Matching Items (35)

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Strain management of AlGaN-based distributed Bragg reflectors with GaN interlayer grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

Description

We report the crack-free growth of a 45-pair Al[subscript 0.30]Ga[subscript 0.70]N/Al[subscript 0.04]Ga[subscript 0.96]N distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) on 2 in. diameter AlN/sapphire template by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. To mitigate

We report the crack-free growth of a 45-pair Al[subscript 0.30]Ga[subscript 0.70]N/Al[subscript 0.04]Ga[subscript 0.96]N distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) on 2 in. diameter AlN/sapphire template by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. To mitigate the cracking issue originating from the tensile strain of Al[subscript 0.30]Ga[subscript 0.70]N on GaN, an AlN template was employed in this work. On the other hand, strong compressive strain experienced by Al[subscript 0.04]Ga[subscript 0.96]N favors 3D island growth, which is undesired. We found that inserting an 11 nm thick GaN interlayer upon the completion of AlN template layer properly managed the strain such that the Al[subscript 0.30]Ga[subscript 0.70]N/Al[subscript 0.04]Ga[subscript 0.96]N DBR was able to be grown with an atomically smooth surface morphology. Smooth surfaces and sharp interfaces were observed throughout the structure using high-angle annular dark-field imaging in the STEM. The 45-pair AlGaN-based DBR provided a peak reflectivity of 95.4% at λ = 368 nm with a bandwidth of 15 nm.

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  • 2016-08-25

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Improved optical properties of InAs quantum dots for intermediate band solar cells by suppression of misfit strain relaxation

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The properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) have been studied for application in intermediate band solar cells. It is found that suppression of plastic relaxation in the QDs has a

The properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) have been studied for application in intermediate band solar cells. It is found that suppression of plastic relaxation in the QDs has a significant effect on the optoelectronic properties. Partial capping plus annealing is shown to be effective in controlling the height of the QDs and in suppressing plastic relaxation. A force balancing model is used to explain the relationship between plastic relaxation and QD height. A strong luminescence has been observed from strained QDs, indicating the presence of localized states in the desired energy range. No luminescence has been observed from plastically relaxed QDs.

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  • 2016-07-15

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Demonstration of transverse-magnetic deep-ultraviolet stimulated emission from AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers grown on a sapphire substrate

Description

We demonstrate transverse-magnetic (TM) dominant deep-ultraviolet (DUV) stimulated emission from photo-pumped AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers grown pseudomorphically on an AlN/sapphire template by means of photoluminescence at room temperature. The TM-dominant stimulated

We demonstrate transverse-magnetic (TM) dominant deep-ultraviolet (DUV) stimulated emission from photo-pumped AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers grown pseudomorphically on an AlN/sapphire template by means of photoluminescence at room temperature. The TM-dominant stimulated emission was observed at wavelengths of 239, 242, and 243 nm with low thresholds of 280, 250, and 290 kW/cm[superscript 2], respectively. In particular, the lasing wavelength of 239 nm is shorter compared to other reports for AlGaN lasers grown on foreign substrates including sapphire and SiC. The peak wavelength difference between the transverse-electric (TE)-polarized emission and TM-polarized emission was approximately zero for the lasers in this study, indicating the crossover of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole valence bands. The rapid variation of polarization between TE- and TM-dominance versus the change in lasing wavelength from 243 to 249 nm can be attributed to a dramatic change in the TE-to-TM gain coefficient ratio for the sapphire-based DUV lasers in the vicinity of TE-TM switch.

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  • 2015-01-26

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Low-threshold stimulated emission at 249 nm and 256 nm from AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well lasers grown on sapphire substrates

Description

Optically pumped deep-ultraviolet (DUV) lasing with low threshold was demonstrated from AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well (MQW) heterostructures grown on sapphire substrates. The epitaxial layers were grown pseudomorphically by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

Optically pumped deep-ultraviolet (DUV) lasing with low threshold was demonstrated from AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well (MQW) heterostructures grown on sapphire substrates. The epitaxial layers were grown pseudomorphically by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on (0001) sapphire substrates. Stimulated emission was observed at wavelengths of 256 nm and 249 nm with thresholds of 61 kW/cm[superscript 2] and 95 kW/cm[superscript 2] at room temperature, respectively. The thresholds are comparable to the reported state-of-the-art AlGaN-based MQW DUV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates emitting at 266 nm. These low thresholds are attributed to the optimization of active region and waveguide layer as well as the use of high-quality AlN/sapphire templates. The stimulated emission above threshold was dominated by transverse-electric polarization. This work demonstrates the potential candidacy of sapphire substrates for DUV diode lasers.

