Matching Items (35)

Biomedical Engineering Workforce Competencies for 21st Century Healthcare Technology Product Development Teams: A BME Student Cohort Perspective

Description

The importance of efficient design and development teams in in 21st century is evident after the compressive literate review was performed to digest various aspects of benefits and foundation of teamwork. Although teamwork may have variety of applications in many

The importance of efficient design and development teams in in 21st century is evident after the compressive literate review was performed to digest various aspects of benefits and foundation of teamwork. Although teamwork may have variety of applications in many different industries, the new emerging biomedical engineering is growing significantly using principles of teamwork. Studying attributes and mechanism of creating successful biomedical engineering teams may even contribute more to the fast paste growth of this industry. In comprehensive literate review performed, general importance of teamwork was studied. Also specific hard and soft attributes which may contribute to teamwork was studied. Currently, there are number of general assessment tools which assists managements in industry and academia to systematically bring qualified people together to flourish their talents and skills as members of a biomedical engineering teams. These assessment tools, although are useful, but are not comprehensive, incorporating literature review attributes, and also doesn't not contain student perspective who have experience as being part of a design and development team. Although there are many scientific researches and papers designated to this matter, but there is no study which purposefully studies development of an assessment tool which is designated to biomedical engineering workforce and is constructed of both literature, current assessment tools, and also student perspective. It is hypothesized that a more comprehensive composite assessment tool that incorporate both soft and hard team attributes from a combined professional and student perspective could be implemented in the development of successful Biomedical Engineering Design and Development teams and subsequently used in 21st century workforce.

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2017-05

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Engineering Patient Specific Implants for Laryngeal Cancer Treatment

Description

The Larynx plays a pivotal role in our ability to breathe and to speak. It is in our best interest to continue improving the status of tissue regeneration concerning the larynx so that patient voice quality of life can be

The Larynx plays a pivotal role in our ability to breathe and to speak. It is in our best interest to continue improving the status of tissue regeneration concerning the larynx so that patient voice quality of life can be less hindered in the face of laryngeal cancers and diseases. Modern technology can allow us to use CT scans for both diagnosis and treatment. This medical imaging can be converted into three-dimensional patient specific models that are actualized through 3D printing. These implants improve upon the current state of the art because they can be produced in a timely manner, are developed with materials and methods ensuring their biocompatibility, and follow architectures and geometries best suited for the patient to improve their voice quality of life. Additionally they should be able to allow patient speech in the case of partial laryngectomies where the arytenoid has been removed by acting as a permanent vocal fold This treatment process for laryngectomies aligns itself with personalized medicine by targeting its geometry based on that of the patient. Technologies and manufacturing processes utilized to produce them are accessible and could all be used within the clinical space. The life-saving implant required for the laryngectomy healing and recovery process can be ready to implant for the patient within a few days of imaging them.

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2015-05

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The Development of a Simplified and Integrated Glucose-Monitoring Biosensor for Diabetics

Description

Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is the standard of care in diabetes management. Current technologies for SMBG are based upon enzymatic electrochemical (amperometric) sensing. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of current devices, a novel method of detecting glucose using

Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is the standard of care in diabetes management. Current technologies for SMBG are based upon enzymatic electrochemical (amperometric) sensing. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of current devices, a novel method of detecting glucose using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technology is explored. To test the ability of EIS methods to detect glucose, the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) was fixed to gold electrodes through the means of a specific immobilization process. Once GOx was fixed to the gold electrode surface, a 5 mV sine wave sweeping frequencies from 100 kHz to 1 Hz was induced at a glucose range 0-500 mg/dL mixed with a ferricyanide redox mediator. Each frequency in the impedance sweep was analyzed for highest response and R-squared value. The frequency with both factors optimized is specific for the glucose-GOx binding interaction, and was determined to be 1.17 kHz in purified solutions. Four separate electrodes were constructed and date from each were averaged. The correlation between the impedance response and concentration at the low range of detection (0-100 mg/dL of gluose) was determined to be 3.19 ohm/ln (mg/dL) with an R-squared value of 0.86. Its associated lower limit of detection was found to be 41 mg/dL. The same frequency of 1.17 kHz was then verified in whole blood under the glucose range of 0-100 mg/dL while diluting the blood to observe effect. As the blood concentration increased, the response of the sensor decreased logarithmically. The maximized blood detection volume was determined to be 25% whole blood suggesting dilution, coatings, or filtration is required for future adaptation. The above data confirms that EIS offers a new method of glucose detection as an alternative technology for SMBG and offers improved detection at lower concentrations of glucose. The unique frequency response of individual markers allows for modulation of signals so that several markers could be measured with a single sensor. Future work includes assessment of other diabetes associated biomarkers that can be measured on a single sensor, integration testing and tuning of the biomarkers, impedance-time sensing development, and finally, testing on control subjects.

