Matching Items (6)

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Disordered speech disrupts conversational entrainment: a study of acoustic-prosodic entrainment and communicative success in populations with communication challenges

Description

Conversational entrainment, a pervasive communication phenomenon in which dialogue partners adapt their behaviors to align more closely with one another, is considered essential for successful spoken interaction. While well-established in

Conversational entrainment, a pervasive communication phenomenon in which dialogue partners adapt their behaviors to align more closely with one another, is considered essential for successful spoken interaction. While well-established in other disciplines, this phenomenon has received limited attention in the field of speech pathology and the study of communication breakdowns in clinical populations. The current study examined acoustic-prosodic entrainment, as well as a measure of communicative success, in three distinctly different dialogue groups: (i) healthy native vs. healthy native speakers (Control), (ii) healthy native vs. foreign-accented speakers (Accented), and (iii) healthy native vs. dysarthric speakers (Disordered). Dialogue group comparisons revealed significant differences in how the groups entrain on particular acoustic–prosodic features, including pitch, intensity, and jitter. Most notably, the Disordered dialogues were characterized by significantly less acoustic-prosodic entrainment than the Control dialogues. Further, a positive relationship between entrainment indices and communicative success was identified. These results suggest that the study of conversational entrainment in speech pathology will have essential implications for both scientific theory and clinical application in this domain.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-08-12

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First Impressions: A Multimodal Analysis of Movie Trailers and Film Success

Description

Due to the popularity of the movie industry, a film's opening weekend box-office performance is of great interest not only to movie studios, but to the general public, as well.

Due to the popularity of the movie industry, a film's opening weekend box-office performance is of great interest not only to movie studios, but to the general public, as well. In hopes of maximizing a film's opening weekend revenue, movie studios invest heavily in pre-release advertisement. The most visible advertisement is the movie trailer, which, in no more than two minutes and thirty seconds, serves as many people's first introduction to a film. The question, however, is how can we be confident that a trailer will succeed in its promotional task, and bring about the audience a studio expects? In this thesis, we use machine learning classification techniques to determine the effectiveness of a movie trailer in the promotion of its namesake. We accomplish this by creating a predictive model that automatically analyzes the audio and visual characteristics of a movie trailer to determine whether or not a film's opening will be successful by earning at least 35% of a film's production budget during its first U.S. box office weekend. Our predictive model performed reasonably well, achieving an accuracy of 68.09% in a binary classification. Accuracy increased to 78.62% when including genre in our predictive model.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Spoken dialogue in face-to-face and remote collaborative learning environments

Description

Research in the learning sciences suggests that students learn better by collaborating with their peers than learning individually. Students working together as a group tend to generate new ideas more

Research in the learning sciences suggests that students learn better by collaborating with their peers than learning individually. Students working together as a group tend to generate new ideas more frequently and exhibit a higher level of reasoning. In this internet age with the advent of massive open online courses (MOOCs), students across the world are able to access and learn material remotely. This creates a need for tools that support distant or remote collaboration. In order to build such tools we need to understand the basic elements of remote collaboration and how it differs from traditional face-to-face collaboration.

The main goal of this thesis is to explore how spoken dialogue varies in face-to-face and remote collaborative learning settings. Speech data is collected from student participants solving mathematical problems collaboratively on a tablet. Spoken dialogue is analyzed based on conversational and acoustic features in both the settings. Looking for collaborative differences of transactivity and dialogue initiative, both settings are compared in detail using machine learning classification techniques based on acoustic and prosodic features of speech. Transactivity is defined as a joint construction of knowledge by peers. The main contributions of this thesis are: a speech corpus to analyze spoken dialogue in face-to-face and remote settings and an empirical analysis of conversation, collaboration, and speech prosody in both the settings. The results from the experiments show that amount of overlap is lower in remote dialogue than in the face-to-face setting. There is a significant difference in transactivity among strangers. My research benefits the computer-supported collaborative learning community by providing an analysis that can be used to build more efficient tools for supporting remote collaborative learning.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

Solving Winograd Schema Challenge: using semantic parsing, automatic knowledge acquisition and logical reasoning

Description

Turing test has been a benchmark scale for measuring the human level intelligence in computers since it was proposed by Alan Turing in 1950. However, for last 60 years, the

Turing test has been a benchmark scale for measuring the human level intelligence in computers since it was proposed by Alan Turing in 1950. However, for last 60 years, the applications such as ELIZA, PARRY, Cleverbot and Eugene Goostman, that claimed to pass the test. These applications are either based on tricks to fool humans on a textual chat based test or there has been a disagreement between AI communities on them passing the test. This has led to the school of thought that it might not be the ideal test for predicting the human level intelligence in machines.