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  • 2014-10-06

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InAs quantum dot growth on AlxGa1-xAs by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy for intermediate band solar cells

Description

InAs quantum dot multilayers have been grown using Al[subscript x]Ga[subscript 1−x] As spacers with dimensions and compositions near the theoretical values for optimized efficiencies in intermediate band photovoltaic cells. Using

InAs quantum dot multilayers have been grown using Al[subscript x]Ga[subscript 1−x] As spacers with dimensions and compositions near the theoretical values for optimized efficiencies in intermediate band photovoltaic cells. Using an aluminium composition of x = 0.3 and InAs dot vertical dimensions of 5 nm, transitions to an intermediate band with energy close to the ideal theoretical value have been obtained. Optimum size uniformity and density have been achieved by capping the quantum dots with GaAs following the indium-flush method. This approach has also resulted in minimization of crystalline defects in the epilayer structure.

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  • 2014-09-07

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A Full-Band Monte Carlo Transport Simulator for Wide Bandgap Materials in Power Electronics

Description

4H-SiC has been widely used in many applications. All of these benefit from its extremely high critical electric field and good electron mobility. For example, 4H-SiC possesses a critical field

4H-SiC has been widely used in many applications. All of these benefit from its extremely high critical electric field and good electron mobility. For example, 4H-SiC possesses a critical field ten times higher than that of Si, which allows high-voltage blocking layers composed of 4H-SiC to be approximately a tenth the thickness of a comparable Si device. This, in turn, reduces the device on-resistance and power losses while maintaining the same high blocking capability.

Unfortunately, commercial TCAD tools like Sentaurus and Silvaco Atlas are based on the effective mass approximation, while most 4H-SiC devices are not operated under low electric field, so the parabolic-like band approximation does not hold anymore. Hence, to get more accurate and reliable simulation results, full-band analysis is needed. The first step in the development of a full-band device simulator is the calculation of the band structure. In this work, the empirical pseudopotential method (EPM) is adopted. The next task in the sequence is the calculation of the scattering rates. Acoustic, non-polar optical phonon, polar optical phonon and Coulomb scattering are considered. Coulomb scattering is treated in real space using the particle-particle-particle-mesh (P3M) approach. The third task is coupling the bulk full-band solver with a 3D Poisson equation solver to generate a full-band device simulator.

For proof-of-concept of the methodology adopted here, a 3D resistor is simulated first. From the resistor simulations, the low-field electron mobility dependence upon Coulomb scattering in 4H-SiC devices is extracted. The simulated mobility results agree very well with available experimental data. Next, a 3D VDMOS is simulated. The nature of the physical processes occurring in both steady-state and transient conditions are revealed for the two generations of 3D VDMOS devices being considered in the study.

Due to its comprehensive nature, the developed tool serves as a basis for future investigation of 4H-SiC power devices.

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  • 2020

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Investigation of light absorption and emission in Ge and GeSn films grown on Si substrates

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Ge1-ySny alloys represent a new class of photonic materials for integrated optoelectronics on Si. In this work, the electrical and optical properties of Ge1-ySny alloy films grown on Si, with

Ge1-ySny alloys represent a new class of photonic materials for integrated optoelectronics on Si. In this work, the electrical and optical properties of Ge1-ySny alloy films grown on Si, with concentrations in the range 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.04, are studied via a variety of methods. The first microelectronic devices from GeSn films were fabricated using newly developed CMOS-compatible protocols, and the devices were characterized with respect to their electrical properties and optical response. The detectors were found to have a detection range that extends into the near-IR, and the detection edge is found to shift to longer wavelengths with increasing Sn content, mainly due to the compositional dependence of the direct band gap E0. With only 2 % Sn, all of the telecommunication bands are covered by a single detector. Room temperature photoluminescence was observed from GeSn films with Sn content up to 4 %. The peak wavelength of the emission was found to shift to lower energies with increasing Sn content, corresponding to the decrease in the direct band gap E0 of the material. An additional peak in the spectrum was assigned to the indirect band gap. The separation between the direct and indirect peaks was found to decrease with increasing Sn concentration, as expected. Electroluminescence was also observed from Ge/Si and Ge0.98Sn0.02 photodiodes under forward bias, and the luminescence spectra were found to match well with the observed photoluminescence spectra. A theoretical expression was developed for the luminescence due to the direct band gap and fit to the data.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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A study of two high efficiency energy conversion processes: semiconductor photovoltaics and semiconductor luminescence refrigeration

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As the world energy demand increases, semiconductor devices with high energy conversion efficiency become more and more desirable. The energy conversion consists of two distinct processes, namely energy generation