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2012-05

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CT Image Reconstruction of Vocal Folds for Personalized Medicine

Description

A much anticipated outcome of the rapidly emerging field of personalized medicine is a significant increase in the standard of care afforded to patients. However, before the full potential of personalized medicine can be realized, key enabling technologies must be

A much anticipated outcome of the rapidly emerging field of personalized medicine is a significant increase in the standard of care afforded to patients. However, before the full potential of personalized medicine can be realized, key enabling technologies must be further developed. The purpose of this study was to use enabling technologies such as medical imaging, image reconstruction, and rapid prototyping to create a model of an implant for use in vocal fold repair surgery. Vocal fold repair surgery is performed for patients with great difficulty in phonation, breathing, and swallowing as a result of vocal fold damage caused by age, disease, cancer, scarring, or paralysis. This damage greatly hinders patients' social, personal, and professional lives due to difficulty in efficient communication. In this project, the image reconstruction of a subject's vocal fold in 3D is demonstrated utilizing NIH-funded advanced image processing software known as ITK-SNAP, which uniquely allows both semi-automatic and manual image segmentation. The hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, arytenoid cartilage, and empty airway of the larynx were isolated using active contouring for use as anatomical benchmarks. Then, the vocal fold mold, including the vocal fold, a superior extension along the thyroid cartilage, and an inferior extension along the airway, was modeled with manual segmentation. The configured, isolated, and edited vocal fold model was converted into an STL file. This STL file can be imported to a 3D printer to fabricate a mold for reconstruction of a patient specific vocal fold biocompatible implant. This feasibility study serves as a basis to allow ENT surgeons at the Mayo Clinic to dramatically improve reparative surgery outcomes for patients. This work embodies the strategic importance of multidisciplinary teams working at the interface of technology and medicine to optimize patient outcomes.

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2016-05

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Heart Rate Variability and Electrocardiography in Evaluating Stress

Description

Chronic stress has been linked as a probable contributor to a number of health problems that plague the world today. Obesity, cardiovascular disease, depression, and osteoporosis are all common health risks believed to be exacerbated by stress. While it is

Chronic stress has been linked as a probable contributor to a number of health problems that plague the world today. Obesity, cardiovascular disease, depression, and osteoporosis are all common health risks believed to be exacerbated by stress. While it is nether realistic nor desirable to completely eliminate stress in an individual, proper stress management is important to a healthy lifestyle. Homeostasis is the primary mechanism by which stress, and the stress response, should be analyzed. Environmental factors known as stressors elicit responses from the body, which can be measured in terms of duration and magnitude. These two factors determine the homeostatic response from the body. This thesis proposes the study of heart rate variability (HRV) to measure the response of the autonomic nervous system through time domain analysis (the length of interbeat intervals) and frequency domain analysis (the differences between the lengths of consecutive interbeat intervals). Even with many possible problems, this data still represents valuable proof of concept that HRV analysis may be of use in identifying stress.

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Date Created
2012-05

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Continuous Enzymatic Detection of Traumatic Brain Injury

Description

My main goal for my thesis is in conjunction with the research I started in the summer of 2010 regarding the creation of a TBI continuous-time sensor. Such goals include: characterizing the proteins in sensing targets while immobilized, while free in solution, and while in free solution in the blood.

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Date Created
2011-12

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The evaluation of different foams and thermoplastics to develop a biofidelic CPR manikin

Description

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency course of action developed to sustain oxygenated blood flow in persons suffering from cardiac arrest by manually compressing the heart in the chest and providing rescue ventilations. The best-selling CPR manikins, an integral part

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency course of action developed to sustain oxygenated blood flow in persons suffering from cardiac arrest by manually compressing the heart in the chest and providing rescue ventilations. The best-selling CPR manikins, an integral part of training, lack biofidelic characteristics in appearance, feel, and response, and as a result, the rescuer's learning experience suffers. The objective of this thesis was to test the compressibility properties of different foams and thermoplastics in order to determine which material would most accurately imitate a human chest response. The results suggested that styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) was the best choice, because its increasing stiffness under increasing compression was characteristic of a human chest cavity. Further testing must be done to determine the best composition of SEBS, analyze its response under cyclic compressions, and improve its durability.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Multimarker Sensor Development for Intermediate Glycemic Index, A Novel Approach for a Glycated Albumin Sensor

Description

Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by many chronic and acute conditions. With the prevalence and cost quickly increasing, we seek to improve on the current standard of care and create a rapid, label free sensor for glycated albumin (GA)

Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by many chronic and acute conditions. With the prevalence and cost quickly increasing, we seek to improve on the current standard of care and create a rapid, label free sensor for glycated albumin (GA) index using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The antibody, anti-HA, was fixed to gold electrodes and a sine wave of sweeping frequencies was induced with a range of HA, GA, and GA with HA concentrations. Each frequency in the impedance sweep was analyzed for highest response and R-squared value. The frequency with both factors optimized is specific for both the antibody-antigen binding interactions with HA and GA and was determined to be 1476 Hz and 1.18 Hz respectively in purified solutions. The correlation slope between the impedance response and concentration for albumin (0 \u2014 5400 mg/dL of albumin) was determined to be 72.28 ohm/ln(mg/dL) with an R-square value of 0.89 with a 2.27 lower limit of detection. The correlation slope between the impedance response and concentration for glycated albumin (0 \u2014 108 mg/dL) was determined to be -876.96 ohm/ln(mg/dL) with an R-squared value of 0.70 with a 0.92 mg/dL lower limit of detection (LLD). The above data confirms that EIS offers a new method of GA detection by providing unique correlation with albumin as well as glycated albumin. The unique frequency response of GA and HA allows for modulation of alternating current signals so that several other markers important in the management of diabetes could be measured with a single sensor. Future work will be necessary to establish multimarker sensing on one electrode.

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Date Created
2014-05

BIOELECTRIC IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS AS A METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE HYDRATION MEASUREMENT

Description

Volume depletion can lead to migraines, dizziness, and significant decreases in a subject's ability to physically perform. A major cause of volume depletion is dehydration, or loss in fluids due to an imbalance in fluid intake to fluid excretion. Because

Volume depletion can lead to migraines, dizziness, and significant decreases in a subject's ability to physically perform. A major cause of volume depletion is dehydration, or loss in fluids due to an imbalance in fluid intake to fluid excretion. Because proper levels of hydration are necessary in order to maintain both short and long term health, the ability to monitor hydration levels is growing in clinical demand. Although devices capable of monitoring hydration level exist, these devices are expensive, invasive, or inaccurate and do not offer a continuous mode of measurement. The ideal hydration monitor for consumer use needs to be characterized by its portability, affordability, and accuracy. Also, this device would need to be noninvasive and offer continuous hydration monitoring in order to accurately assess fluctuations in hydration data throughout a specified time period. One particular method for hydration monitoring that fits the majority of these criteria is known as bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). Although current devices using BIA do not provide acceptable levels of accuracy, portability, or continuity in data collection, BIA could potentially be modified to fit many, if not all, desired customer specifications. The analysis presented here assesses the viability of using BIA as a new standard in hydration level measurement. The analysis uses data collected from 22 subjects using an existing device that employs BIA. A regression derived for estimating TBW based on the parameters of age, weight, height, sex, and impedance is presented. Using impedance data collected for each subject, a regression was also derived for estimating impedance based on the factors of age, weight, height, and sex. The derived regression was then used to calculate a new impedance value for each subject, and these new impedance values were used to estimate TBW. Through a paired-t test between the TBW values derived by using the direct measurements versus the calculated measurements of impedance, the two samples were found to be comparable. Considerations for BIA as a noninvasive measurement of hydration are discussed.

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Date Created
2013-05

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Developing an Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy-Based Insulin Sensor

Description

Currently, the management of diabetes mellitus (DM) involves the monitoring of only blood glucose using self-monitoring blood glucose devices (SMBGs) followed by taking interventional steps, if needed. To increase the amount of information that diabetics can have to base DM

Currently, the management of diabetes mellitus (DM) involves the monitoring of only blood glucose using self-monitoring blood glucose devices (SMBGs) followed by taking interventional steps, if needed. To increase the amount of information that diabetics can have to base DM care decisions off of, the development of an insulin biosensor is explored. Such a biosensor incorporates electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to ensure an extremely sensitive platform. Additionally, anti-insulin antibody was immobilized onto the surface of a gold disk working electrode to ensure a highly specific sensing platform as well. EIS measurements were completed with a 5mV sine wave that was swept through the frequency spectrum of 100 kHz to 1 Hz on concentrations of insulin ranging from 0 pM to 100 μM. The frequency at which the interaction between insulin and its antibody was optimized was determined by finding out at which frequency the R2 and slope of the impedance-concentration plot were best. This frequency, otherwise known as the optimal binding frequency, was determined to be 459 Hz. Three separate electrodes were developed and the impedance data for each concentration measured at 459 Hz was averaged and plotted against the LOG (pM insulin) to construct the calibration curve. The response was calculated to be 263.64 ohms/LOG(pM insulin) with an R2 value of 0.89. Additionally, the average RSD was determined to be 19.24% and the LLD was calculated to be 8.47 pM, which is well below the physiological normal range. These results highlight the potential success of developing commercial point-of-care insulin biosensors or multi-marker devices operating with integrated insulin detection.

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2013-05