Consequently, the Winograd Schema Challenge has been suggested as an alternative to the Turing test. As opposed to deciding the intelligent behavior with the help of chat servers, like it was done in the Turing test, the Winograd Schema Challenge is a question answering test. It consists of sentence and question pairs such that the answer to the question depends on the resolution of a definite pronoun or adjective in the sentence. The answers are fairly intuitive for humans but they are difficult for machines because it requires some sort of background or commonsense knowledge about the sentence.

In this thesis, I propose a novel technique to solve the Winograd Schema Challenge. The technique has three basic modules at its disposal, namely, a Semantic Parser that parses the English text (both sentences and questions) into a formal representation, an Automatic Background Knowledge Extractor that extracts the Background Knowledge pertaining to the given Winograd sentence, and an Answer Set Programming Reasoning Engine that reasons on the given Winograd sentence and the corresponding Background Knowledge. The applicability of the technique is illustrated by solving a subset of Winograd Schema Challenge pertaining to a certain type of Background Knowledge. The technique is evaluated on the subset and a notable accuracy is achieved.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Sarcasm detection on Twitter: a behavioral modeling approach

Description

Sarcasm is a nuanced form of language where usually, the speaker explicitly states the opposite of what is implied. Imbued with intentional ambiguity and subtlety, detecting sarcasm is a difficult

Sarcasm is a nuanced form of language where usually, the speaker explicitly states the opposite of what is implied. Imbued with intentional ambiguity and subtlety, detecting sarcasm is a difficult task, even for humans. Current works approach this challenging problem primarily from a linguistic perspective, focusing on the lexical and syntactic aspects of sarcasm. In this thesis, I explore the possibility of using behavior traits intrinsic to users of sarcasm to detect sarcastic tweets. First, I theorize the core forms of sarcasm using findings from the psychological and behavioral sciences, and some observations on Twitter users. Then, I develop computational features to model the manifestations of these forms of sarcasm using the user's profile information and tweets. Finally, I combine these features to train a supervised learning model to detect sarcastic tweets. I perform experiments to extensively evaluate the proposed behavior modeling approach and compare with the state-of-the-art.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Producing Acoustic-Prosodic Entrainment in a Robotic Learning Companion to Build Learner Rapport

Description

With advances in automatic speech recognition, spoken dialogue systems are assuming increasingly social roles. There is a growing need for these systems to be socially responsive, capable of building rapport

With advances in automatic speech recognition, spoken dialogue systems are assuming increasingly social roles. There is a growing need for these systems to be socially responsive, capable of building rapport with users. In human-human interactions, rapport is critical to patient-doctor communication, conflict resolution, educational interactions, and social engagement. Rapport between people promotes successful collaboration, motivation, and task success. Dialogue systems which can build rapport with their user may produce similar effects, personalizing interactions to create better outcomes.

This dissertation focuses on how dialogue systems can build rapport utilizing acoustic-prosodic entrainment. Acoustic-prosodic entrainment occurs when individuals adapt their acoustic-prosodic features of speech, such as tone of voice or loudness, to one another over the course of a conversation. Correlated with liking and task success, a dialogue system which entrains may enhance rapport. Entrainment, however, is very challenging to model. People entrain on different features in many ways and how to design entrainment to build rapport is unclear. The first goal of this dissertation is to explore how acoustic-prosodic entrainment can be modeled to build rapport.

Towards this goal, this work presents a series of studies comparing, evaluating, and iterating on the design of entrainment, motivated and informed by human-human dialogue. These models of entrainment are implemented in the dialogue system of a robotic learning companion. Learning companions are educational agents that engage students socially to increase motivation and facilitate learning. As a learning companion’s ability to be socially responsive increases, so do vital learning outcomes. A second goal of this dissertation is to explore the effects of entrainment on concrete outcomes such as learning in interactions with robotic learning companions.

This dissertation results in contributions both technical and theoretical. Technical contributions include a robust and modular dialogue system capable of producing prosodic entrainment and other socially-responsive behavior. One of the first systems of its kind, the results demonstrate that an entraining, social learning companion can positively build rapport and increase learning. This dissertation provides support for exploring phenomena like entrainment to enhance factors such as rapport and learning and provides a platform with which to explore these phenomena in future work.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018