As the world energy demand increases, semiconductor devices with high energy conversion efficiency become more and more desirable. The energy conversion consists of two distinct processes, namely energy generation and usage. In this dissertation, novel multi-junction solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs) are proposed and studied for high energy conversion efficiency in both processes, respectively. The first half of this dissertation discusses the practically achievable energy conversion efficiency limit of solar cells. Since the demonstration of the Si solar cell in 1954, the performance of solar cells has been improved tremendously and recently reached 41.6% energy conversion efficiency. However, it seems rather challenging to further increase the solar cell efficiency. The state-of-the-art triple junction solar cells are analyzed to help understand the limiting factors. To address these issues, the monolithically integrated II-VI and III-V material system is proposed for solar cell applications. This material system covers the entire solar spectrum with a continuous selection of energy bandgaps and can be grown lattice matched on a GaSb substrate. Moreover, six four-junction solar cells are designed for AM0 and AM1.5D solar spectra based on this material system, and new design rules are proposed. The achievable conversion efficiencies for these designs are calculated using the commercial software package Silvaco with real material parameters. The second half of this dissertation studies the semiconductor luminescence refrigeration, which corresponds to over 100% energy usage efficiency. Although cooling has been realized in rare-earth doped glass by laser pumping, semiconductor based cooling is yet to be realized. In this work, a device structure that monolithically integrates a GaAs hemisphere with an InGaAs/GaAs quantum-well thin slab LED is proposed to realize cooling in semiconductor. The device electrical and optical performance is calculated. The proposed device then is fabricated using nine times photolithography and eight masks. The critical process steps, such as photoresist reflow and dry etch, are simulated to insure successful processing. Optical testing is done with the devices at various laser injection levels and the internal quantum efficiency, external quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency are measured.

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Date Created
  • 2010

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The optical and electronic properties of Ge₁-ySny and Ge₁-x-ySixSny materials and devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics

Description

Group-IV semiconductor alloys are of interest for Si-integrated optoelectronic applications due to the band gap tunability and enhanced optical capabilities that can be achieved through compositional tuning. This work advances

Group-IV semiconductor alloys are of interest for Si-integrated optoelectronic applications due to the band gap tunability and enhanced optical capabilities that can be achieved through compositional tuning. This work advances the field by presenting a systematic study of the optical and electronic properties of Ge1-ySny and analogous Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys.

The fundamental direct and indirect band gaps of Ge1-ySny materials are measured by room temperature photoluminescence in samples containing 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.11 and a transition to direct gap materials is found to occur at yc = 0.087. This result is enabled by the development of sample growth and processing protocols that produce high-quality materials epitaxially on Ge-buffered Si(100) substrates. Strategies to optimize the optical performance are explored by varying the film thickness, thermal and surface treatments, and n-type doping. The electrical and optical properties of diodes based on these materials are characterized by current-voltage, optical responsivity, and electroluminescence measurements. These show improved optical performance near yc with tunable emission out to 2500 nm. Measuring the carrier lifetimes in devices with strain relaxed and fully strained interfaces show significantly longer lifetimes in the fully strained case.

The direct and indirect band gaps of Sn-rich (y > x) Ge1-x-ySixSny materials are measured by room temperature photoluminescence on optimized samples. These data confirm a transition to direct gap materials occurs for the ternary alloy as well. Devices based on compositions 0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.10 and 0.03 ≤ y ≤ 0.11 are characterized by current-voltage, optical responsivity, and electroluminescence measurements and show competitive performance with analogous devices based on Ge1-ySny materials. A detailed study of the direct gap in Ge1-xSix alloys gives parameters crucial en route to a global description of the Ge1-x-ySixSny fundamental band gaps.

Archetypal laser device designs on Si are explored by fabricating degenerate pn junction diodes and highly doped waveguide devices based on high-quality Ge1-ySny materials. The diodes showed tunnel-like current-voltage characteristics and tailored electroluminescence based on the doping profile. The waveguides demonstrate emission under optical stimulation.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Theoretical characterization of zinc phthalocyanine and porphyrin analogs for organic solar cell absorption

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The absorption spectra of metal-centered phthalocyanines (MPc's) have been investigated since the early 1960's. With improved experimental techniques to characterize this class of molecules the band assignments have advanced. The

The absorption spectra of metal-centered phthalocyanines (MPc's) have been investigated since the early 1960's. With improved experimental techniques to characterize this class of molecules the band assignments have advanced. The characterization remains difficult with historic disagreements. A new push for characterization came with a wave of interest in using these molecules for absorption/donor molecules in organic photovoltaics. The use of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) became of particular interest, in addition to novel research being done for azaporphyrin analogs of ZnPc.

A theoretical approach is taken to research the excited states of these molecules using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Most theoretical results for the first excited state in ZnPc are in only limited agreement with experiment (errors near 0.1 eV or higher). This research investigates ZnPc and 10 additional porphyrin analogs. Excited-state properties are predicted for 8 of these molecules using ab initio computational methods and symmetry breaking for accurate time- dependent self-consistent optimization. Franck-Condon analysis is used to predict the Q-band absorption spectra for all 8 of these molecules. This is the first time that Franck-Condon analysis has been reported in absolute units for any of these molecules. The first excited-state energy for ZnPc is found to be the closest to experiment thus far using a range-separated meta-GGA hybrid functional. The theoretical results are used to find a trend in the novel design of new porphyrin analog molecules.

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Date Created
  • 2014