesty significantly predicted creative test scores. Future studies may seek to replicate the study with a different community or use different measures of creativity.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Utilizing MRI Texture Analysis and APOE Genotype to Predict the Aging Brain as a Potential Method for Early Assessment of Alzheimer's Disease

Description

Background: Noninvasive MRI methods that can accurately detect subtle brain changes are highly desirable when studying disease-modifying interventions. Texture analysis is a novel imaging technique which utilizes the extraction of

Background: Noninvasive MRI methods that can accurately detect subtle brain changes are highly desirable when studying disease-modifying interventions. Texture analysis is a novel imaging technique which utilizes the extraction of a large number of image features with high specificity and predictive power. In this investigation, we use texture analysis to assess and classify age-related changes in the right and left hippocampal regions, the areas known to show some of the earliest change in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Apolipoprotein E (APOE)'s e4 allele confers an increased risk for AD, so studying differences in APOE e4 carriers may help to ascertain subtle brain changes before there has been an obvious change in behavior. We examined texture analysis measures that predict age-related changes, which reflect atrophy in a group of cognitively normal individuals. We hypothesized that the APOE e4 carriers would exhibit significant age-related differences in texture features compared to non-carriers, so that the predictive texture features hold promise for early assessment of AD. Methods: 120 normal adults between the ages of 32 and 90 were recruited for this neuroimaging study from a larger parent study at Mayo Clinic Arizona studying longitudinal cognitive functioning (Caselli et al., 2009). As part of the parent study, the participants were genotyped for APOE genetic polymorphisms and received comprehensive cognitive testing every two years, on average. Neuroimaging was done at Barrow Neurological Institute and a 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance image was obtained during scanning that allowed for subsequent texture analysis processing. Voxel-based features of the appearance, structure, and arrangement of these regions of interest were extracted utilizing the Mayo Clinic Python Texture Analysis Pipeline (pyTAP). Algorithms applied in feature extraction included Grey-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Gabor Filter Banks (GFB), Local Binary Patterns (LBP), Discrete Orthogonal Stockwell Transform (DOST), and Laplacian-of-Gaussian Histograms (LoGH). Principal component (PC) analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the algorithmically selected features to 13 PCs. A stepwise forward regression model was used to determine the effect of APOE status (APOE e4 carriers vs. noncarriers), and the texture feature principal components on age (as a continuous variable). After identification of 5 significant predictors of age in the model, the individual feature coefficients of those principal components were examined to determine which features contributed most significantly to the prediction of an aging brain. Results: 70 texture features were extracted for the two regions of interest in each participant's scan. The texture features were coded as 70 initial components andwere rotated to generate 13 principal components (PC) that contributed 75% of the variance in the dataset by scree plot analysis. The forward stepwise regression model used in this exploratory study significantly predicted age, accounting for approximately 40% of the variance in the data. The regression model revealed 5 significant regressors (2 right PC's, APOE status, and 2 left PC by APOE interactions). Finally, the specific texture features that contributed to each significant PCs were identified. Conclusion: Analysis of image texture features resulted in a statistical model that was able to detect subtle changes in brain integrity associated with age in a group of participants who are cognitively normal, but have an increased risk of developing AD based on the presence of the APOE e4 phenotype. This is an important finding, given that detecting subtle changes in regions vulnerable to the effects of AD in patients could allow certain texture features to serve as noninvasive, sensitive biomarkers predictive of AD. Even with only a small number of patients, the ability for us to determine sensitive imaging biomarkers could facilitate great improvement in speed of detection and effectiveness of AD interventions..

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Agent

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Together but not for better? Conjugated equine estrogens, estradiol, androstenedione, and their interactions on spatial memory in C-57 mice

Description

Menopause is associated with a wide array of negative symptoms. As average lifespan increases due to advances in healthcare and technology, more women are spending a larger portion of their

Menopause is associated with a wide array of negative symptoms. As average lifespan increases due to advances in healthcare and technology, more women are spending a larger portion of their lives in a menopausal state low in estrogen and progesterone. Hormone therapies such as Conjugated Equine Estrogens (CEE) and the bioidentical estrogen, 17-estradiol (E2), are commonly prescribed to treat the negative symptoms of menopause. Our laboratory has previously shown that CEE has differential effects on cognitive ability depending on whether menopause is transitional (VCD) or surgical (ovariectomy, OVX). Further, the negative impact of CEE on cognitive function in a transitional ovary-intact model of menopause was associated with high levels of serum androstenedione; the primary hormone circulating in a follicle-deplete menopausal state. Here, we investigate the cognitive effects of these two common hormone therapies separately, and in conjunction with the hormone androstenedione, in a "blank-slate" OVX mouse model. We assessed cognitive ability using two behavioral tasks such at the Water Radial Arm Maze (WRAM, measuring spatial working and reference memory) and the Morris water maze (MM, measuring spatial reference memory). In the WRAM, every treatment group saw impaired performance compared to Vehicle but the combination group of E2 plus Androstenedione. In the MM, the combination group of E2 plus Androstenedione actually enhanced performance in the maze compared to every other comparable group. Translationally, these results suggest that CEE given in the presence of an androstenedione-dominant hormone milieu is impairing to cognition, E2 in this same manner is not. These results yield valuable insight into optimal hormone therapies for menopausal women.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05